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Prayer to Our Guardian Angel Angel of God, My Guardian Dear to whom God's love commits me here. Ever this day be at my side to light and guard and rule.

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Presentation on theme: "Prayer to Our Guardian Angel Angel of God, My Guardian Dear to whom God's love commits me here. Ever this day be at my side to light and guard and rule."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prayer to Our Guardian Angel Angel of God, My Guardian Dear to whom God's love commits me here. Ever this day be at my side to light and guard and rule and guide. Amen.

2 Announcements Class t-shirts Exam IV: Tuesday Oct 5 th Review Worksheet –tomorrow (on the web if you want it tonight) HW: Read Parts II and III

3 Chapter 4 Church Fathers and Heresies

4 Athanasian Creed Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic Faith. Which Faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled; without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. And the Catholic Faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; Neither confounding the Persons; nor dividing the Essence. For there is one Person of the Father; another of the Son; and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one; the Glory equal, the Majesty coeternal. Such as the Father is; such is the Son; and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father uncreated; the Son uncreated; and the Holy Ghost uncreated…

5 Athanasian Creed Profession of Faith Author unknown Three Divine Persons of the Blessed Trinity Incarnation of God the Son Emphasizes the equality within the Trinity Response to heretics/attacks

6 PART I Early Heresies

7 Heresy “ A species of unbelief, belonging to those who profess the Christian faith, but corrupt its dogmas”. (St. Thomas Aquinas)

8 Heresies… Deny or alter some part or parts of the Deposit of Faith

9 Material Heresy Results from a mistake Misjudgment, ignorance of the truth, etc. Needs immediate correction

10 Formal Heresy Willingly choosing to keep doctrines that are contradictorily to those of the Church Keeping doctrines that have been condemned as being false

11 Material Heresy Examples Jesus was a sinner Mary was not a Virgin God created Christ

12 Formal Heresy Examples Rejection of the Eucharist Teaching that Jesus didn’t overcome death by way of the Resurrection Rejecting the Church’s teaching on Sunday Obligation

13 Gnosticism Secret knowledge Demiurge (creator god) Rejected MOST of the NT “The Kingdom of God is within you.” (Gospel of Thomas)

14 Gnosticism: View of Jesus Jesus was merely a “messenger” Jesus entrusted one disciple with secret teachings Denied or limited the real humanity of Christ Jesus not born: “appeared”

15 Gnosticism’s Ethics Rejected ethical teachings of the Church Body = nature of evil: 1. self mutilation of the body 2. No possible way good soul can be damaged by actions of the body

16 Gnosticism: the Appeal?? Promised “salvation”: escape of the soul from the material world

17 Ridiculed by Church Fathers “My God made heaven and earth, and you cannot point to a measly vegetable yours has produced over all these centuries!” Tertullian

18 Gnosticism: The Final Overview What: Gnosticism Who: ? (unknown) Where: Judea/ Roman Empire When: Birth of Christianity – Present day Central Belief: Salvation may be achieved through knowledge View of Christ: Christ was NOT human

19 Marcionism ( s) Founded by Marcion Demiurge (god of the OT/Jealous god) Jesus sent to destroy the OT god/Demiurge

20 Marcion: Founder of Marcionism Father was a Bishop Was a wealthy shipbuilder Survived Empire’s “put down” of Jewish uprising Excommunicated as a heretic

21 Marcionism Jesus did not have a true human body/was not from God Rejected the OT Christian life must be freed from material reality

22 Marcionism Differed from Gnosticism Did not claim possession of secret knowledge No unique scripture No divine beings (pleroma)

23 Church’s Rejection of Marcionism Rejected Monotheism Rejected creation was good Rejected the true humanity of Jesus (death on Cross was payment to the creator god)

24 Marcionism: the Final Overview What: Marcionism Who: Marcion When : s AD Where: Rome Central Belief: God of Jesus Christ sent to destroy the Demiurge View of Christ: Jesus was NOT truly human

25 Manichaeism (250s –1000s) Elaborate brand of Gnosticism Founded by Mani Goal was to share a secret knowledge that led to liberation

26 Mani Persian Condemned to death Viewed self as a spiritual leader (Buddha, Jesus) Provided path to true freedom

27 Manichaeists Believed … Satan had stolen light particles from the brains of men/women Goal was to liberate humanity from Satan In living an ascetic life Jesus was/is NOT Divine

28 Manichaeism: The Final Overview What: Manichaeism Who: Mani When: 250s-1000s Where: Persia/India (Roman Empire) Central Belief: Man can be liberated from Satan through a secret knowledge View of Christ: Jesus was NOT Divine (only a human spiritual leader)

29 Montanism ( ) Were they an early women’s rights group? A form of monasticism? A strange group waiting for the end of the world? … a little bit of all of these.

30 Montanus Founder of Montanism Began movement by preaching Originally a pagan priest Excommunicated by the Church (Turkey) Had two female prophets with him Believed that the “end” was at hand

31 Montanism Age of the Father Age of the Son Age of the Holy Spirit (final age)

32 Montanism New Heavenly movement would begin in Pepuza Canon of Scripture should NOT be closed “Charismatic” Believed Church was too soft on sinners

33 Montanism: The Final Overview What: Montanism Who: Montanus Where: Turkey/Rome/ Pepuza When: s Central Belief: A New heavenly kingdom would be revealed by the power of the Holy Spirit in Pepuza (the end was near) View of Jesus Christ: Jesus was Divine and human

34 Docetism (30s-100s) Branch of Gnosticism “to appear” Jesus’ humanity was merely an appearance

35 Docetism Jesus was did not suffer the pain of the Crucifixion and death Preached that someone else switched places with Christ before the Crucifixion Christ escaped from it.

36 Docetism: The final overview What: Docetism Who: ? (unknown) When: s Where: Roman Empire Central Belief: Christ did NOT suffer the Crucifixion; Gnostic View of Jesus Christ: Christ was not fully human

37 PART II The Ecumenical Councils

38 Ecumenical Councils There has been 21 ecumenical councils All the Bishops of the world (under the Pope) meet to discuss issues facing the Church.

39 Types of Councils Synod Diocesan Provincial Plenary

40 Synod Meeting between the Bishops and the Pope (their leader)

41 Diocesan Council Meeting of the Bishops, laymen/laywomen, and representatives of the Clergy meet and discuss matters of the diocese.

42 Provincial Council Meeting of the Archbishop with his suffragan bishops

43 Plenary Council Meeting of all Bishops within a single nation

44 PART III Church Fathers

45 Characteristics of the Church Fathers Orthodoxy in doctrine Holiness Notoriety Antiquity Two Groups: Latin/ Greek

46 Patristics The writings of the Church Fathers

47 Doctor of the Church Title only given by the Pope to those whose development of theology is extraordinary

48 St. Ambrose of Milan Governor of Milan Anointed Bishop (was only a Catechumen) Defended the independence of the Church from the State Did not get along with Emperor(s) because of high moral standards

49 St. Jerome Translated the Hebrew Bible into Latin (Vulgate)

50 Latin Vulgate Most accurate translation of the Bible Translation of Scripture into Latin Uniformed Scripture for the West

51 St. John Chrysostom the Golden Mouthed Patriarch of Constantinople Combined the Biblical Meaning with practical application/ captured the deep spiritual meaning On the Priesthood: the morality of the priests.

52 St. John Chrysostom the Golden Mouthed Called for a moral reform among the Emperors and Bishops. He was twice banished by the Empress, but quickly returned from exile. In 407, he was forced into a Death March.

53 PART IV Heresies of the Fourth and Fifth Centuries

54 The “Golden Age” Lack of persecution Christians experienced a renewed freedom

55 Alexandrian School Gave special status to the Divinity of Christ

56 Antiochene Jesus’ followers were first called Christian. Focused more on literal and historical meanings of Scriptures.

57 Arianism Result of the manner that Christians had come to think about the Nature of Christ

58 Arianism Direct result of the Christians turning to Philosophy to explain their Faith

59 Pagan Philosophers … One Supreme Being Supreme Being created pagan Gods Could not conceive of how One God = One God

60 Christians Taught pagans that the god the pagans worshipped is the same God that they worshiped

61 Arianism Jesus is neither God nor equal to the Father

62 Arianism Reduced the status of Jesus to being a creature of the Father Jesus, however, was above every other creature in dignity and perfection.

63 Arianism Denied the Church’s teaching that the logos was coeternal with God.

64 Arians Instead Believed … That there “was when He was not” God created “The Word”

65 Arianism: The Final Overview What: Arianism Who: Arius When: Fourth Century Where: Roman Empire/ Constantinople Central Belief: Jesus was not Divine, but anointed by God to the position of “Supreme ‘Human’ Being” View of Christ: Jesus was not Divine; was a Supreme “Human” Being

66 Constantine the Great 272 A.D. – 337 A.D. Conversion (Cross/battle) Edict of Milan 313 A.D. Empowered Christianity Sincere? First Christian Roman Emperor Saint in Orthodox Church

67 St. helena d. 330 A.D. Mother of Constantine Archaeologist True Cross Manager Stairs (Scala Santa) Favored wide spread of Christianity Influenced son

68 The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) Convened by Constantine the Great Primarily Addressed: Arianism Readmission of the lapsed Election of Bishops Role of the office of the Bishops

69 The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) Failed to combat Arianism through Scripture alone Developed a Creed to combat Arianism

70 Constantine/St. Athanasius homoousios –of the same substance –the Son was just as Divine as the Father.

71 The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) The development of the Creed did NOT end the controversy!

72 What Developed Homoousians : identical (Orthodox) Homoiousians : similar(Arian)

73 After the Death of Constantine “ The entire world woke from a deep slumber and discovered that it had become Arian.” ~ St. Jerome

74 The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople (381).

75 Differences Between the NC and N Creed 2 nd section = the Son. 3 rd section = the Holy Spirit last section = Church, Baptism, forgiveness of sins, and the Resurrection. “from the substance of the Father” is absent in the later Creed.

76 Apollinarianism ( ) Apollinaris refused to accept the Church’s Authority

77 Apollinarianism ( ) Christ had a human body Denied that Christ had a human mind and will Christ did not live a COMPLETE human life as a man Word of God replaced rational soul

78 Apollinarianism The final Overview What: Apollinarianism Who: Apollinaris When: Where: Syria (Eastern Roman Empire) Central Belief: Denied existence of human mind and will in Christ View of Christ: Christ did not live a complete human life

79 Nestorianism ( ) Christ was the unity of a Divine person and a full human person. Mary = Christotokos “the bearer of Christ”

80 Nestorianism: the final Overview What: Nestorianism Who: Nestorius When: 351 – 451 Where: Antiochene Central Belief: Christ human and divine, but not fully human/divine View of Christ: Ditto.

81 Monophysitism (400s-600s) Reaction to Nestorianism Christ = ONE nature (Divine)

82 Monophysitism: The Final Overview What: Monophysitism When: 400s – 600s Where: Alexandrian School Who: ? Unknown Central Belief: Christ did not have two natures – only Divine nature existed View of Christ: Human nature absorbed by the Divine nature

83 Monothelitism Response to Monophysitism Emperor Heraclius/Patriarch Sergius Pope Honorius: “one will”

84 Monothelitism: The Final Overview What: Monothelitism Who: Emperor Heraclius When: 600s Where: Constantinople/ Eastern Roman Empire Central Belief: Christ had only One will. But two natures View of Christ : Ditto.

85 Donastism ( ) Sacramental Heresy Sacraments are invalid: 1. Priest/Bishop formally rejected the Faith 2. Priest/Bishop in state of sin

86 Donastism Christ is the only true administrator of the Sacraments (Augustine)

87 Donastism: The Final Overview What: Donastism Who: ? (those who rejected the ordination of Bishop Caecillan ) Where: Carthage (Roman Empire) When: ( ) Central Belief: Sacraments are invalid if done by a lapsed priest or Bishop View of Christ: Jesus was human and Divine (Orthodox)

88 Pelagianism (late 300s-431): Dogmatic Heresy Man can be redeemed and sanctified without grace No Original Sin Sacraments are unnecessary

89 Pelagianism: The final Overview What: Pelagianism Who: Pelagius Where: Roman Empire When: 300s Central Belief: Sacraments are unnecessary; Graces can be achieved by own human efforts View of Christ: Orthodox


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