Levels of governance What UNESCO wants What the government should do Management at site level
Players in UNESCO World Heritage System World Heritage General Assembly World Heritage Committee World Heritage Centre Advisory Bodies –IUCN –ICOMOS –ICCROM States Parties UNESCO National Commissions
UNESCO Convention recognises that responsibility for site management rests primarily with national authorities. Operational Guidelines say: 96. Protection and management of World Heritage properties should ensure that the outstanding universal value, the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity at the time of inscription are maintained or enhanced in the future. 97. All properties inscribed on the World Heritage List must have adequate long-term legislative, regulatory, institutional and/or traditional protection and management to ensure their safeguarding. This protection should include adequately delineated boundaries. Similarly States Parties should demonstrate adequate protection at the national, regional, municipal, and/or traditional level for the nominated property. ….. 98. …….States Parties should also assure the full and effective implementation of such measures.
Importance of local involvement 12. States Parties to the Convention are encouraged to ensure the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders, including site managers, local and regional governments, local communities, non- governmental organizations (NGOs) and other interested parties and partners in the identification, nomination and protection of World Heritage properties. 39. A partnership approach to nomination, management and monitoring provides a significant contribution to the protection of World Heritage properties and the implementation of the Convention. 40. Partners in the protection and conservation of World Heritage can be those individuals and other stakeholders, especially local communities, governmental, non-governmental and private organizations and owners who have an interest and involvement in the conservation and management of a World Heritage property.
Importance of local involvement 123. Participation of local people in the nomination process is essential to enable them to have a shared responsibility with the State Party in the maintenance of the property. States Parties are encouraged to prepare nominations with the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders, including site managers, local and regional governments, local communities, NGOs and other interested parties.
Serial Sites 137. Serial properties will include component parts related because they belong to: a) the same historico – cultural group; b) the same type of property which is characteristic of the geographical zone; c) the same geological, geomorphological formation, the same biogeographic province, or the same ecosystem type; and provided it is the series as a whole – and not necessarily the individual parts of it – which are of outstanding universal value. 114. In the case of serial properties, a management system or mechanisms for ensuring the co-ordinated management of the separate components are essential and should be documented in the nomination
Transnational Sites 134. A nominated property may occur: a) on the territory of a single State Party, or b) on the territory of all concerned States Parties having adjacent borders (transboundary property). 135. Wherever possible, transboundary nominations should be prepared and submitted by States Parties jointly in conformity with Article 11.3 of the Convention. It is highly recommended that the States Parties concerned establish a joint management committee or similar body to oversee the management of the whole of a transboundary property. World Heritage Centre now proposing that common management systems should be stronger and that (eg) In Danger Listing should apply to whole transnational site if one part is in danger
Government Role (all levels) Responsibility often split between national, regional and local levels (eg spatial planning) Can be split between ministries – –natural heritage = environment ministry –cultural heritage = culture ministry What is the role of the UNESCO National Commission? How does national government exercise its responsibilities for the Convention if development control is done at regional or local level?
The Advisory Bodies Convention established 3 Advisory Bodies: –IUCN –ICOMOS –ICCROM IUCN + ICOMOS have national committees in most countries (ICOMOS in all Nordic countries, IUCN in all except Norway) How might they be involved in site management
Factors affecting site governance Constitutional nature of state National heritage protection system(s) Local heritage management system(s) Range of key stakeholders who need to be involved Different national management approaches – eg direct government, trusts etc Ownership structure of each site
Conclusion No right or wrong solution for all sites Solution for each site will depend on: Government structure nationally and locally Ownership of site Range and power of stakeholders What actually works in practice
Working Group Discussion Who controls your site? Who is the managing authority? Who should develop the Management Plan for your site? What management structure would best suit your site? How should stakeholders be involved in your site? What should be the role of your national heritage agency?