3The atmosphere consists of several layers The tropospheremiles above sea levelThe stratosphere11 to 30 miles above the earth’s surfaceOzone (O3) layer, found roughly 11–19 miles above sea level.
4Air pollution comes from natural and human sources Primary pollutants are harmful chemicals emitted directly into the air from natural processes and human activities.Secondary pollutants react with one another and with other normal components of air to form new harmful chemicals, called secondary pollutants.
5CH4 and most other hydrocarbons Primary PollutantsSecondary PollutantsCOCO2NO2SO2NONOSO3CH4 and mostother hydrocarbonsHNO3H2SO4Most suspended particlesH2O2O3PANsMost NO3– and SO42– saltsNatural SourceStationaryHuman SourceFigure 15.3: Human inputs of air pollutants come from mobile sources (such as cars) and stationary sources (such as industrial, power, and cement plants). Some primary air pollutants react with one another and with other chemicals in the air to form secondary air pollutants.Human SourceMobileFig. 15-3, p. 377
6What are the major outdoor air pollutants? Primary sourcesCarbon oxidesCarbon dioxidesNitrogen oxidesNitrogen dioxidesSulfur dioxidesParticulates (SPM)Secondary sourcesH2SO4 (aerosols)Nitric and sulfate saltsOzoneVOC’s
7Sunlight plus cars equals photochemical smog Photochemical smog is a mixture of primary and secondary pollutants & UV radiation from the sun.(Inversion Layer)
8Acid deposition, which consists of rain, snow, dust, or gas with a pH lower than 5.6, is commonly called acid rain
15Numerous indoor air pollutants are found in most modern homes
16We can use the marketplace to reduce outdoor air pollution Allow producers of air pollutants to buy and sell government air pollution shares in the marketplace.The Clean Air Act of 1990 authorized an emissions trading, or cap-and-trade, program, enabled coal-burning power plants to buy and sell SO2 pollution rights.Each plant is annually given a number of pollution credits, which allow it to emit a certain amount of SO2.A utility that emits less than its allotted amount has a surplus of pollution credits which it can use to offset SO2 emissions at its other plants, keep for future plant expansions, or sell to other utilities or private parties.
17How might the earth’s climate change in the future? Section 15-4How might the earth’s climate change in the future?
18Estimated global average temperatures and average temperature change
19Human activities emit large quantities of greenhouse gases A natural process called the greenhouse effect occurs when some of the solar energy absorbed by the earth radiates into the atmosphere as infrared radiation (heat).Four greenhouse gases absorb the heat which warms the lower atmosphere and the earth’s surface, helping to create a livable climate.Water vapor (H2O).Carbon dioxide (CO2).Methane (CH4).Nitrous oxide (N2O).
20Comparing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the atmosphere’s average temperature, 1880–2009
21Much of Alaska’s Muir Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park melted between 1948 and 2004
22Satellite data shows a 39% drop in the average cover of summer arctic sea ice between 1979 and 2010
23How CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels in selected countries increased between 1965 and 2009
24What are some possible effects of a warmer atmosphere? Section 15-5What are some possible effects of a warmer atmosphere?
25Enhanced atmospheric warming could have severe consequences A 2003 U.S. National Academy of Sciences report laid out a nightmarish worst-case scenario in which human activities trigger new and abrupt climate and ecological changes that could last for thousands of years.Ecosystems collapsing.Floods in low-lying coastal cities.Forests consumed in vast wildfires.Grasslands, dried out from prolonged drought, turning into dust bowls.Rivers and supplies of drinking and irrigation water could dry up.
26Enhanced atmospheric warming could have severe consequences Premature extinction of up to half of the world’s species.Prolonged droughts.More intense and longer-lasting heat waves.More destructive storms and flooding.Much colder weather in some parts of the world.Rapid spread of some infectious tropical diseases.
27If the average sea level rises by 1 meter (3 If the average sea level rises by 1 meter (3.3 feet), the areas shown in red in Florida will be flooded
28The orange-colored trees are those that are dead or dying—killed by mountain pine beetles
29Areas in blue show counties in 28 U. S Areas in blue show counties in 28 U.S. states where one or both species of mosquitoes that transmit dengue fever have been found as of 2005
30Section 15-7How have we depleted ozone in the stratosphere and what can we do about it?
31Our use of certain chemicals threatens the ozone layer A layer of ozone in the lower stratosphere keeps about 95% of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV-A and UV-B) radiation from reaching the earth’s surface.Measurements show considerable seasonal depletion (thinning) of ozone concentrations in the stratosphere above Antarctica and the Arctic and a lower overall ozone thinning everywhere except over the tropics.Ozone depletion in the stratosphere poses a serious threat to humans, other animals, and some primary producers (mostly plants) that use sunlight to support the earth’s food webs.
32A massive ozone thinning over Antarctica during several months in 2009
33Our use of certain chemicals threatens the ozone layer Problem began with the discovery of the first chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) in 1930 and later Freon.Popular non-toxic, inexpensive coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators, propellants in aerosol spray cans, cleaners for electronic parts such as computer chips, fumigants for granaries and ship cargo holds, and gases used to make insulation and packaging.CFCs are persistent chemicals that destroy the ozone layer.
34Why should we worry about ozone depletion? More biologically damaging UV-A and UV-B radiation will reach the earth’s surface.Causes problems with human health, crop yields, forest productivity, climate change, wildlife populations, air pollution, and degradation of outdoor materials.
36What are solid waste and hazardous waste, and why are they problems? Section 16-1What are solid waste and hazardous waste, and why are they problems?
37We throw away huge amounts of useful things and hazardous materials No waste in natural world because wastes of one organism become nutrients for others as a natural recycling of nutrients occurs.Modern humans produce huge amounts of waste that go unused and pollute.Solid waste—any unwanted or discarded material we produce that is not a liquid or a gas.Industrial solid waste produced by mines, agriculture, and industries that supply people with goods and services.Municipal solid waste (MSW), consisting of the combined solid waste produced by homes and workplaces.
39We throw away huge amounts of useful things and hazardous materials Classes of hazardous wastes are:Organic compoundsVarious solvents, pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins.Nondegradable toxic heavy metalsLead, mercury, and arsenic.Highly radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons facilities.
40How should we deal with solid waste? Section 16-2How should we deal with solid waste?
41We can burn or bury solid waste or produce less of it Waste management in which we attempt to manage wastes in ways that reduce their environmental harm without seriously trying to reduce the amount of waste produced.Waste reduction (produce much less waste and pollution), and the wastes we do produce are considered to be potential resources that can be reused, recycled, or composted.Integrated waste management—a variety of strategies for both waste reduction and waste management.
43Produce Less Hazardous Waste Change industrial processes to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste productionRecycle and reuse hazardous wasteConvert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous SubstancesNatural decompositionIncinerationThermal treatmentChemical, physical, and biological treatmentDilution in air or waterPut inPerpetual StorageLandfillUnderground injection wellsSurface impoundmentsUnderground salt formationsStepped ArtFig , p. 422
44Three big ideasThe order of priorities for dealing with solid waste should be to produce less of it, reuse, and recycle as much of it as possible and safely burn or bury what is left.The order of priority for dealing with hazardous waste should be to produce less of it, reuse or recycle it, convert it to less-hazardous material, and safely store what is left.We need to view solid wastes as wasted resources and hazardous wastes as materials that we should not be producing in the first place.