Arianism Arius the Bishop of Alexandria claimed that the Father alone was God. Jesus was essentially different from the Father. He did not exist before he was begotten. he was seen as the perfect ‘creature.‘ The divine Logos (Word) is only given to the human body of Christ. Yet as creator of all creation the Son existed ‘apart from time before all things’ but nevertheless subordinate to the Father. The errors of Arianism made clear the need for a complete statement of faith to become the symbol of the Church. As a result the Council of Nicaea was called in 325. 4th Century
What did Arius believe? Jesus the Word was a creature of God Jesus did not know the father perfectly Jesus was not “of one substance with the Father”
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father. By whom all things were made, both which be in heaven and in earth. Who for us men and for our salvation came down and was incarnate and was made man. He suffered and the third day he rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost. And whosoever shall say that there was a time when the Son of God was not, or that before he was begotten he was not, or that he was made of things that were not, or that he is of a different substance or essence [from the Father] or that he is a creature, or subject to change or conversion--all that so say, the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes them. CREED OF NICEAE 325
CONSUBSTANTIAL HOMOOUSIOS THE LATIN CHURCH SAYS... THE GREEK CHURCH SAYS... TO UNDERSTAND “SAME SUBSTANCE”...
For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Spirit. But the godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, is all one, the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Spirit. The Father uncreated, the Son uncreated, and the Holy Spirit uncreated. The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Spirit incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Spirit eternal. And yet they are not three eternals, but one Eternal. As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three uncreated, but one Uncreated, and one Incomprehensible. So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty, and the Holy Spirit Almighty. And yet they are not three almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God. And yet they are not three gods, but one God. So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Spirit Lord. And yet not three lords, but one Lord. For as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge each Person by Himself to be both God and Lord, so we are also forbidden by the catholic religion to say that there are three gods or three lords. The Father is made of none, neither created, nor begotten. The Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but begotten. The Holy Spirit is of the Father, neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three fathers; one Son, not three sons; one Holy Spirit, not three holy spirits. And in the Trinity none is before or after another; none is greater or less than another, but all three Persons are co-eternal together and co-equal. So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshipped. TRINITARIAN PORTION OF ATHANASIAN CREED
FUNDAMENTAL DECISIONS OF COUNCIL OF EPHESUS DOCTRINE OF MARY AS MOTHER OF GOD CANON 1-5: CONDEMNATION OF VARIOUS HERESIES CANON 6: IMPOSED DEPOSITION FROM CLERICAL LIFE ALL WHO DO NOT ACCEPT THE COUNCIL’S DECISIONS CANON 7: CONDEMNED ANY ADDITIONS OR DELETIONS FROM THE CREED CANON 8: CONDEMNED THE INTERFERENCE OF ONE BISHOP IN ANOTHER BISHOP’S DIOCESE
I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. I believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father; through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven, was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became truly human. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, and the Son,* who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets. I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. NICENE CREED FROMCOUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE ca. 381 FROM COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE ca. 381 *Filioque clause adopted by Rome in 1014
COUNCILISSUEHERESYTHEOLOGIANOUTCOME FOUR MAJOR COUNCILS