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Computers in Our World Chapter 2 Computers in Government, Law Enforcement, and the Military.

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Presentation on theme: "Computers in Our World Chapter 2 Computers in Government, Law Enforcement, and the Military."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computers in Our World Chapter 2 Computers in Government, Law Enforcement, and the Military

2 2 Introduction Computers and the Government –Electoral process, postal services, census, and taxes Computers in Law Enforcement –Evidence and criminal record databases, traffic violations, stolen vehicles, missing children, wireless 911 Computers and Homeland Security –Tracking visitors, surveillance, crisis management Computers in the Military –Devices that observe and explore dangerous areas, tracking troop movement, computer simulations

3 3 Computers and the Government Streamline office functions Make information publicly available Handle processing of applications and forms Analyze and store data and statistics Manage budgets and payrolls

4 4 Governmental Uses of Computers

5 5 The Election Process Campaign polling –Often done electronically –Results are analyzed using software applications –Demographic groups are specifically targeted Voters and candidates can research online –Candidate’s Web site –Voting records –Campaign finance databases –News sources

6 6 Computerized voting systems

7 7 Direct Recording Electronic machines

8 8 United States Postal Service Uses an optical character recognition (OCR) system –Translates characters into digital images –Looks up addresses in a database –Applies a POSTNET bar code Routes mail using a bar code sorter Provides customer service and products on its Web site –Calculate shipping costs, buy stamps, hold and forward mail, change address

9 9 Census Bureau Optical mark recognition system scans data Computers tabulate data It is predicted that computers will be used for the next census –To store contact information for people who have not filled out census forms –To have the ability to input data electronically Census statistics are available to the public online

10 10 Internal Revenue Service Tax preparation software desktop or on the web is available to guide taxpayers through the process of filing taxes –Asks questions and fills out the forms automatically based on the answers Forms may be mailed or submitted electronically through the IRS e-File system Refunds may be given via direct deposit IRS Web site provides comprehensive information –Recent tax news for specific demographic groups –Forms for downloading –Tracking of refunds

11 11 Tax Preparation Software

12 12 Computers In Law Enforcement Officers today usually have a laptop available in their vehicles with wireless Internet to –Write tickets –Fill out accident reports –Complete routine police work –Download criminal and driving records from databases –Check license plate registrations –Retrieve information from headquarters while on the road

13 13 Tracking Evidence Police may enter documentation about evidence into a handheld computer –Wirelessly transmits the information to an evidence database –Prints out a bar code sticker that is placed on the physical evidence DNA evidence is stored in the CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) database –Forensic and offender indexes Fingerprint evidence is stored in the AFIS (Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System) database –Fingerprint images are scanned electronically

14 14 Storing Criminal Records NCIC (National Crime Information Center) –FBI database of criminal justice information –Officers check subject’s previous record after arrest NICS (National Instant Criminal Background Check System) –FBI system to help gun dealers perform background checks on potential buyers –Dealer calls the Bureau of Identification to run a query on several databases

15 15 Online Criminal Database

16 16 Enforcing Traffic Laws Red-light systems use computer technology to catch drivers who run red lights –Cameras are positioned at intersection corners –A sensor loop triggers if a car moves over a certain speed –The software activates the cameras to take photos –The software then creates a record with the time, location, and the photos, and –a citation is sent to the offender Traffic violation fines may often be accessed and paid online

17 17 Online Payment of Traffic Violations

18 18 Tracking Stolen Vehicles LoJack is a stolen vehicle recovery system –A wireless radio-frequency transmitter is placed in the car –The vehicle identification number of a stolen vehicle is checked against the NCIC (National Crime Information Center) –A signal can be sent to the device, which much like a GPS reports its exact location / a map can be created Key pass theft system –Uses a motion sensor and uniquely coded key pass to detect unauthorized motion of a vehicle

19 19 Finding Missing Children Amber Alert system –Immediately notifies public for help in recovering missing children –Uses EAS (Emergency Alert System) technology –EAS broadcasts alert on radio and television –Alerts can be displayed on dynamic message signs on highways –NCMEC (National Center for Missing and Exploited Children) provides alerts via , mobile phone, pager, or AOL Instant Messenger

20 20

21 21 Providing Wireless 911 Enhanced 911 (E-911) displays phone number and address information on operator’s computer –The ANI (automatic number identifier) and ALI (automatic location identifier) databases provide the information ANI and ALI does not work with cell phones FCC (Federal Communications Commission) requires that all cell phone providers equip phones with GPS (global positioning system) receivers –GPS receiver receives signals from GPS satellite –Computer links this information to the ALI database

22 22 VeriChip Implantable microchip that stores personal information Useful for tracking people with illnesses or in danger Raises privacy and legal issues

23 23 Computers and Homeland Security The U.S. VISIT system is being implemented to identify fake documents –U.S. VISIT (Visitor and Immigrant Status Indication) is a database of biometric identifiers Foreign students must provide personal information to the SEVIS system –SEVIS (Student and Exchange Visa Information Service) is an Internet-based database to verify enrollment –Some criticism exists due to lack of privacy

24 24 Homeland Security, cont. Surveillance using computer vision systems –U.S.-Canadian border uses digital camera at ports of entry to detect unusual movements –Artificial intelligence algorithms implemented in software are used to analyze data from cameras –Alerts are sent electronically Managing crises through collaboration –Web-based collaboration systems help track and manage events during a crisis –Information can be shared and viewed in real-time

25 25 Real-time Computerized Incidence Maps

26 26 Computers in the Military The military is constantly working to improve technologies for equipment and systems Wars and conflicts have historically brought new products into commercial use by citizens Recent trends use advanced computer technology –GPS (global positioning system) technology for navigation and weapons –Rugged laptops with wireless technologies for troop communication –Computer simulations for training

27 27 Deploying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Used to gather intelligence in crowded areas Day or nighttime surveillance Lightweight, remote-controlled drones –GPS for determining location –Chemical-agent detector –Color or night vision miniature camera Relays live images to video recorder or ground receiver May be used by police, oil companies, or news organizations in the future

28 28 Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

29 29 Using Remote-Controlled Robots Used in small or hazardous locations React to their environment through detectors –Cameras –Microphones –Sonar and infrared sensors –Laser scanners –Radio antenna and wireless network router New robots are being developed to steer vehicles without human help –Used to deliver humanitarian aid or retrieve troops

30 30 PackBot

31 31 Utilizing Precision-Guided Bombs Smart bombs are guided to their targets using satellite-guidance capability –Intended to maximize damage to the target and minimize civilian casualties and collateral damage –Uses GPS to determine location –Still human intelligence is used to double check Mapping of location and to entering coordinates

32 32 Smart bomb

33 33 Tracking Troop Movement GPS is used to track troop movement –Helps troops accurately determine their location and the enemy’s position –Coordinates actions of different units on the ground, in the air, or at sea –Provides better rescue and response –Used to drop cargo packages from the air Also, GPS jamming systems are being developed to reduce effectiveness of enemy GPS guidance systems

34 34 Using Computer Simulation for Training Live training with military equipment is expensive and dangerous –Computer simulations used instead for training without the associated risks and costs Software simulates battle scenarios –Military vehicles –Battle fields –Could be repeated for practice, feedback, or analysis –The software is built using expert assumptions and existing algorithms

35 35 Conclusion Uses of computers and technology in –Government Electoral process, USPS, Census Bureau, IRS –Law Enforcement Evidence and criminal record databases Traffic laws, missing children, wireless911 calls –Homeland Security Crisis management, surveillance of borders –Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, remote-controlled robots, smart bombs, computer simulations


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