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Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Tenth Edition Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Tenth Edition Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Tenth Edition Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2 Technology in Action Chapter 5 System Software: The Operating System, Utility Programs, and File Management Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 Chapter Topics Operating System Fundamentals What the Operating System Does The Boot Process: Starting Your Computer The Windows Interface Organizing Your Computer: File Management Utility Programs Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2

4 Understanding System Software Operating System Fundamentals Two basic types of software –Application software is used to do everyday tasks at home and work. –System software is the set of programs that helps run the computer Operating system is a group of programs that controls how a computer system functions. Utility programs are small programs that perform many general housekeeping tasks. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 3

5 Understanding System Software Operating System Fundamentals (cont.) Categorized by type of device in which they are installed –Mainframes –Network computers –Personal computers –Mobile devices –Robots Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4

6 Understanding System Software Operating System Fundamentals (cont.) Operating System Fundamentals (cont.) –Modern operating systems allow multitasking –Windows and OS X provide networking capabilities –Operating systems can be categorized by type Robots and specialized equipment Mainframes and network computers Mobile devices Personal computers Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5

7 Understanding System Software Real-Time Operating Systems Used for machinery that performs a repetitive series of specific tasks in an exact amount of time Require minimal user interaction –Car engines –Medical devices –Common appliances –Robotic cameras Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6

8 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Networks, Servers, and Mainframes Multiuser operating system enables more than one user to access the computer at one time Networks require a multiuser operating system Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7

9 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Networks, Servers, and Mainframes (cont.) Manage all user requests, ensuring they do not interfere with each other Examples include Windows Server, Linux, and UNIX Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8

10 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Networks, Servers, and Mainframes (cont.) UNIX is a…. –Multiuser, multitask operating system –Network operating system used primarily with mainframes –A brand that belongs to The Open Group –Any vendor who meets requirements can use the UNIX name and can modify the code to run specifically on their hardware Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9

11 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Mobile Devices Smartphones do more than let user make and answer phone calls Include productivity, media player, camera features, and Web connectivity Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10

12 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Mobile Devices (cont.) Most modern smartphones have modest multitasking capabilities –Check while making phone call Gaming systems and personal media players require system software developed for the device Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11

13 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Personal Computers Top three operating systems –Windows –Max OS X –Linux Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12

14 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.) Windows –Multitasking capabilities –Networking capabilities –Windows 8 includes ability to use touch commands on touch-screen monitors Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13

15 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.) Mac OS: In 1984, first commercially available OS to incorporate a GUI Mountain Lion adds features: Messages, reminders, notes, and a notification center Mac OS X based on UNIX Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 14

16 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.) Linux –Open source OS –Personal computer and network OS –Reputation as a stable OS –Can be modified or updated quickly –Available for download as distros Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 15

17 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.) Platform: Combination of an OS and processor Windows and Linux run on most hardware sold today Application software is OS dependent Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16

18 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.) More than one OS can run on one computer –Boot Camp utility in OS X –Parallels or VMware Fusion for Windows –Partition hard drive in Windows Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 17

19 Understanding System Software Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.) Cloud based OS –Prototypes are being developed –Still need a computer, operating system, and web browser –Enables users to access applications and content via the web anywhere, on any machine, and at any time –Google is taking steps toward developing a complete web-based operating system Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 18

20 What the Operating System Does Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 19 OS: Coordinates and directs the flow of data and information through the computer system

21 What the Operating System Does The User Interface Enables user to interact with the computer Types of interfaces –Command-driven interface –Menu-driven interface –Graphical user interface (GUI) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 20

22 What the Operating System Does The User Interface (cont.) Graphical user interface (GUI) –Used in Windows and Mac OS –Linux: No single default GUI interface; users choose GNOME KDE Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 21

23 What the Operating System Does Processor Management CPU usually is asked to perform several tasks at once OS arranges for execution of all activities Assigns a slice of time to each activity Switches among processes millions of times a second Appears that everything is happening seamlessly Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 22

24 What the Operating System Does Processor Management (cont.) Event: Created by keystrokes, mouse clicks, and printer and drive signals; requires OS to respond –Sequentially or concurrently –OS switches back and forth Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 23

25 What the Operating System Does Processor Management (cont.) Interrupt: unique signal generated by the printer Interrupt handler: prioritizes the requests Preemptive multitasking: the OS processes tasks assigned a higher priority before processing a task assigned a lower priority Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 24

26 What the Operating System Does Processor Management (cont.) When OS receives interrupt, it suspends current activity and creates memo in the stack OS coordinates activities for peripheral devices –OS puts request in buffer –Requests wait in buffer for the spooler – a program that helps coordinate all print jobs Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 25

27 What the Operating System Does Memory and Storage Management OS uses RAM as a temporary storage area for instructions and data Processor accesses these instructions and data from RAM when it needs them OS is responsible for coordinating space allocation in RAM Clears item from RAM when processor no longer needs them Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 26

28 What the Operating System Does Virtual Memory RAM has limited capacity When RAM is full, instructions and data are stored on the hard drive Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 27

29 What the Operating System Does Virtual Memory (cont.) Borrowing hard drive space is called virtual memory –Swap file –Paging –Thrashing Increase RAM to avoid using virtual memory Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 28

30 What the Operating System Does Hardware and Peripheral Device Management Device drivers –Facilitate communication between device and the operating system –Translates device’s commands into commands the operating system can understand Plug and Play (PnP) –Hardware and software standard –Facilitates the installation of new hardware Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 29

31 What the Operating System Does Software Application Coordination For programs to work, they must contain code the CPU recognizes Application programming interface (API) –Blocks of code for similar procedures –Prevent redundancies in software code –Make it easier for software developers Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 30

32 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer The boot process loads the operating system into RAM Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 31

33 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Step 1: Activating BIOS CPU activates the basic input/output system (BIOS) BIOS: Program that manages the exchange of data between the OS and all the input and output devices attached to the system –Responsible for loading OS into RAM –Stored on ROM Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 32

34 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Step 2: Performing the Power-on Self-Test Power-on self test (POST): The first job BIOS performs, ensuring essential peripheral devices are attached and operational –CMOS: Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 33

35 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Step 3: Loading the OS System files – the main files of the OS Loads OS into RAM –Kernel is loaded –Kernel: Essential component of the OS Responsible for managing the processor and all components Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 34

36 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Step 4: Checking Further Configurations and Customizations Checks registry for configuration of other system components –Registry – contains all the different configurations used by the OS and other applications Authentication: Verification of login name and password Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 35

37 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Step 4: Checking Further Configurations and Customizations Windows 8 Default setting: Windows Live account - free desktop and Web-based applications from Microsoft, most of which can be accessed from a personal home page Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 36

38 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Handling Errors in the Boot Process Uninstall recently installed software –Use uninstall program or Control Panel Last Known Good Configuration Try refreshing your computer –New in Windows 8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 37

39 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Handling Errors in the Boot Process (cont.) Refresh your PC: New utility program in Windows 8 –Attempts to diagnose and fix errors –Back up PC prior to refreshing Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 38

40 The Boot Process: Starting the Computer Handling Errors in the Boot Process (cont.) During the boot process, BIOS can skip a device or improperly identify it Device won’t respond –Rebooting –Check for patches –Technical assistance Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 39

41 The Windows Interface Windows 8 –Designed for laptops, desktops, and tablet PCs –Three ways to accomplish tasks Using a mouse Touching the screen Using keystrokes –Start screen: the place where you begin all computing activities Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 40

42 The Windows Interface (cont.) Metro apps: Applications specifically designed to run on Metro interface of Windows 8 –Preinstalled: Photos, Messaging, and Calendar –Download from Windows Store –Displayed full screen –Controls and settings are contained in app bars – contains controls and settings Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 41

43 The Windows Interface (cont.) Start screen based on Windows smartphones –Customizable Charms: Special shortcuts in Windows 8 –Located on Charms bar Pinning: Adding Metro apps to Start screen –Right-click icon to remove Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 42

44 The Windows Interface (cont.) Ways to return to Start screen in Windows 8 –Press the Windows key –Display the Charms bar and click (or touch) Start –Move your cursor to the lower left corner of screen to display Start screen icon Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 43

45 The Windows Interface (cont.) Right-clicking lower left corner of screen displays quick links menu Jump List: Most recently or commonly used files or commands for an application Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 44

46 The Windows Interface (cont.) Switching between programs –Point cursor to upper left corner and drag from left –Drag thumbnail of previous program to middle of screen –Repeatedly swiping from left will scroll backward through all open programs Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 45

47 The Windows Interface (cont.) For a list of open programs –Position cursor in upper left corner until thumbnail appears –Move cursor down to display list of thumbnails: Switch list or press Alt + Tab Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 46

48 The Windows Interface (cont.) Closing Metro App –Metro apps can snap into place on left or right side of screen –Windows suspends Metro apps that aren’t displayed –Press Alt + F4 to close Metro app from within the app Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 47

49 The Windows Interface (cont.) Mac OS X and Windows aren’t compatible but similar in functionality –Programs appear in resizable windows –Use menus and icons –OS X uses a Dock instead of Start screen Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 48

50 The Windows Interface (cont.) Linux: Different distros feature different user interfaces –Most are based on familiar Windows and OS X paradigms Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 49

51 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Additional function of the operating system is to enable file management Provides an organizational structure to the computer’s contents Uses hierarchical directory structure –Folders –Libraries –Drives Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 50

52 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Organizing Your Files A file is a collection of related pieces of information stored together A folder is a collection of files A library gathers files from different locations and displays them as if they were all saved in a single folder Root directory organizes all other folders and files Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 51

53 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Organizing Your Files (cont.) Windows Explorer: Main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of computer –Shows location and contents of every drive, folder, and file –Divided into two panes Creating folders is key to organizing files Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 52

54 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders Views button offers different ways to view folders and files –Details view –Large and Extra Large Icons view –Search app – best way to search in Windows 8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 53

55 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 54

56 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Naming Files File name is the name you assign to the file when you save it –First part is similar to your first name In Windows, an extension, or file type, follows the file name and a period or dot (.) –Similar to a last name, extension identifies the application needed to read the file –Mac and Linus don’t require file extensions Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 55

57 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Naming Files (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 56

58 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Naming Files (cont.) Each OS has its own naming conventions Up to 255 characters All files must be uniquely identified Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 57

59 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Naming Files (cont.) File Save Location –Determine location of a file by its file path –File path includes drive, folders, subfolders, the file name, and the extension Path separators include a backslash (\) for Windows, or colon (:) for Mac Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 58

60 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Naming Files (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 59

61 Organizing Your Computer: File Management Working with Files File-management actions –Open –Copy –Move –Rename –Delete Recycle Bin (Windows) Trash (Mac) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 60

62 Utility Programs Small applications that perform special functions Some are incorporated into operating system –Firewall and file-compression utilities Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 61

63 Utility Programs (cont.) Stand-alone utility programs offer more features and require frequent updating –Antivirus and security programs –Freeware Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 62

64 Utility Programs Display Utilities Personalization has features to change the appearance of your desktop –Background –Screen savers –Window colors Vast array of downloadable options are available on the web Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 63

65 Utility Programs The Programs and Features Utility Installing a new program usually runs a wizard automatically that walks you through installation Delete programs by –Selecting the program’s own uninstall option –Windows uninstaller utility Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 64

66 Utility Programs File Compression Utilities Make a large file more compact Easier and faster to send files over Internet Windows has built-in file compression –Take out redundancies –Look for repeated patterns Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 65

67 Utility Programs System Maintenance Utilities Disk Cleanup removes unnecessary files –Recycle Bin –Temporary Internet files –Offline Web pages If not deleted, these files can hinder efficient performance Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 66

68 Utility Programs System Maintenance Utilities (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 67

69 Utility Programs System Maintenance Utilities (cont.) Disk Defragmenter regroups related pieces of files on the hard disk FAT – file allocation table Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 68

70 Utility Programs System Maintenance Utilities (cont.) Error-checking checks for lost files and fragments and physical errors on hard drive Use Task Manager to check on program that has stopped working or to exit nonresponsive programs Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 69

71 Utility Programs System Restore and Backup Utilities Rolls system settings back to a specific date before problems –System restore point –Made every week –Before installing software –Custom restore point Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 70

72 Utility Programs System Restore and Backup Utilities (cont.) File History utility in Windows 8 creates a duplicate of libraries, desktop, contacts, and favorites and copies it to another storage device Backup –Creates a copy of data on the hard drive to another storage device –Back up important files –Keep backup copy in safe location Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 71

73 Utility Programs How Disk Defragmenter Utilities Work Disk defragmenting: Groups together related pieces of files on the hard drive, allowing the OS to work more efficiently Defragmenting tools: Files scattered over the disk are placed together and arranged sequentially Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 72

74 Utility Programs How Disk Defragmenter Utilities Work (cont.) Windows 8: Disk defragmentation is set by default to automatically defragment the hard drive on a regular basis. Macs don’t have defragmentation utility built into the system Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 73

75 Utility Programs Accessibility Utilities Ease of Access Center –Centralized location for assistive technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 74

76 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 1.What software is included in system software? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 75

77 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 2.What are the different kinds of operating systems? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 76

78 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 3.What are the most common operating systems? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 77

79 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 4.How does the operating system provide a means for users to interact with the computer? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 78

80 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 5.How does the operating system help manage resources such as the processor, memory, storage, hardware, and peripheral devices? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 79

81 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 6.How does the operating system interact with application software? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 80

82 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 7.How does the operating system help the computer start up? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 81

83 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 8.What are the main features of the Windows interface? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 82

84 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 9.How does the operating system help you keep your computer organized? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 83

85 Chapter 5 Summary Questions 10.What utility programs are included in system software and what do they do? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 84

86 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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