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A few slides on governance of protected areas (with a eye to biodiversity and natural resources in the landscape/seascape) Dr. Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend.

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Presentation on theme: "A few slides on governance of protected areas (with a eye to biodiversity and natural resources in the landscape/seascape) Dr. Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend."— Presentation transcript:

1 A few slides on governance of protected areas (with a eye to biodiversity and natural resources in the landscape/seascape) Dr. Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend

2 is the distinction clear ? management > what do we do? governance- > who decides what to do? how? management and governance

3 management traditional & «scientific» understanding of relevant phenomena traditional & «scientific» understanding of relevant phenomena specific aims to reach specific aims to reach actions to carry out actions to carry out available means (human, financial…) available means (human, financial…) achieving or not the desired results achieving or not the desired results  management effectiveness  management effectivenessgovernance power, authority and responsibility power, authority and responsibility relationships among actors relationships among actors formal & informal, open & hidden conflicts formal & informal, open & hidden conflicts «how to go about» all this… : citizen participation, vision, transparency, accountability, equity… «how to go about» all this… : citizen participation, vision, transparency, accountability, equity…  «good governance»  «good governance»

4 actors actors instruments and powers instruments and powers levels of decisions levels of decisions Since Durban 2003 we have been attempting to approach the subject by “unpacking” governance through analyses of :

5 : However, at a first approximation and cutting through a variety of complexities we also attempted to make governance “practical”, easier to comprehend, assess and evaluate, by defining and examining two other properties : quality quality type type

6 Quality : principles of “good governance” related to the work of UN agencies and highlighted at the Vth World Parks Congress and beyond  Legitimacy and Voice (& subsidiarity, consensus orientation)  Direction (“vision”)  Performance  Accountability (& transparency)  Fairness (equity, “do no harm”, respect for human rights)

7 all types are legitimate and important for conservation! Type … …who holds de facto management authority and responsibility for protected areas and conserved biodiversity and natural resources in the broader landscape/seascape? A. the government (and its agencies at various levels) B. various parties (together) C. the owners of the concerned land and natural resources (individuals, corporate actors…) D. the concerned indigenous peoples and local communities 4 main “governance types” distinguished on the basis of the answer… keeping in mind de jure but privileging de facto

8 IUCN Matrix of protected areas categories and governance types (IUCN Guidelines, 2008) Governance type Category(manag.objective) A. Governance by Government B. Shared Governance C. Private Governance D. Governance by Indigenous Peoples & Local Communities Federa l or nation al ministr y or agency Local/ municip al ministry or agency in change Govern ment- delegate d manage ment (e.g. to an NGO) Trans- boundar y manage ment Collaborativ e managemen t (various forms of pluralist influence) Joint management (pluralist management board) Declared and run by individu al land- owner …by non- profit organisat ions (e.g. NGOs, univ. etc.) …by for profit organisation s (e.g. corporate land-owners ) Indigenous bio- cultural areas & Territories- declared and run by Indigenous Peoples Community Conserved Areas - declared and run by traditional peoples and local communities I - Strict Nature Reserve/ Wilderness Area II – National Park (ecosystem protection; protection of cultural values) III – Natural Monument IV – Habitat/ Species Management V – Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI – Managed Resource

9 IUCN matrix of protected areas categories and governance types (new IUCN Guidelines) Governance type Category(manag.objective) A. Governance by Government B. Shared Governance C. Private Governance D. Indigenous Peoples & Community Governance Federa l or nation al ministr y or agency Local/ municip al ministry or agency in change Govern ment- delegate d manage ment (e.g. to an NGO) Trans- boundar y manage ment Collaborativ e managemen t (various forms of pluralist influence) Joint management (pluralist management board) Declared and run by individu al land- owner …by non- profit organisat ions (e.g. NGOs, univ. etc.) …by for profit organisation s (e.g. corporate land-owners ) Indigenous bio- cultural areas & Territories- declared and run by Indigenous Peoples Community Conserved Areas - declared and run by traditional peoples and local communities I - Strict Nature Reserve/ Wilderness Area II – National Park (ecosystem protection; protection of cultural values) III – Natural Monument IV – Habitat/ Species Management V – Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI – Managed Resource

10 IUCN matrix of protected areas categories and governance types (new IUCN Guidelines) Governance type Category(manag.objective) A. Governance by Government B. Shared Governance C. Private Governance D. Indigenous Peoples & Community Governance Federa l or nation al ministr y or agency Local/ municip al ministry or agency in change Govern ment- delegate d manage ment (e.g. to an NGO) Trans- boundar y manage ment Collaborativ e managemen t (various forms of pluralist influence) Joint management (pluralist management board) Declared and run by individu al land- owner …by non- profit organisat ions (e.g. NGOs, univ. etc.) …by for profit organisation s (e.g. corporate land-owners ) Indigenous bio- cultural areas & Territories- declared and run by Indigenous Peoples Community Conserved Areas - declared and run by traditional peoples and local communities I - Strict Nature Reserve/ Wilderness Area II – National Park (ecosystem protection; protection of cultural values) III – Natural Monument IV – Habitat/ Species Management V – Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI – Managed Resource

11 IUCN matrix of protected areas categories and governance types (new IUCN Guidelines) Governance type Category(manag.objective) A. Governance by Government B. Shared Governance C. Private Governance D. Indigenous Peoples & Community Governance Federa l or nation al ministr y or agency Local/ municip al ministry or agency in change Govern ment- delegate d manage ment (e.g. to an NGO) Trans- boundar y manage ment Collaborativ e managemen t (various forms of pluralist influence) Joint management (pluralist management board) Declared and run by individu al land- owner …by non- profit organisat ions (e.g. NGOs, univ. etc.) …by for profit organisation s (e.g. corporate land-owners ) Indigenous bio- cultural areas & Territories- declared and run by Indigenous Peoples Community Conserved Areas - declared and run by traditional peoples and local communities I - Strict Nature Reserve/ Wilderness Area II – National Park (ecosystem protection; protection of cultural values) III – Natural Monument IV – Habitat/ Species Management V – Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI – Managed Resource

12 IUCN matrix of protected areas categories and governance types (new IUCN Guidelines) Governance type Category(manag.objective) A. Governance by Government B. Shared Governance C. Private Governance D. Indigenous Peoples & Community Governance Federa l or nation al ministr y or agency Local/ municip al ministry or agency in change Govern ment- delegate d manage ment (e.g. to an NGO) Trans- boundar y manage ment Collaborativ e managemen t (various forms of pluralist influence) Joint management (pluralist management board) Declared and run by individu al land- owner …by non- profit organisat ions (e.g. NGOs, univ. etc.) …by for profit organisation s (e.g. corporate land-owners ) Indigenous bio- cultural areas & Territories- declared and run by Indigenous Peoples Community Conserved Areas - declared and run by traditional peoples and local communities I - Strict Nature Reserve/ Wilderness Area II – National Park (ecosystem protection; protection of cultural values) III – Natural Monument IV – Habitat/ Species Management V – Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI – Managed Resource

13 Type Characterisation as part of the formal PA systems Governance by governmentClassic approach—state owned and controlled Governance by indigenous peoples and local communities (ICCAs) New – voluntary conservation Governance by private property owners New – voluntary conservation Shared governance Some elements are new – e.g. partnerships with communities, NGOs, private individuals and corporations IUCN Guidelines for PA Legislation, (Lausche and Burhenne, 2011) "conservation of nature” is a positive phenomenon, embracing human- originated protection, maintenance, sustainable use, restoration, and enhancement of the natural environment (World Conservation Strategy, 1980)

14 Conservation in the landscape/ seascape …a variety of area-based phenomena contribute to coverage and connectivity— formal protected areas, but also the Aichi target 11 “ other effective area- based conservation measures” (including voluntary conservation such as ICCAs and private conserved areas that may or may not wish to be included in protected area systems). Voluntary conservation is expanding and strengthening governance of biodiversity and natural resources. Appropriately recognised and supported, it can indeed render conservation a more powerful, more equitable and more resilient phenomenon.


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