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Wybrane działy fizyki Renewable energy Odnawialne źródła energii Źródło: Wikipedia.

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Presentation on theme: "Wybrane działy fizyki Renewable energy Odnawialne źródła energii Źródło: Wikipedia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wybrane działy fizyki Renewable energy Odnawialne źródła energii Źródło: Wikipedia

2 Odnawialne źródła energii – źródła energii, których używanie nie wiąże się z długotrwałym ich deficytem, ich zasób odnawia się w krótkim czasie. Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished (uzupełniać)).

3 Energia wodna Energia słoneczna Energia wiatrowa Energia pływów morskich i energia cieplna oceanów Biomasa Energia geotermalna Hydroelectricity Solar energy Wind power Tidal power, Wave power, Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) Biomass (Biofuel, Biogas) Geothermal energy Renewable energy

4 Hydroelectricity Hydropower, hydraulic power, hydrokinetic power or water power -is power that is derived from the force or energy of moving water, which may be harnessed (zaprzęgać, wykorzystywać) for useful purposes. A conventional dammed-hydro facility (udogodnienie; urządzenie) (hydroelectric dam) is the most common type of hydroelectric power generation. Prior to (przed) the development of electric power, hydropower was used for irrigation (nawadnianie), and operation of various machines, such as watermills (młyn wodny), textile machines, sawmills (tartak), dock cranes (dźwig portowy), and domestic lifts (winda domowa). nabór rurociąg zasilający

5 Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington. The dam supplies four power stations with an installed capacity of 6,809 MW and is the largest electric power- producing facility in the United States.

6 Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as: -using wind turbines to make electricity, -windmills for mechanical power, -windpumps for water pumping or drainage (odwadnianie), -or sails (żeglować) to propel (napędziać) ships. The total amount of economically extractable power available from the wind is considerably (znaczny) more than present power use from all sources. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels (paliwo kopalniane), is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, and the cost per unit of energy produced is similar to the cost for new coal and natural gas installations. Wind Turbines located outside of Palm Springs, California Wind power

7 Solar energy Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Monocrystalline solar cell. Solar powered (napędzany) electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines (silnik). Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture (wychwytać), convert and distribute solar energy.

8 Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture the sun's energy. When the plants are burnt, they release the sun's energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. In general there are two main approaches to using plants for energy production: growing plants specifically for energy use, and using the residues from plants that are used for other things. The best approaches vary from region to region according to climate, soils and geography. Biomass

9 Shown a typical Petrobras gas station at São Paulo with dual fuel service, marked A for alcohol (ethanol) and G for gasoline. Brazil has bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country.

10 Moc - cała Polska ( MW) Wiatr 553 = 100% Biomasa 232 = 100% Biogaz 65 = 100% Woda 944 = 100% Mapa Odnawialnych Źródeł Energii w Polsce Źródło: Opracowanie PSEW (Polskie Stowarzyszenie Energetyki Wiatrowej) na podstawie danych URE (Urząd Regulacji Energetyki). Procentowe rozmieszczenie mocy technologii OZE (Odnawialne Źródła Energii) w poszczególnych województwach Polski. Stan na

11 kWh/m kWh/m kWh/m kWh/m 2 Administracyjna mapa Polski z średniorocznym rozdziałem napromieniowania słonecznego (w kWh/m 2 na płaszczyznę poziomą) Energia wiatru Elektrownie wodne

12 Tidal power, also called tidal energy, - is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Tidal power is extracted from the Earth's oceanic tides; tidal forces are periodic variations in gravitational attraction exerted by celestial bodies (ciał niebieskich). These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the world's oceans. The magnitude and character of this motion reflects the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth, the effects of Earth's rotation, and local geography of the sea floor and coastlines. Variation of tides over a day Tidal power

13 Geothermal energy is energy obtained by trapping (pułapkowanie) the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths, as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal energy Ultimately (ostatecznie), this energy derives from (wywodzić się z) heat in the Earth's core. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites.

14 A heat engine gives greater efficiency and power when run with a large temperature difference. In the oceans the temperature difference between surface and deep water is greatest in the tropics, although still a modest 20 o C to 25 o C. It is therefore in the tropics that OTEC offers the greatest possibilities. OTEC has the potential to offer global amounts of energy that are 10 to 100 times greater than other ocean energy options such as wave power[citation needed]. OTEC plants can operate continuously providing a base load supply for an electrical power generation system. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface ocean waters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity. Ocean thermal energy

15 OTEC diagram and applications

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