Presentation on theme: "Deirdre D’Orazio, PhD & Charles A. Flinton, PhD"— Presentation transcript:
1Deirdre D’Orazio, PhD & Charles A. Flinton, PhD Clinical Supervision: An essential ingredient to enhancing treatment outcome with forensic populationsStart 9:05Deirdre D’Orazio, PhD & Charles A. Flinton, PhD
29:06- 9: 20 What did people notice about the supervisee? (Anterior selfish motives)What about the supervisor?Why do you do what you do? Why do you supervise?
3So you want to be a clinical therapist? 9:20 to 9:30 Why are we here doing this. The ups and downs of being supervisors.Why are people here today? What do you hope to be getting out of the presentation.
4Introduction Overview Goals of supervision Styles of effective (and ineffective) supervisionEnhancing positive therapeutic outcomesObstacles to supervisionTransference and counter-transference issuesManaging the “impact” of working with difficult populationsMonitoring Supervision9:22
5Who are Supervisees?Supervisees can be licensed, pre- licensed, pre-doctoral, interns, students counselors, or probationary staff.9:23
6What is clinical supervision? “Supervision is an intervention that is provided by a senior member of a profession to a junior member or members of that same profession. This relationship is evaluative, extends over time, and has the simultaneous purposes of enhancing the professional functioning of the junior member(s), monitoring the quality of professional services offered to the clients she, he, or they see(s), and serving as a gatekeeper of those who are to enter the particular profession.”Bernard and Goodyear (1998)9: 25 Colleagues are those explicitly united in a common purpose and respecting each other's abilities to work toward that purpose.
7Who supervises forensic therapists? A licensed professional with experience providing direct services in the field of forensic psychologyA licensed professional with experience providing direct services to the population with which the intern works-Board of Psychology (on supervision)9:27
8APA Laws, Regulations, and Standards 1.04 Boundaries of Competenceb) Psychologists provide services, teach, or conduct research in new areas or involving new techniques only after first undertaking appropriate study, training, supervision, and/or consultation from persons who are competent in those areas or techniques.Maintaining ExpertisePsychologists who engage in assessment, therapy, teaching, research, organizational consulting, or other professional activities maintain a reasonable level of awareness of current scientific and professional information in their fields of activity, and undertake ongoing efforts to maintain competence in the skills they use.APA GUIDELINES9:30
9Sexual Offender Therapist Qualifications Has received specialized training regarding sexually abusive individuals.Currently licensed in a mental health profession/medical field.Unlicensed clinicians such as interns and pre- licensed practitioners must be supervised by a qualified, licensed clinician.CCOSO Adult Guidelines and Best Practices9:35 Sexual offender therapy is highly specialized and requires special training for those who work with sexually abusive individuals. Therapists performing sexual offender therapy shall be currently licensed in a mental health profession/medical field (i.e. psychiatry, psychology, social work, or marriage and family therapy). Clinicians will adhere to the legal mandates of their licensing agency.Unlicensed clinicians such as interns and pre-licensed practitioners must be supervised by a qualified, licensed clinician. It is expected that the licensed professional adheres to all of the licensure requirements and parameters regarding supervision and the number of individuals he/she is allowed to supervise.
10Experience A qualified therapist: 2000 hours of face-to-face clinical experience in the assessment and/or treatment of sexual offenders.Therapists with less than the above-delineated education and experience should not have primary responsibility for an offender in therapy but may provide psychotherapy and other services to sexual offenders under supervision of a therapist who has such education and experience.CCOSO Treatment Guidelines9:37ATSA also has 2000 hours
11TrainingSexual offender therapists should obtain 30 hours of bi-annual sexual offender continuing education that is specific to their work with sexual offenders.CCOSO Treatment Guidelines9:39 ATSA does not have specifics
12California Sex Offender Management Board (CASOMB) “Registered interns or psychological assistants may provide sex offender specific evaluation or treatment services when functioning under the supervision of a licensed practitioner who meets the established criteria. Such interns or psychological assistants may apply to the regulatory body for approval and listing.” -CASOMB Recommendations Report January 20109:41
13CASOMB continued“A one-year provisional approval status level should be offered to those licensed therapists who are pursuing sufficient education, training, and experience and provide a sufficient plan to correct any deficiencies. A provider with provisional approval should not be permitted to supervise interns or psychological assistants in the area of sex offender treatment until becoming qualified as an approved provider. No licensed clinical supervisor should supervise more than four unlicensed interns or licensed therapists with only provisional approval.” -CASOMB Recommendations Report January 20109:45This means that new staff members who have not worked with Sos before should not be supervising interns
14CASOMB continued 2“Interns or psychological assistants should co- facilitate one hundred hours of direct services with an approved licensee before being eligible for approved provider status. Treatment providers who do not meet the hours of service requirement may apply to be listed as approved providers if there are reasonable limitations on experience hours such as working in rural counties with fewer referrals.”-CASOMB Recommendations Report January 20109:47
15§ 2913 (d) Board of Psychology Laws and Regs. No licensed psychologist may register, employ, or supervise more than three psychological assistants at any given time unless specifically authorized to do so by the board.No board certified psychiatrist may register, employ, or supervise more than one psychological assistant at any given time.No contract clinic, psychological corporation, or medical corporation may employ more than 10 assistants at any one time.No contract clinic may register, employ, or provide supervision for more than one psychological assistant for each designated full-time staff psychiatrist who is qualified and supervises the psychological assistants. No psychological assistant may provide psychological services to the public for a fee, monetary or otherwise, except as an employee of a licensed psychologist, licensed physician, contract clinic, psychological corporation, or medical corporation.9:49
16§4980.45. EMPLOYMENT OR SUPERVISION OF REGISTRANTS; MAXIMUM NUMBER OF REGISTRANTS A licensed professional in private practice who has satisfied the requirements of subdivision (g) of Section may supervise or employ, at any one time, no more than a total of two individuals registered as either a marriage and family therapist intern or associate clinical social worker in that private practice.An individual supervised after being granted a qualifying degree shall receive at least one additional hour of direct supervisor contact for every week in which more than 10 hours of client contact is gained in each setting. No more than five hours of supervision, whether individual or group, shall be credited during any single week.Direct supervisor contact provided in a group shall be provided in a group of not more than eight (8) supervisees and in segments lasting no less than one continuous hour.9;50
17Forensic Psychotherapy as a Specialty Sex Offender Management “Best Practices”Collaboration, specialization, education, judicial leadership, and buy-in … all for victim and community safety9:55 Comment about therapist who do not use current practices
18The Containment Model “Best Practices” Criminal Justice System(Probation/ Parole Officer)Polygraph Examiner TherapistThe Offender9:59Supervisee
19Types of Sexual Offender Populations? High –Moderate – Low Risk Sexual OffendersInpatientOutpatientGroup/Individual TherapyPretrialPresentencingTreatment/AssessmentMandated/VoluntaryChildren, Juvenile, Adult, Male, Female, DD etc10:01 Need work
20Supervision is NOT Counseling Counseling: Purpose- personal growth, understanding, decision- making Goal- determined by client need Timeframe-self-paced Agenda- based on client needs Process- an affective process which includes, listening, exploring, teaching, supporting10:06
21Types of Forensic Psychology Supervision ClinicalAdministrative10:09
22Clinical SupervisionPurpose- improves clinical skills, professional performance and knowledge Goal – increases knowledge and skills Timeframe- is supervisee and task defined Agenda- is based on task and skills needed Process- includes assessing performance, teaching specific skills (e.g., testing, theoretical orientation)10:13
23Administrative Supervision Purpose – assure compliance with agency and professional procedures and policies Goal- consistent use of approved formats (e.g., documentation, etc) Timeframe- ongoing Agenda – based on agency policy and professional guidelines Process – clarify expectations, policy, procedures, and monitoring compliance10:16
24APA Ethics Code7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training ProgramsPsychologists responsible for education and training programs take reasonable steps to ensure that there is a current and accurate description of the program content (including participation in required course- or program- related counseling, psychotherapy, experiential groups, consulting projects, or community service), training goals and objectives, stipends and benefits, and requirements that must be met for satisfactory completion of the program. This information must be made readily available to all interested parties.10:20
25Program/Supervisor Goals (competencies expected from the program) (SFFI example)1.To provide an environment that facilitates knowledge of forensic psychology2. To provide an environment that promotes collegiality3.To re-enforce empirically supported interventions4. To provide the education and support for supervisees to gain practical understanding of risk assessment and integrate that understanding into therapeutic interventions(These should be in writing and provided to the intern)10:25 hand out
26Goals of Supervision (competencies expected of the supervisor) 1. The ability to identify a supervisee’s strengths and growing edges professionally and personally.2. The ability to formulate interventions that integrate the supervisee’s abilities and strengths with empirically guided interventions. (e.g., assist the supervisee in developing a personal paradigm for working with forensic populations that is also grounded in current/best practice).3. The ability to form an appropriate and effective helping relationship.4. The ability to identify and address ethical issues as they arise.5. The ability and intent to instill amenability to growth. (e.g., Give and receive constructive feedback without getting defensive.)6. Impart wisdom: The ability to pass on lessons learned through experience.10:27 The importance of the field; professional goals
27Supervisee Goals (competencies expected of the supervisee) These are goals developed collaboratively between supervisee and supervisor. Ideal goals are: Specific - the goal is clearly understood by both the supervisor and the trainee Realistic - the goal is within the abilities of the trainee and the trainee believes that he/she can attain the goal Challenging - the goal engages the trainee in a way that motivates effort Measurable/Observable – the goal is concrete enough that both the supervision and the trainee can monitor progress and achieve a sense of accomplishment upon attainment10:30
28Establishing Goals Goal Relevance Goal Importance Goal Attainability refers to goals that are pertinent to a particular supervisee’s needs.Goal Importanceworks toward identifying goals that are personally significant to the supervisee.Goal Attainabilityrefers to goals that the supervisee believes could be achieved.Emotional Saliencerefers to setting goals in which the natural rewards are obvious to the supervisee.-Cullari ,199610:34 Goal Relevance refers to goals that are pertinent to a particular offender’s risk factors. For example, most offenders will not state during the early stages of treatment that their goal would be to never offend again (because many assert that they know they will never offend again). Nevertheless, it is appropriate to assert “no offending” as the primary goal. Relevant additions may be to never harm anyone, to abstain from viewing deviant sexual material, and to develop honest, age appropriate relationships.Goal Importance works toward identifying goals that are personally significant to the offender. These goals could relate to dynamic factors that contributed to the offense but are also identified by the offender as goals that would contribute to his personal happiness and stability. A goal such as maintaining a job or establishing a healthy, enduring relationship would fall into this category.Goal Attainability refers to goals that the offender believes could be achieved. Re-establishing a communication with his ex-wife in two weeks and sustaining it for one year is an unrealistic goal for an offender recently released from prison. Developing short-term goal for a pedophile to never think of children in a sexual way again may set the offender up for failure and eventual indifference to treatment goals.Attainable goals would include the development of healthy communication between the offender and his ex-wife. Another attainable goal would be abstaining from masturbating to deviant stimuli and contacting a support person when an urge arises.Emotional Salience refers to setting goals in which the natural rewards are obvious to the offender. For example, does the offender know, or believe, that he will feel good about attaining the goal? If the offender is participating social skill development to address relationship problems, the offender confident that he will have more emotionally fulfilling relationships?
29Formalizing the Goals for Supervision “Goals of supervised experience should be written and signed by both the supervisor and the trainee”Best practices and accepted standards that have been developed by the American Psychological Association, the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC), and the California Psychology Internship Council (CAPIC).10:36
31Goals for Supervision Examples Objective: To develop treatment planning skills that integrate actuarially based and clinically judgment based informationObjective: To develop professional communication skillsObjective: To master court testimonyObjective: To develop mastery in test interpretationObjective: To more consistently apply the literature in a the therapy process without losing track of the unique features of the client.Objective: To learn how to build a forensic private practiceObjective: To develop scientific/forensic writing skills10:49 this is real Not a trick
32Goal ObjectivesObjective: To develop an objective and genuine stance when working with hostile/argumentative clients.Progress: 10/12/ T.C. discussed treatment plan with a client and agreed to alter the plan because the clt continues to deny the offense. Counter-transference issues interfered with implementation of the presentation. She held back some and colluded. Worked on issues of conflict and confidence.05/01/ T.C. was able to present intake test data to a resistant, argumentative client without losing track of the material. Appropriate interventions were used to support clts tolerance of disagreement.10:57
33RECAP Three Goals of Supervision Performance, Knowledge, Safety To provide a safe, supportive, reliable, enriching environmentwithin which the supervisee will develop practical knowledge of the specialty of forensic psychotherapyand integrate that understanding into applying interventions that are supported empiricallyand effectively prevent reoffenseEasy, right?!
34Exercise10:45Best and worst supervision experiences
35Enhancing Positive Therapeutic Outcomes The Supervisor as Guardian of Public SafetySupervision within the sub-niche of psychotherapy involving treatment of offenders is unique in several ways. Foremost, the over-arching goal of the supervisor supervisee relationship is to prevent client sexual re-offense. Good supervisors attempt to balance liability for community safety with the growth of the clinician.10:47
36Does Sex Offender Treatment Work? Hanson et. al, the Principles of Effective Correctional Treatment Also Apply to Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36,
37Yes! Sex Offender Treatment Does Work …But it has room to improve 1. A meta-analysis examining 129 studies of treatment of sex offenders ultimately included only 22 studies that met basic study quality criteria. Quality was defined per the Collaborative Outcome Data Committee guidelines.2. Results22 studies. N=3,121 treated sex offenders. N=3,625 non-treated sex offenders10.9% sexual recidivism for treated group v. 19.2% for no-treatment= 43% reduction in sexual recidivism.3. ConclusionRisk Need Responsivity principles should be a primary consideration in the design and implementation of treatment programs for sexual offenders.
38The Guiding Principles of Effective Interventions: Risk, Need, Responsivity (Bonta & Andrews, 2007; Hanson et. al, 2009)PrincipleTx will be most effective when…ExampleRiskIt treats offenders that are most likely to reoffendTx mod. or high risk (Static-99R). Don’t mix low & high risk. Don’t exclude high riskNeedIt targets criminogenic needs, -the changeable characteristics related to sexual reoffendingItems on Structured Risk Assessment (SRA, Thornton, 2002) & STABLE 2007 (Hanson & Harris, 2008)ResponsivityIt creates context for change. It matches the individual’s learning style & abilityStaff selected for relationship skills, empathy, warm, genuine, positive regard, able to form relationships with offenders, prosocial direction, “firm but fair”
39Effective Treatment Targets Criminogenic Needs FACTORStructured Risk AssessmentSTABLE 2007 ItemsSexual InterestsSexual PreoccupationSexual Preference for childrenSexualized violenceSex’l preoccupationSex as copingDeviant sex’l preferenceOffense Supportive AttitudesAdversarial sex’l attitudesExcessive entitlementChild abuse supportive beliefsSeeing women as deceitful & maliciousMachiavellianismHostility toward women*Emot id w/children*Relational StyleEmotional congruence with childrenLack of intimate relationshipsCallousnessGrievance thinkingSign. Social InfluencesCapacity for relat. stabilityGeneral social rejectionLack of concern for others*SelfmanagementLifestyle impulsivenessResistance to rules & supervisionPoor cognitive problem solvingPoor emotional controlImpulsiveCooperation w/ supervisionPoor cog. problem solvingNegative emotionality/ hostility
40The Purpose of Treatment Need & Responsivity The objective of treatment is to help the client ameliorate ‘Needs’.This requires creating an environment that facilitates treatment engagement so that the offender will maximally Respond to treatment.‘Responsivity’ refers to the environment for change.The therapeutic landscape must be safe, supportive, continual, reliable.The supervisory landscape must be safe, supportive, continual, reliable.
42The ‘Real’ Purpose of Treatment Change the Structure & Function of the Brain‘Good therapy’: a meaningful experience in a safe context that alters the neuronal processing template, directly shaping the circuits responsible for memory, emotion and self-awareness.Lunch ?
43The Neurobiology of Change Patterns of energy and information flow within the brain…and between brains.Experience shapes the genetically programmed maturation of the nervous system.All new input is filtered through this neuronal processing template. Changes are use-dependent, occurring only in novel or extreme situations.Attributing meaning to experience (emotion) causes new patterns of connections among nerve cells in the brain, at a sub-cortical level. This is how memory “works”.Memory is the way past events effect future responses.Concepts evoke change only when meaning is ascribed to experience.Good therapists attend to the neurobiology of interpersonal experience: Human connections shape neural connections.If it evokes meaning, ‘information’ from this workshop…from your supervision sessions…from your supervisee’s therapy sessions will be encoded, stored & retrieved by the brain in implicit and explicit memory systems.1:15pm
44Unhealthy Deficits Can Become Healthy Tendencies Unconscious Incompetence (pre-contemplation)Conscious Incompetence (contemplation)Conscious Competence (action)Unconscious Competence (maintenance)
45RECAP Enhancing Positive Outcomes Effective sexual offender therapy, and effective sexual offender therapist supervision, can and does happenIt is guided by the goal of preventing victim harmIt includes thorough assessment and targets specified and empirically based needsConducted in a relational landscape that maximizes brain based changeInvolves making new implicit and explicit memory patterns through experience and emotion
46The Therapeutic Process Essential to Outcome The “How” is as Important as the “What” of TreatmentSOT Programs that highlight the therapeutic relationship are successful at enhancing positive behavior change and reducing recidivism (Marshall et al, 2003; 2010)A convenient overshadowing: Strongly manualized programs and purely didactic (psychoeducational) are inadequate at evoking the kind of change needed by offender clientsExperiential methods are essential for brain integrationEffective therapy, and effective supervision, employs positive approaches that motivate change and identify strengths, using them to build skills while still targeting relevant needsApproach goals facilitate treatment engagement, disclosure, and prosocial identification
47Supervisors are mindful of what works, and doesn’t work, in therapy with sexual offenders Authoritarian and aggressive techniques do not work with abusive individuals (i.e. confrontation, shock, anger, revenge on behalf of victims, demand for change). They elicit resistance, argumentativeness, manipulative placation, eroded self-esteem, drop-out.Effective process facilitates emotion processing and regulation. It helps clients regulate the affective precursors to offending. Interpersonal schemas are changes through emotional expression.Many sexual offender clients are particularly responsive to therapy process variables because they were betrayed by someone in a position of trust and they are poised toward suspiciousness.
49Follow the Responsivity Principle Offender Recovery Begins with Empathy for the Offender“To sense the client’s private world as if it were your own, but without ever losing the "as if” quality—this is empathy, and this seems essential to therapy. To sense the client’s anger, fear, or confusion as if it were your own, yet without your own anger, fear, or confusion getting bound up in it, (is empathy). When the client’s world is this clear to the therapist, and he moves about in it freely, then he can both communicate his understanding of what is clearly known to the client and can also voice meanings in the client’s experience of which the client is scarcely aware.”(Carl Rogers, 1957, p.99)
50Obstacles to Effective Supervision Strains in supervision can be brought about by the challenges inherent in clinical practice, conflicts in the goals and/or tasks, inadequate attention to the values modeled by the supervisor and/or the essential therapist characteristics, inadequacies in technical competence, boundary crossings, problematic supervisee behavior, and negative transference, countertransference, and parallel process phenomena.
52Indicators of Supervision Strain WithdrawalPaucity of disclosureDirect expression of criticism/hostilityNoncompliance/passive respondingActing in/acting out
53Obstacles to Supervision Facing the Shadow Negative attitudes and beliefs about offenders leads to inappropriate therapeutic style and negative outcomesWhat is the societal context within which we provide sexual offender treatment?How might the common societal view of sexual offenders impact a therapist?Impact you?Beware the temptation to participate in the cycle of abuse!
54The Cycle of AbuseEmpathy: A matched vicarious emotional response that depends on the ability to infer another’s cognitive and affective state. It is mediated by egocentrism (a continuum of self to other focus)Trauma leads to a personal distress state,- excessive self focus with goal of immediate reliefAcute distress yields to general “wounded-ness”Reactive versus receptiveCommon symptoms: self-regulation deficits (affect tolerance/ modulation), shame, secrecy, negative self-evaluation, depression, social/intimacy deficits, avoidance behaviors (dissociation, denial, distraction, externalization1:55 – 2:10
55Cascade Effects of Trauma on the Brain Inability to regulate strong emotions wires the brain to survive in a world of constant danger.When unknown or threatening sensory input is matched against the existing processing template, the brain activates a fight or flight response before the signal can get to the cortex.The brain becomes programmed to irritability, impulsivity, suspiciousness.
56Cascade Effects of Trauma on the Brain Left Hemisphere UnderdevelopmentDeficient Left-Right Hemisphere IntegrationLimbic IrritabilityAbnormal Activity in the CerebellumHormone Dysfunction1. Left Hemisphere Underdevelopmentverbal perf. (CBT); l. hippocampus growth (cortisol)-low verbal memory & dissociative syx2. Deficient Left-Right Hemisphere Integrationsmaller corpus callosum, perceiving/expr language (L) is cut off from processing/expressing negative emotions (R)3. Limbic Irritabilitytemporal lobe dysf., sensory & autonomic symptoms, sudden affect.4. Abnormal Activity in the Cerebellumquells electrical irritability of limbic system (affect regulation) by responding to movement; growth is stymied by stress hormones.5. Hormone DysfunctionExcessive stress hormone response to adversity; heightened fear & adrenaline response; altered metabolism, immune & inflammatory resp; dec. thyroid hormone production & serotonin in the hippocampus; dec. oxytocin (intimacy/monogamy)& incr. vasopressin (sexual arousal)
57The Cycle of Abuse Trauma Perpetrators, Recipients and Healers IMPACT Trauma taxes expectation system leading to failure to manage fear and integrate trauma.PerpetratorsOngoing “wounded-ness” keeps abusive individuals self- focused and reacting to a hostile world. Empathy deficits prevail. They don’t notice, don’t care, or misinterpret cues from others. Significant impact on Risk, Needs & Responsivity.Healers“What the patient says in group is more of an intelligence test. It is what he says to other patients, our reading between the lines that tells us the degree of internalized change. Therapist lack of confidence steals the reserves necessary to perceive what is really going on.”-Liam Marshall, 2011.
59‘Unconscious’ Challenges to Supervision TransferenceUnconscious redirection of a client's feelings for a significant person to the therapist. Common manifestations of transference: erotic attraction, rage, hatred, mistrust, parentification, over-dependence, idealization. I.e. A man transfers hatred of his mother’s infidelities to other women, and his female psychotherapist.Counter-transferenceA “jointly created” phenomenon between the treater and the client. The client pressures the treater through transference into playing a role congruent with the client’s internal world. The specific dimensions of that role are colored by treater’s own personality. I.e. The female therapist, feeling dismissed and disliked, attends more to other clients in group therapy.
60Vicarious Traumatization “The cumulative transformative effect upon the trauma therapist of working with survivors of traumatic life events….It is a process through which the therapist’s inner experience is negatively transformed through empathic engagement with clients’ trauma material” Pearlman & Saakvitne, 1995
61Monitoring & Managing Therapist Impact Repeated exposure to stories of perpetration and predation tempt us to participate in the cycle of abuse. Supervisors help therapists access and treat the wounds of clients, while identifying impact to the therapist and managing the therapist’s wounds
62Cultivate the “Nymph” in Supervisees! The goal is an integrated brain. Focus on the “How” along with the “What” of the work they do, and the work you do together.2. Therapist Style: Empathy, Genuineness, Supportiveness, Directiveness.3. Treatment planning begins with the client’s world view. They won’t develop empathy until we do.4. Get comfortable with working at the foot of a volcano! Tolerate and transform pain and fear.Willing Awareness: commit to showing up physically and psychologically to experience “that which is”.6. Beware the temptation to participate in the cycle of abuse.
63My Vow to “Care for the Helper” InternalI will expect counter-transferenceIn session I will practice willing awarenessExternalI will prioritize my personal lifeI will incorporate my best qualitiesI will find a passion in my professional lifeI will be aware of personal signs of burnoutI will allow myself my own therapyI will utilize debriefing & consultationI will connect with other professionals in the field
64Care for the Healer Practice the “treatment” in your own life. Self empathy sells empathy!Beware of vicarious traumatization.Commit to lifelong learning, consultation, collaboration.Put your work into perspective.Appreciate your colleagues.
66Supervision types, process, and techniques Who was your best supervisor? why
67Types of Supervision Styles Authoritarian supervisionLaissez Faire supervisionCompanionable supervisionCollaborative supervision
68Authoritarian Supervision Cognitive stance of the supervisor:Supervisees require constant attention because they are often undependable or immature (e.g., they will attempt to work as little as possible unless someone monitors them carefully).Supervisees cannot be trusted to fulfill their tasks, the supervisor must check on them frequently. The supervisor is ultimately responsible for supervisees’ performance. Consequently, close observation is an essential part of the supervisor’s responsibilities.
69Laissez Faire Supervision Cognitive stance of the supervisor:Give supervisees the freedom to use their talents and skills in accomplishing job responsibilities. “Hire good people and then get out of their way.”As a result, members view supervision as an admission to failure; that is, as something to submit to when they encounter a situation they are unable to handle on their own.
70Companionable Supervision Cognitive stance of the supervisor:Supervision is a friendship-like relationship. Supervisors should seek to be liked and create harmonious relationships. The focus should be on being buddies with the supervisees and avoid confronting them about poor job performance or mistakes in judgment.UNTIL ITS TOO LATE
71Collaborative Supervision Cognitive stance of the supervisor:A cooperative effort between the supervisor and supervisee that facilitates a joint effort to be greater than the sum of their individual contributions.Supervision in this approach has a dual focus: 1) the accomplishment of the organization’s goal and 2) support staff in the accomplishing their personal and professional development goals.Supervision emphasizes the identification of potential problems early; the supervisor and supervisee then jointly develop strategies to prevent or ameliorate issues and attain goals.Supervision is dedicated to assisting all members to enhance their knowledge and skills, which can lead to advancement within the organization and profession.
72Effective Supervision Styles Ineffective: Concrete feedback- directive, critical, asking irrelevant questions Effective: Abstract feedback – “feeding questions” that are information seeking, information giving and guiding. Expertise was also held back at times to enhance discovery. -P. Grimmet (1998)
73Characteristics of Effective Supervisors EmpatheticSupportiveFlexibleInterested in supervisionTrack supervisees effectivelyLink theory with practiceEngage in joint problem-solvingInterpretativeRespectfulFocusedPracticalKnowledgeable
74Characteristics of Ineffective Supervisors RigidLow empathyLow supportFailure to consistently track supervisee concernsFailure to teach or instructIndirect & intolerantClosedLack respect for differencesNon-collegialLacking in praise & encouragementSexistEmphasize evaluation, weaknesses, & deficiencies
75The Process of Supervision The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) and Supervision
76Trans Theoretical Model of Change (Per Ryan E. Gillespie) TerminationMaintenanceActionContemplationPrecontemplation
77Precomtemplation Stage Supervisees are unaware of (or not focused on) the possibility for change (resistant, unaware, etc)Maybe acquiescent in order to pursue secondary gainMaybe defensive to feedback
78Contemplation Stage “Thinking but not doing” (Baldwin, 1991) Supervisees may experience anxiety about changeSupervisees may experience feelings/beliefs of incompetenceSupervisees begin to intellectually consider change but do not take action
79Action StageSupervisees may experience distress (due to incongruence between their awareness and readiness to change)Supervisees express a commitment to professional developmentSupervisors may overestimate supervisees skills (Supervisors must supervisees in staying focused and not regress to previous stages)
80Maintenance Stage Professional autonomy is building Supervisees more readily seek assistance in honing skillsFailures may cause regression
81Termination StageChange has occurred when skills become more automatic and forced conscious attention is not required to maintained skillsConsultation is natural
82Structured Interventions Structure (at least initially)HomeworkVideo/Audio TapingDocument ReviewCase Conferences/PresentationsTopic PresentationsInitially supervisees that are highly anxious may benefit from a high level of structure in supervision sessionsThey need supervisors to provide specific direction on working with clients, assessment, case notes and case conceptualizations.Supervisors can assign trainees homework to practice their skills.Level two:Trainees gain confidence as a therapist and the focus shifts more to the client than their own process.Supervisors assess the trainee’s skills and, when appropriate, allow trainees more autonomy and encourage more independent decision-making in terms of interventions.Level three:Trainees increasingly empathize with the client and reflect on what they know about theory and research in a given situation.As the supervisory relationship becomes more collaborative, supervisors may introduce other perspectives to broaden their view and might be more willing to provide negative feedback.
83TTM Specific Interventions Experiential ProcessesConsciousness raisingE.g. Socratic dialogDramatic ReliefRole playSelf-reevaluationAffective and cognitive assessment of how the supervise thinks they are doingEnvironmental ReevaluationAssessing and correctly attributing influences of change
84Interventions Stimulus control Counter-conditioning Removing negative stimuli (e.g. shame)Counter-conditioningDeveloping alternative ways of behaving, thinking, feeling, and interacting with their clients.Contingency managementBased on the principles of reinforcementSocial liberationMaintaining collegial relationshipsHelping relationshipsTrust in the supervisory relationship
85“…..supervisees reported that supervision mentoring relationships had more influence on their professional development than academic preparation.”Greig, T. C. (1998). Supervisor mentoring and psychotherapist professional development: An exploratory qualitative study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(04), 1851B. (UMI No )
86EXCERCISEConsider doing exercise here of group breakout with half describing their best and worst experiences as a supervisee; other half their best and worst experiences as a supervisor.Consider flip chart exercise comparing roles of offender therapist to non-offender therapist
87APA Ethics Code 7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information Psychologists do not require students or supervisees to disclose personal information in course- or program-related activities, either orally or in writing, regarding sexual history, history of abuse and neglect, psychological treatment, and relationships with parents, peers, and spouses or significant others except if (1) the program or training facility has clearly identified this requirement in its admissions and program materials or (2) the information is necessary to evaluate or obtain assistance for students whose personal problems could reasonably be judged to be preventing them from performing their training- or professionally related activities in a competent manner or posing a threat to the students or others.
88§4980.55. DISCLOSURE OF COUNSELOR’S QUALIFICATIONS As a model for all therapeutic professions, and to acknowledge respect and regard for the consuming public, all marriage and family therapists are encouraged to provide to each client, at an appropriate time and within the context of the psychotherapeutic relationship, an accurate and informative statement of the therapist's experience, education, specialties, professional orientation, and any other information deemed appropriate by the licensee. -Board of Behavioral Sciences
90MonitoringAs a supervisor, you are required to assume FULL RESPONSIBILITY for the work product of your supervisee. Remember that the supervisorial relationship is a hierarchical one. “Teach and lead”.Most psychologists are reluctant to say” do it because I said so”.
91The “Frame”The frame defined as any aspect of the supervision program intended to create an environment in which learning and growth are is possible.InterventionsStructure(11:19 am to 11:20)1 minutes Working together with other professionals help builds the frame- offenders are masters at splitting and undermine an environment that is conducive to change.
92APA Ethics Code7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance(a) In academic and supervisory relationships, psychologists establish a timely and specific process for providing feedback to students and supervisees. Information regarding the process is provided to the student at the beginning of supervision.(b) Psychologists evaluate students and supervisees on the basis of their actual performance on relevant and established program requirements
93Giving Difficult Feedback “Most supervisors admit withholding feedback due to concern about negative reactions from supervisees.” -Stoltenberg (2005)-Provide specific examples, and if possible, use of audio or video, observation-Be aware of your own discomfort and monitor body language and eye contact.-Anticipate concernsRegardless of the model supervisors use and trainees' level of experience, Stoltenberg emphasizes the use of supportive and facilitative interventions, in which supervisors provide support and encourage the development of the trainee through praise and attentive listening.However, some feedback may be harder to give than others, especially in situations when it's based on personality or professional issues, such as situations in which the feedback concerns a supervisee's behavior outside of supervision with other interns, Hoffman says.Indeed, research has shown that many supervisors report withholding feedback from trainees, such as negative reactions to trainees' counseling and professional performance. In particular, supervisors report it is difficult to provide feedback when clinical issues are subjective, when they are uncomfortable with imposing their opinions on trainees and when the feedback concerns something outside the supervisory relationship, according to a January 2005 study in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (Vol. 52, No. 1, pages 3-13). For example, the study, which was conducted by Hoffman, Clara Hill, PhD, Stacey Holmes, PhD, and Gary Freitas, PhD, found that supervisors had difficulties deciding whether supervision should include discussing a supervisee's personality characteristics that might affect the trainee's clinical or professional success. The study included interviews with 15 counseling center supervisors about their feedback to intern trainees.
94Documenting Supervision It is important to document supervision sessions because:You are legal responsible for supervisee’s actionsYou will have a clearer perception of how the supervisee is progressing in terms of addressing crisis issues, adhering to the treatment plan, and diagnosing the client.If the supervisee’s case were to go to court (for any reason) it is imperative that supervision notes indicate that your were providing close and adequate supervision.
95Supervision Contracts Supervisor and supervisee rights and responsibilitiesContent and Context of SupervisionScope of practice under supervisionLength of contract periodRoles and Expectations of Supervisee and SupervisorLearning activities, processes, supervisor and supervisee responsibilities, feedback, mutually defined goals and tasksLegal/Ethical ParametersInformed consent; Confidentiality
96Supervision Contracts continued Adherence to agency/practice requirements and rulesInclude specific reference to ethical codes, licensing statutes, and lawsReference to agency/site personnel practicesPerformance ExpectationsSpecific knowledge, skills, valuesModes of formative and summative evaluation
97Risk ManagementEnsure that the clients and referral agents know the status of the supervisee (e.g., that they are unlicensed and/or an intern) in writingAPA code 10.01, Informed Consent to Therapyc) When the therapist is a trainee and the legal responsibility for the treatment provided resides with the supervisor, the client/patient, as part of the informed consent procedure, is informed that the therapist is in training and is being supervised and is given the name of the supervisor.