5 Causes of Water Pollution Factors that contribute to water pollution can be categorized into two different groups:Point sourcesNon-point sourcesPoint sources are the easiest to identify and control.Non-point sources are ambiguously defined and harder to control.
6 Point Sources Some point sources of water pollution include: Waste products from factoriesWaste from sewage systemWaste from power plantsWaste from underground coalminesWaste from oil wellsThey are called point sources because they are direct sources of water pollution and can be reduced and monitored.
8 Non-Point SourcesThe term non-point source encompasses a large range of sources such as:When rain or snow moves through the ground and picks up pollutants as it moves towards a major body of waterThe runoff of fertilizers from farm animals and crop landAir pollutants getting washed or deposited to EarthStorm water drainage from lawns, parking lots, and streets
9 Causes of Air Pollution One of the main causes of air pollution is the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere; this happens because of deforestation and fossil fuel burning.Sulfur dioxide is another air polluter and is released into the atmosphere by the burning of sulfur containing compounds of fossil fuels. Sulfur oxides are very dangerous to humans at a high concentration. Sulfur in the atmosphere is responsible for acid rain.
10 More Causes of Air Pollution: CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also contribute to air pollution by reducing the amount of ozone the stratosphere. CFCs come from a variety of places such as:The burning of plastic foam itemsLeaking refrigerator equipmentSpray cans
11 Natural Air Pollutants Natural air pollutants can include:Smoke from wild firesMethane released from live stockVolcanic eruptions
12 Consequences of Air Pollution CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but it also partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the Earth into space, which produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night.Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surfaceCO2 in atmosphere GLOBAL WARMING
13 Acid RainWhen emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from stationary sources are transported long distances by winds, they form secondary pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid vapor, and droplets containing solutions of sulfuric acid, sulfate, and nitrate salts.These chemicals descend to the Earth's surface in wet form as rain or snow and in dry form as a gases fog, dew, or solid particles; it is known as acid rain or acid deposition.
15 SmogWith the introduction of petroleum to replace coal economies in countries, photochemical smog has become predominant in many cities, which are located in sunny, warm, and dry climates with many motor vehicles.Worst episodes of photochemical smog tends to occur in summer.
17 Consequences Continued Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and peroxyacl nitrates (PANs), cause direct damage to leaves of crop plants and trees when they enter leaf pores (stomates).Chronic exposure of leaves and needles to air pollutants can also break down the waxy coating that helps prevent excessive water loss and damage from diseases, pests, drought, and frost.
18 Consequences Continued "In the midwestern United States, crop losses of wheat, corn, soybeans, and peanuts from damage by ozone and acid deposition amount to about $5 billion a year". (Miller 498)
19 Causes of Land Pollution Four main causes of land pollution:ConstructionAgricultureDomestic wasteIndustrial Waste
20 ConstructionBuildings take up resources and land; the trees are chopped down and used to make buildings.Takes away from places for animals and other organisms to live
21 AgricultureAs there are more and more people inhabiting the Earth, food is in higher demand, so forests are chopped down and turned into farmland.In addition, herbicides, pesticides, artificial fertilizers, and animal manure (poop) are washed into the soil and pollute it.
22 Domestic WasteTons of domestic waste is dumped every day. Some waste from homes, offices, and industries can be recycled or burnt in incinerators.There is still a lot of garbage, such as refrigerators and washing machines, that are dumped in landfills simply because they cannot be reused in anyway, nor recycled.
23 Industrial WastePlastics factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal farms, coal-fired power plants, metals production factories, and other heavy industries all contribute to land pollution.
24 Consequences of Land Pollution Land pollution exterminates wildlife.Acid rain kills trees and other plants.Vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed.Land pollution can seriously disrupt the balance of nature and in extreme cases, can cause human fatalities.Pesticides can damage crops, kill vegetation, and poison birds, animals, and fish. Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended. For example, pesticides used in an effort to control or destroy undesirable vegetation and insects often destroy birds and small animals. Some life forms develop immunity to pesticides used to destroy them.