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Ethical Issues in the Practice of Supervision Perry C. Francis Department of Counseling.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethical Issues in the Practice of Supervision Perry C. Francis Department of Counseling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethical Issues in the Practice of Supervision Perry C. Francis Department of Counseling

2 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 2 Presentation Goals To present an overview of ethics as they pertain to supervision. To present key ethical guidelines regarding client rights, informed consent for the supervisee, multicultural issues, and other current issues. To present information concerning the growing practice of supervision via the WWW and how ethics pertain to this practice.

3 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 3 Growing Complexity The practice of supervision has grown more complex in recent years. Issues of client rights, informed consent for the supervisee, on-site supervision by untrained supervisors, and multicultural issues (to name just a few issues) have all served to enhance or detract from the practice of supervision. Ethical guidelines serve to help the supervisor and the supervisee gain the most benefit from the supervision experience and provide the best care possible for the client.

4 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 4 Growing Complexity This presentation will offer information about the current ethical guidelines for supervision from ACES and ACA and how they are applied to the practice of supervision.

5 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 5 Supervision Defined Supervision has been defined as “…a means of transmitting the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of a particular profession to the next generation in that profession” (Bernard & Goodyear, 1992, p. 2). For those who are involved in the training of mental health professionals, it also is a means of “…ensuring that clients receive a certain minimum quality of care while trainees work with them to gain their skills” (Bernard & Goodyear, 1992, p. 2).

6 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 6 Ethics Defined Ethics has been defined as “…the process of making moral decisions about individuals and their interactions in society while still attempting to protect the rights and welfare of those same individuals” (Kurpius et al., 1991, p. 48). With this definition in mind, ethics used by professional counselors focus on being sure that one has the correct combination of education, practice, and experience to help people deal with the issues and problems they bring to the counselor’s office.

7 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 7 Ethics Defined Supervisors who practice ethically make sure they have the correct combination of education, practice, and experience to help supervisees develop their skills and talents so that they (the supervisees) can help people deal with the issues and problems they bring into the counselor’s office.

8 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 8 Administrative vs. Clinical Administrative supervision can be understood as “…those supervisory activities that increase the efficiency of the delivery of counseling services…” (ACES, 1995, p. 270). Clinical supervision “…includes the supportive and educative activities of the supervisor designed to improve the application of counseling theory and technique directly to clients” (ACES, 1995, p. 270).

9 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 9 Ethics & Supervision The counseling supervisor: should have sufficient knowledge, skill, and judgment to use efficacious interventions with the supervisee and the client the supervisee is working with respects the human dignity and freedom of the supervisee and client uses the power of the supervisor’s role responsibly for both the supervisee and client act in ways that promote confidence in the profession of supervision and public confidence in the profession of counseling.

10 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 10 Ethical Issues in Supervision Unique ethical issues can be separated into three broad categories: Issues dealing with client welfare and rights; Issues dealing with supervisor and supervisee relationship; Issues dealing with administrative supervision.

11 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 11 Client Welfare & Rights Triadic Relationship Supervision appears to be a process that involves two people: the supervisor and the supervisee. In actuality, there is a minimum of three or more people involved in the supervisory relationship: the supervisor, the supervisee, and the client(s). This has been referred to as a triadic relationship (Kurpius et al., 1991; Upchurch, 1985). Issues Dealing With Client Welfare and Rights

12 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 12 Making Ethical Decisions The Supervisor’s Ethical Decision Tree: Relevant legal and ethical standards Client welfare Supervisee welfare Supervisor welfare Program and/or agency service and administrative needs. (ACES, 1995, Sec. 3.29) Issues Dealing With Client Welfare and Rights

13 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 13 Informed Consent for All Client needs to be aware that the counselor is under supervision so that the client can give informed consent to their participation. Supervisor & CIT need to review local laws concerning confidentiality & privacy for client. Generally privacy & confidentiality are afforded under the supervisor’s credentials. Issues Dealing With Client Welfare and Rights

14 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 14 Crisis & Emergency Coverage CIT should not work with clients who are beyond their skill level. Guidelines for emergency consultation and/or intervention by the supervisor need to be worked out prior to interaction with any client. These guidelines are part of the informed consent given to the client. Issues Dealing With Client Welfare and Rights

15 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 15 Education & Training The Supervisor needs: Supervision & training in the process of supervision. Education & training in the population served by the CIT. Knowledge of one’s own strengths & limitations as a supervior. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

16 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 16 Dual Roles & Relationships The Supervisor understands: Dual Relationships are inevitable and are to be managed properly. That a power differential exists between the supervisor and the supervisee. That a sexual relationship involves a power differential that contaminates any perceived intimacy. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

17 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 17 Informed Consent The Supervisor can Use an informed consent form to help educate the CIT about the supervisory relationship, its limitations and benefits, and the supervisory process. Informed Consent Form can include information about: Supervision Process, Evaluation & Due Process, Ethical & Legal Issues, Professional Disclosure (training, education, etc…of supervisor), Practical Issues (emergency procedures, etc…) Statement of Agreement Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

18 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 18 Informed Consent Elements of the Informed Consent: Purpose: A brief explanation about the consent statement, its purpose and function. Professional Disclosure Statement: Includes the supervisor’s credentials and qualifications. Practical Issues: Practical information such as phone numbers, crisis procedures, frequency, length, and location of sessions, monetary concerns, and professional development requirements, if any. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

19 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 19 Informed Consent Elements of the Informed Consent: Supervision Process: A description of the process, expectations, and objectives of supervision is included here. Evaluation and Due Process: The ethical guidelines point out that the supervisor is responsible for reviewing work samples of the supervisee, providing ongoing and regular feedback in a variety of forms and formats, and meeting regularly in face-to-face sessions with the supervisee. Outlining these requirements and responsibilities of both parties will prevent confusion and promote clear communication. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

20 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 20 Counseling the Supervisee The Supervisor understands that: Supervision is a complex task of educational, professional, ethical, informational, & therapeutic interactions. The power differential interferes with the counseling relationship. The supervisor can listen, empathize, & understand the CIT’s personal issues, but limits this activity because of the evaluative role he or she has with the CIT. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

21 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 21 Counseling the Supervisee The Supervisor understands: The difference between gatekeeper issues & transitory issues. Gatekeeper issues are those that interfere with counseling performance in an ongoing fashion. Transitory issues are those that interfere with the supervisee’s performance but are temporary in nature. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

22 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 22 Electronic Supervision The Supervisor seeks to insure that: All communication maintains a level of security that allows only those who should be viewing it, access to it. Emergency procedures are in place if there is a crisis that requires the supervisors attention. Timely care can take place for both the CIT & Client. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

23 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 23 Multicultural Issues The Supervisor shall: Take into account the effect individual differences (gender, race, culture, etc…) has on the supervisory relationship. This includes: Appropriate training and experience in cultural differences. Working with the CIT to understand how cultural differences effect counseling/supervision process. Issues of power surrounding differences. Issues Dealing With Supervisor and Supervisee Relationship

24 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 24 Educational Opportunities The Supervisor seeks to: Insure that the CIT is given the proper training concerning their roles and responsibilities within the training organization. Provide the CIT with training and clients that are both commensurate with their skills and challenging to their growth. Issues Dealing With Administrative Supervision

25 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 25 Summary The practice of supervision has grown more and more complex with each passing year. New and innovative ways of providing supervision have been created that include the use of computers and the World Wide Web (Myrick & Sabella, 1995). We have developed a greater depth of knowledge about the impact of multicultural issues on the supervisory process (Bernard, 1994; Leong & Wagner, 1994).

26 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 26 Summary More and more sites are asking for or being required to have trained supervisors to teach counselors how to interrelate with clients. Clearer guidelines are being created so that the supervisee knows how and when they are being evaluated (McCarthy et al., 1995). As the profession matures, so do the ethics that guide it through the many complex relational issues that arise. In doing so the profession maintains a high quality of service to the supervisee, the client, and the agency it serves.

27 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., NCC, LPC 27 Questions-Cases What are your thoughts? Your cases for Discussion. A Look at a Disclosure Statement.


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