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Part 2: The Formation of Classical Societies, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 2: The Formation of Classical Societies, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 2: The Formation of Classical Societies, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.

2 1. During the time of the Aryans the Indians political landscape had been characterized by a series of small kingdoms

3 2. In 124 B.C.E. Han Wudi transformed China by establishing an imperial university

4 3. The Han philosophy of rule was a continuation of Qin policies with a return of Confucian values

5 4. The dividing line between the Early Han and the later Han is marked by the rule of Wang Mang

6 5. All of the following were policies of Qin Shihuangdi’s rule EXCEPT support of traditional learning

7 6. The first ruler to unite all of China was Shihuangdi

8 7. Shang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to control China’s subjects by clear and strict laws

9 8. The Chinese concept filial piety, which was central to the family structure, was best expressed by the concept of xiao

10 9. The Daoist thinkers spoke of wuwei, which stood for disengagement from the affairs of the world

11 10. Which group posed the greatest military threat to the Han? Xiongu

12 11. The philosophy of Confucious formed a thoroughly practical and secular approach to life

13 12. The Qin and Han dynasties went further than the Persian emperors in their efforts to foster cultural unity

14 13. The major early turning point in the rise of the Persian empire was the victory of Cyrus over Lydia

15 14. Which of the following lists of Persian empires is correct chronologically? Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sasanids

16 15. The Medes and Persian were originally Indo-European tribes

17 16. Darius adopted the idea of a standardized government-issued coinage from the Lydians

18 17. In 325 C.E., the Council of Nicaea decided that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures

19 18. St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with _____ philosophy. Greek

20 19. In 380 C.E., Christianity was proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire by the emperor Theodosius

21 20. Chaos threatened the western portion of the Roman Empire in the mid fifth century when Germanic tribes poured into the Roman Empire for protection from the Huns

22 21. The Roman Empire was divided into two parts by Diocletian.

23 22. The term “sinicization” refers to the spread of Chinese culture.

24 23.With the collapse in political order after the fall of the Han empire, Daoism and Buddhism became much more popular.

25 24. All of the following are causes for the decline of classical societies in East Asia and the Mediterranean EXCEPT the spread of Christianity and Buddhism.

26 25. The prophet who promoted a syncretic blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist elements into a religious faith that would serve the needs of a cosmopolitan world was Mani.

27 26. The fact that by the first century C.E. Southeast Asian kings called themselves rajas shows how they were influenced by the Indians.

28 27. Buddhism was spread to China by merchants and nomads.

29 28. The land route of the Silk Roads ran from the Han capital of _________ to the Mediterranean port of __________. Chang'an; Antioch

30 29. One of the most dangerous spots along the Silk Roads was the __________ desert, which means “he who enters does not come back out.” Taklamakan

31 30. A key element in establishing trade across the Indian Ocean was mastering the monsoon system.

32 31. The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and take control of the Silk Roads.

33 32. The Buddha believed that salvation came from leading a balanced and moderate life.

34 33. The greatest social implication of Jainist thought was their rejection of social hierarchies based on caste.

35 34. One of the biggest transformations of the caste system during this period was the elimination of the brahmins as a caste.

36 35. One of the most pronounced examples of patriarchal dominance in ancient India was the common practice of child marriage.

37 36. Politically the Guptas left local government and administration in the hands of their allies.

38 37. One of the biggest financial problems that plagued the later Mauryan period was their decision to B) debase their currency.

39 38. The rock and pillar edicts were issued by E) Ashoka.

40 39. The first ruler to unify India was C) Chandragupta Maurya.

41 40. The classic Persian approach to governing a large empire was E) All of the above.

42 41. For his decision to allow them to return to their capital city and rebuild their temple, the Persian king, Darius, received high praise from the D) Jews.

43 42. Which of the successors to the Persians claimed direct descent from the Persians and recreated much of the culture and splendor of the Achaemenid empire? D) Sasanids

44 43. The social structure of the Medes, early Persians, and Parthians was very similar to C) the Aryans.

45 44. What development was most critical in undermining the warrior elite and the clan-based social structure of early Persian society? A)the growth of an administrative bureaucracy

46 45. All of the following tenets of Zoroastrian influenced later religions EXCEPT C) the view of the material world as a place of temptation that had to be ignored.

47 46. The words “good words, good thoughts, good deeds” were used to sum up the view of morality of the B) Zoroastrians.

48 47. The belief in a day of judgment, which will determine whether individuals go to a paradise or punishment in hell, was originally developed in which of the following religions? D)Zorastrianism

49 48. The Mycenaeans received early indirect influence from the Egyptians and Phoenicians through their contact with the A)Minoans..

50 49. All of the following events occurred during the time of Pericles EXCEPT E) Greeks established colonies throughout the Mediterranean.

51 50. Which of the Hellenistic philosophers considered all human beings to be members of a single, universal family? C) Stoics

52 51. In which polis did women have the most freedom? B) Sparta

53 52. Later Christian scholastic philosophers referred to this man as “the master of those who know.” C) Aristotle

54 53. The most important port in the Hellenistic world was A) Alexandria.

55 54. The political structure of the ancient Greece E) usually consisted of independent, autonomous city-states.

56 55. During its early history, Rome was dominated by the D) Etruscans.

57 56. The period known as the pax romana started with the rule of C) Augustus.

58 57. In regards to level of toleration and respect for conquered parts of the empire, the Romans were most similar to the C) Persians.

59 58. The turning point in Roman history was the Roman victory in the Punic Wars against the A) Carthaginians.

60 59. The leading figure in the expansion of Christianity beyond Judaism was B) Paul of Tarsus.

61 60. All of the following were foundations of Roman law EXCEPT the principle that C) conquered peoples had the right to administer their own laws.

62 61. “Many of us are dying in this epidemic—that is many of us are being liberated from the world. The epidemic is a pestilence for the Jews and pagans and the enemies of Christ, but for the servants of God it is a welcome event. True, without any discrimination, the just are dying alongside the unjust, but you should not imagine that the evil and the good face a common destruction. The just are called to refreshment, while the unjust are herded off to punishment: the faithful receive protection, while the faithless receive retribution.” St Cyprian, 3 rd century C.E. The author of the passage above believes A)that Christians have nothing to fear from the epidemic.

63 62. “Of these Twin Spirits, the Evil One chose to do the worst; While the bountiful Holy Spirit of Goodness, Clothing itself with the mossy heavens for a garment, chose the Truth; And so will those who [seek to] please Ahura Mazda with Righteous deeds, performed with faith in Truth… And when there cometh Divine Retribution for the Evil One, Then at Thy command shall the Good Mind establish The Kingdom of Heaven, O Mazda, For those who will deliver Untruth into the hands of Righteousness and Truth. The Gathas The quote above represents beliefs and gods from which major religion? D)Zoroastrianism

64 “You, sir, look at the caste and not the inherent qualities of monks. Haughty, deluded, and obsessed with caste, you harm yourself and others.” The social values expressed in the quote above are consistent with which of the following religions? I. Jainism II. Buddhism III. Hinduism D)I and II only

65 64. When Krishna tells Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita, “Having regards to your own duty, you ought not to falter, for there is nothing better for a kshatriya than a righteous battle,” he is referring to what Hindu principle? B) Dharma

66 65. “The Master said, ‘He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star which keeps its place, while all the stars turn toward it’... ‘If the people be led by laws, and uniformity be imposed on them by punishments, they will try to avoid punishment, but will have no sense of shame’... ‘If they be led by virtue, and uniformity be provided for them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good’... ‘When a prince’s personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.’” The quotation above represents which philosopher’s ideology on the proper way of ruling a state? D)Confucius

67 66.“Ye have heard that it hath been said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say unto you that ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him two. Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.” Jesus Christ Sermon on the Mount The moral philosophy expressed in the above passage is most consistent with that expressed in A)Daodejing.

68 67. The army of terracotta figures shown above was found in the tomb of C)Emperor Shihuangdi.

69 68. The temple complex shown atop the hill in the picture above is located in D)Athens.

70 69. Which region was NOT ruled by the Mauryan Empire? C)Bactria

71 70. The existence of such a sophisticated network of roads, as seen in the map above, suggests that the Roman Empire D)used roads to integrate distant territories and frontier regions into their empire.

72 The map above depicts D)Major overland and maritime trade routes during the Classical era.

73 72. Define Hellenism, identify its geographical, social, and cultural boundaries, and describe its influence on societies beyond its frontiers.

74 73. Discuss the role played by large infrastructure projects such as roads, aqueducts, flood control and irrigation projects, defensive walls and fortifications, etc. on the formation of states and empires.

75 74. Describe two major routes of the Classical World and list the products exchanged by the various regions they served.

76 75. Compare and contrast the philosophies and cultural legacies of Confucious and Socrates in their respective societies.

77 76. Compare and contrast the state-building policies of two of the following sets of classical empires and assess their effectiveness. Persia and Gupta India (or) Han China and Rome

78 77. Compare and contrast the causes and consequences of the collapse of the two of the following empires. Han China, Gupta India, Rome

79 78. Describe and explain the emergence and spread of religious of salvation in the Roman Empire and India during the Classical Era.

80 79. Compare the unification of India with the unification of China under the Qin and Han dynasties, and in the southwest Asia under the Assyrians and Persians.

81 80. Describe and analyze the expansion of long- distance trade routes during the classical era, and assess the economic, cultural, and biological impact of this expansion in trade on two of the following societies. Han China Roman Empire India

82 81. To what extent and in what ways did the Mediterranean Basin become economically and culturally integrated during the Hellenistic Era?

83 82. Analyze the following documents. Compare and contrast the authors’ assumptions about human nature and the moral percepts their philosophies have for individuals and their relationships with others in their societies. Document A “O ye Mortals, mark these commandments – The commandments which the Wise Lord has given, for happiness and for pain. Long punishment for the evil-doer, and bliss for the follower of truth The joy of salvation for the righteousness ever afterwards!” The Divine Songs of Zarathustra Document B “The Master said, ‘If the people be led by laws, and uniformity be imposed on them by punishments, they will try and avoid the punishment, but will have no sense of shame… If they be led by virtue, and uniformity be provided for them by rules of propriety, they will have a sense of shame, and moreover will become good… When a prince’s personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.” The Analects

84 Document C “ The highest goodness is like water, for water is excellent in benefitting all things. And it does not strive. It occupies the lowest place. Which men abhor. And therefore it is also akin to the dao… The greater the number of laws and enactments. The more thieves and robbers there will be. Therefore the Sage [Laozi] says: ‘So long as I do nothing, the people will work out their own reformations. So long as I love calm, the people will right themselves. If only I am free from desire, the people will come naturally back to simplicity….” Daodejing Document D “As a man casting off old clothes, puts on others and new ones, so the embodied self, casting off old bodies, goes to others and new ones… Your business is with action alone, not by any means with the fruit of the action. Let not your attachment be fixed on inaction. Having recourse to devotion, perform actions, casting off all attachment, and being equable is success of ill success.” Bhagavad Gita

85 Document E “Yet I have one request to make them [his judges]. When my sons grow up, visit them with punishment, my friends, and vex them in the same way that I have vexed you if they seem to you to care more for riches or for anything other than virtue: and if they think that they are something when they are nothing at all, reproach them as I have reproached you for not caring for what they should and for thinking that they are great men when in fact they are worthless. And if you will do this, I myself and my sons will have received our deserts at your hands.” Plato, The Apology Document F “Ye have heard that it hath been said, ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy.’ But I say unto you, love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you, that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven, for he maketh this sun to rise on evil and on the good, and sendth rain on the just and on the unjust…” Matthew 5:3-13, 5:38-45, 7:7-12


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