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Intellectual Challenge/Disability refers to a group of disorders characterized by a limited mental capacity and difficulty with adaptive behaviors such.

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1 Intellectual Challenge/Disability refers to a group of disorders characterized by a limited mental capacity and difficulty with adaptive behaviors such as managing money, schedules and routines, or social interactions, intellectual disability originates before the age of 18 and may result from physical causes, such as autism or cerebral palsy, or from non physical causes, such as lack of stimulation and adult responsiveness.

2 Developmental Disability is a severe, long term disability that can affect cognitive ability, physical functioning, or both. These disabilities appear before age 22 and are likely to be life-long. The term “developmental disability” encompasses intellectual disability but also includes physical disabilities. Some developmental disabilities may be solely physical, such as blindness from birth. Others involve both physical and intellectual disabilities stemming from genetic or other causes, such as Down Syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome.

3 Some History Historically, people with intellectual disabilities did not live as long as others and were at increased risk for health problems. Children often died because their condition could not be diagnosed. It was common for people with intellectual disabilities to be institutionalized, and treatments were either nonexistent, ineffective, or harmful. Until the 1960s, screening methods to test newborns for many developmental disabilities were not yet available. This information pertains to the United States. Our current school population may have not had access to the medical supports from an early age.

4 Hypothyroidism For example, in the mid 1970s, more than 1,000 U.S. children each year acquired an intellectual disability shortly after birth because of hypothyroidism—the body’s failure to produce sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone, essential for normal brain development. Although the hormone could be supplied artificially, the condition typically went undiagnosed until after permanent brain damage had occurred.


6 Treatment! A large study funded by NIH in the early 1970s showed that hypothyroidism could be easily detected, and treated within two weeks after birth, before any brain damage resulted. Soon, every state required thyroid hormone screening. Each year in the United States, roughly 1,000 cases of intellectual disability due to insufficient thyroid hormone are prevented.

7 Haemophilus Influenzae

8 Meningitis In the 1970s, Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib), a bacterial disease that causes meningitis, was the leading cause of acquired intellectual disability. No means existed to prevent infection from Hib, which most often struck children from 6 months to 2 years old. On average, 1 in 10 infected children died from Hib meningitis, 1 in 3 became deaf, and 1 in 3 was left with an intellectual disability. Researchers at NIH developed a vaccine for Hib. Their work has virtually eliminated Hib meningitis from the developed world. More than 90% of all HIB infections occur in children 5 years of age or less; the peak attack rate is at 6-12 months of age.

9 Environmental Exposure Intellectual disability also can be acquired from environmental exposure. It was not known in the early 1970s that exposure to even small amounts of lead in the environment could have an adverse effect on the developing brain. At the time, more than 10 million children had blood lead levels high enough to affect their cognitive functioning. NIH-funded research linking elevated lead levels to lower intelligence test scores led to federal laws banning lead as an ingredient in paint and as an additive in gasoline, which reduced the chances that children would be exposed to this toxic metal.

10 Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems.

11 Phenylketonuria Less severe forms of this condition, sometimes called variant PKU and non-PKU hyperphenylalaninemia, have a smaller risk of brain damage. People with very mild cases may not require treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet. Babies born to mothers with PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels (women who no longer follow a low-phenylalanine diet) have a significant risk of intellectual disability because they are exposed to very high levels of phenylalanine before birth. These infants may also have a low birth weight and grow more slowly than other children. Other characteristic medical problems include heart defects or other heart problems, an abnormally small head size (microcephaly), and behavioral problems. Women with PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels also have an increased risk of pregnancy loss.

12 Phenylketonuria The occurrence of PKU varies among ethnic groups and geographic regions worldwide. In the United States, PKU occurs in 1 in 10,000 to 15,000 newborns. Most cases of PKU are detected shortly after birth by newborn screening, and treatment is started promptly. As a result, the severe signs and symptoms of classic PKU are rarely seen. BUT – the less severe ones may be there and not detected in the early infant screening.


14 TESTING??? We still have to know where to place our ID population on the reading continuum. Some children have had extensive preliminary instruction. Others have had nothing. Our goal is to place to the correct reading stage and then develop as intensive a program as is required to help the child develop to his/her fullest potential.

15 What Makes the Most Sense? For our purposes we need to look beyond just numbers and examine performance. We also have to often use the materials we have available in our district. We need to examine the level of language usage for oral usage and reading. Without language knowledge the skill of reading is not going to be acquired.

16 World-Class Instructional Design Assessment New Hampshire and Massachusetts participate in this consortium.

17 33 WIDA states

18 The WIDA Standards Standard 1 – Social & Instructional Language (SIL) English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes in the school setting. Standard 2 – Language of Language Arts (LoLA) English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. Standard 3 – Language of Mathematics (LoMA) English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Math. Standard 4 – Language of Science (LoSC) English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science. Standard 5 – Language of Social Studies (LoSS) English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium

19 Student Demographics By School System Students Demographics in Massachusetts and New Hampshire

20 WIDA ACCESS TEST For English Language Learners World Class Instructional Design and Assessment DO NOT POST THESE MATERIALS TO PUBLIC WEBSITES OR FORUMS. Contains secure and confidential information. © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners

21 WIDA versus Other Tests Rhode Island Test of Language Structures Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – IV Wiig Assessment of Basic Concepts The list goes on…… Language Testing is critical in all instances.

22 WIDA background and NCLB WIDA Mission Statement & Time Line WIDA Mission Statement & Time Line – 2001 NCLB – 2002 WIDA Grant proposal – 2005 First administered – 2007 Alt ACCESS for ESL – 2012 Amplified English Language Standards WIDA and NCLB – Federal and State mandate – K-12 – Mandatory annual score report – Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs)

23 Four Language Domains Listening ─ process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations Speaking ─ engage in oral communication in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and audiences Reading ─ process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency Writing ─ engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium

24 Levels of English Language Proficiency © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium

25 Performance Definitions © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium

26 Criteria for Performance Definitions Linguistic Complexity: Expectations of the quantity and organization of the student’s verbal response Vocabulary Usage: Expectations of the student’s use of appropriate vocabulary for grade level and proficiency level; refers to language quality Language Control: Expectations of the student’s control of English grammar, word choice in context, and the English sound system; refers to language quality © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium

27 Test Alignment with Proficiency Levels Three tiers of the ACCESS test and corresponding English Proficiency Level (EPL) © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium

28 Composite Score Weights and Administration Times Listening (15%): 25-40 min, machine scored Reading (35%): 35-45 min, machine scored Writing (35%): Up to 1 hour, rater scored Speaking (15%): Up to 15 minutes, administrator scored © 2013 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium


30 1 When did the class visit the aquarium? MarchMay November 2 What kind of animal did Ellen see? A sharkA sealAn octopus 3 What was everybody’s favorite animal? OctopusSharkSeal 4 What kinds of animals are in the aquarium? Animals that live on land Animals that live in water Animals that live in the air

31 Our Language Goal For our purposes the goal is reading. To achieve that goal we focus on the 45 phonemes of English that comprise our sound system. These phonemes when mixed in various sequences form close to 1,000,000 words. It is easier to teach the sounds, then the sound/symbol correlations, and finally the expectations of phonograms (we have about 84) than it is to try and teach sight word memorization.



34 How do we do this? Let’s look at a good theory by Lev Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1934 Work remained little known because it was banned by Stalin after Vygotsky’s death Collapse of the Soviet Union meant: – greater dialogue between the West and Russia – Vygotsky’s work translated into English

35 Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky Language and Thought For Piaget, language is a product of cognitive development. In other words, cognitive development (IV) determines language use (DV). Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes. Later language ability becomes internalised as thought and “inner speech”. Thought is the result of language. In other words, social interactions (IV) determines language use (DV).

36 Vygotsky’s Main Ideas Vygotsky is credited with developing the concept of Social Cognition (aka Social Development Theory of Learning), which proposes that: Social Interaction and culture has a dramatic impact on cognitive development. Cognitive processes (language, thought, reasoning) develop through social interaction. Learning is largely mediated by social interaction of students and "More Knowledgeable Others" (e.g. teachers, parents, coaches, peers, experts, etc.)

37 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Vygotsky centred much of his research on a phenomenon he coined as "the Zone of Proximal Development," or ZPD. Vygotsky stated: “The zone of proximal development defines those functions that have not yet matured, but are in the process (of doing so)…” “…what is the zone of proximal development today will be the actual development level tomorrow – that is, what a child can do with assistance toady she will be able to do by herself tomorrow”.

38 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) In this case “proximal” means what comes next. The idea is that a child is only able to take the next step in their cognitive development if another person – typically an adult – supports and prompts them to do so. This sort of assistance has been called scaffolding.

39 Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky Source of cognitive development Piaget believed that the most important source of cognition is the children themselves. Piaget emphasised the role of an inbuilt (biological) tendency to adapt to the environment, by a process of self- discovery and play. Vygotsky emphasised the role of culture and experience. Vygotsky believed that what drives cognitive development is social interaction – a child’s experience with other people. Culture shapes cognition.

40 Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky Language and Thought For Piaget, language is a product of cognitive development. In other words, cognitive development determines language use. Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes. Later language ability becomes internalised as thought and “inner speech”. Thought is the result of language. In other words, social interactions determines language use.

41 A Little More History In previous generations the assumption was that children with intellectual challenges had little prospect of achieving a state of self- directed knowledge acquisition. “survival reading” was the well-intentioned attempt. This was instruction in sight words to promote life skills, names of streets in the local area, and safety signs. This was very unproductive – to say the least.

42 WHY??? The unproductivity, according to current research, was due to not having taught the logic of the alphabetic system. Thus the students had little ability to generalize what they were taught to learn new (untaught) words. BUT – some new research suggests that students with intellectual challenges can, with the right instruction, actually increase their intelligence through reading!!!!! This further validates Vygotsky.

43 Exactly What Happens? Reading itself is the tool to: Powerful vocabulary growth Verbal intelligence General comprehension ability STANOVICH states: “findings on rates of progress and levels of achievement [in reading] clearly indicate that IQ does NOT set a limit on reading progress, even in extremely low IQ children.”

44 Background Knowledge We must have information already in our memory that we can successfully access so we can link what we know already to what we are learning as we read. This also motivates students to read more about a topic.

45 Results It is the interaction of students' information-processing abilities and their access to academically oriented experiences, then, that produces their academic background knowledge. Differences in these factors create differences in their academic background knowledge and, consequently, differences in their academic achievement.

46 Research Although it is true that the extent to which students will learn this new content is dependent on factors such as the skill of the teacher, the interest of the student, and the complexity of the content, the research literature supports one compelling fact: what students already know about the content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information relative to the content.

47 Take any Student If we increase her background knowledge by one standard deviation (that is, move her from the 50th to the 84th percentile), her academic achievement would be expected to increase from the 50th to the 75th percentile (see the bars on the right side of the next slide). In contrast, if we decrease her academic background knowledge by one standard deviation (that is, move her from the 50th to the 16th percentile), her academic achievement would be expected to drop to the 25th percentile. Ouch!

48 Look at the Increases!

49 How do we do this?? We acquire background knowledge through the interaction of two factors: (1) our ability to process and store information, and (2) the number and frequency of our academically oriented experiences. The ability to process and store information is a component of what cognitive psychologists refer to as fluid intelligence. As described by Cattell (1987), fluid intelligence is innate. One of its defining features is the ability to process information and store it in permanent memory. High fluid intelligence is associated with enhanced ability to process and store information. Low fluid intelligence is associated with diminished ability to process and store information.

50 HOWEVER!!! Weisberg (1988) claims that students with disabilities, as a group, demonstrate a considerable over reliance on prior knowledge when text material is inconsistent with their preconceptions. This raises another issue, which is whether a student’s educational group or disability status influences the effectiveness of prior knowledge activation strategies. Many studies included students from different educational groups, most often students with different reading levels. Their findings suggest that the effectiveness of prior knowledge activation strategies may in fact differ across different student populations.

51 As With Any Task and Any Group….. Limited memory plays a major role. HOWEVER, the mitigating factor is developing automaticity of process at every step along the continuum. New Task Practice Mastery

52 We Can Take This Into Consideration By developing an instructional format that addresses the need to move information from short-term/working memory into long- term storage we can accommodate for some memory issues.

53 SO~ Can Our ID Children Lean to Read?? Reminder: reading is an imperative skill not only during a child’s early years of education – but through a person’s lifetime. Everyone learns to read in a different manner. 50% learn through whole language methodology. 50% do not. But we do have strategies! So, the Answer is YES!

54 Lesson Plan for the First Level 20 minutes – stage zero phonology 5 to 6 minutes – alphabet 3 to 4 minutes – letter cards (sound/symbol) 3 minutes - [possibly simultaneous oral spelling] 4 to 5 minutes – handwriting 7 minutes – new letter or concept 5 minutes – reading words 3 to 5 minutes – reading sentences 5 minutes or more - comprehension

55 Orton-Gillingham Sample Alphabet Reading Deck Spelling Deck (oral) New letter or concept Handwriting (cursive) Reading words Spelling words Reading in context Verbal expression Review Listening Comprehension

56 Remember 40% of the students in classrooms across the country will not learn to read using the conventional methods of approach. These students have a variety of needs. However, we know that for 80% of those children who do experience reading challenges, according to much research, stage zero milestones have not been met.

57 Some Research Does Not Change Although some of the previous slides referenced a study done several years ago – the current research actually confirms this first study. The population we do not want to instruct using the activation of prior knowledge technique is the low IQ group. These students are unable to make the necessary adjustments to their prior knowledge as they read. Furthermore – prior knowledge is frequently very limited to begin with.

58 Remember: CAUSE-EFFECT  Failure to activate, or call to mind, an appropriate schema results in poor comprehension.  An effective teacher promotes comprehension in his or her students by providing experiences that encourage them to access relevant knowledge prior to encountering a text.  If students do not have the relevant background knowledge, then an effective teacher will help the students acquire the appropriate knowledge.

59 EVIDENCE BASED READING INSTRUCTION An integrated, systematic instruction is effective for teaching students with cognitive challenges. This means phonemic awareness and letter-sound correspondence. In other words, the same approach used to teach struggling readers is also very effective for children with low IQ scores. BUT – the progress of the low IQ score children was initially slower than the higher IQ reading disabled group.

60 Pacing The teachers who delivered the instruction to the low IQ students were highly trained interventionists. The curriculum was very explicit and systematic, delivered with fidelity, consistent, repetitive, focused on clear key skills and delivered with clear and explicit modeling. This must be done over several academic years.

61 Still Pacing Concerns have been raised by educators regarding this slow progress. While initially the progress was slow, evidence does exist to show that when the foundations were correctly laid down, the pace toward reading mastery did accelerate. In fact, when done correctly, the more difficult reading tasks did not take longer to master for the children in the low IQ range than for children in the higher IQ range.

62 That is to Say……… Children on the lower end of the IQ curve did take longer overall to learn to read; BUT, as the tasks for higher level reading became more challenging, those lower IQ children with a strong reading base did NOT have any increase in the amount of time it took to learn the new material. They were able to progress at their same pace as when they were learning how to read at the basic levels.

63 Prior Knowledge Includes…. All the necessary SCAFFOLDING to bring the ID reader along the developmental continuum. We start out, often at a very basic level, and then expand our expectations as the child moves along the continuum. Remember: ID children are always learning just as everyone else is – simply often at a slower rate.

64 What Range of ID? The research was conducted on students with IQ ranges between 40 and 69. Minimum intervention was 2 to 3 academic years as well as summer intervention. The treatment was daily, comprehensive reading instruction in small groups between 1 and 4 students. The daily time frame was a minimum of 50 minutes.

65 Communication Needs for STAGE ZERO Two task approach Phonemic awareness – Non-word blending – Phoneme recognition and analysis Single-word reading that did NOT require spoken responses

66 Phoneme Work for the Group This MUST be done in context. The goal is to integrate as much as possible into the language experience. This means that stories rather than just drill and practice must be incorporated into the lesson plans. While this can be done with an entire class; the current research states no more than FOUR ID students in the group is best practice.

67 Five critical components: Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension strategies Identifying words accurately and fluently Constructing meaning once words are identified Research indicates that students need to acquire skills and knowledge in at least five main areas in order to become proficient readers

68 NICHD and NRP National Reading Panel: Alphabetics – Phonemic awareness – phonics Fluency – Guided oral reading Comprehension – Vocabulary instruction – Comprehension instruction

69 The Alphabet The NAME Of the letter never changes even if the sound it makes does. Therefore, for strong identification of each letter alphabet instruction must occur on a DAILY basis. Over-teaching is still the rule here.

70 How Many Alphabets Do We Have? We have four. And they do not all look alike. Cursive majuscule Cursive miniscule Manuscript majuscule Manuscript miniscule

71 Rainbow

72 Placement Initial means “first” Final means “last” Medial is anything between first and last Once that concept is understood these letters serve as an anchor for the vowels. A vowel sound is open and voiced. The vowel letters are a e i o u.

73 Vowels? How many VOWEL SOUNDS are in the English language? How many sounds (phonemes) are in the English language? How many phonograms are in the English language?

74 Touch and Say Once the letters are in place the student(s) touch and say each letter. They MUST have their finger on the letter they are saying. They must NOT sing or chant the letters.

75 Practice

76 Alphabet ab___ij___qr___ bc___ jk___rs___ cd___kl___st___ de___lm___tu___ ef___mn__uv___ fg___no___vw___ gh___op___wx___ hi___pq___

77 Alphabet a__ch__jo__qv__x b__di__kp__rw__y c__ej__lq__sx__z d__fk__mr__t e__gl__ns__u f__hm__ot__v g__in__pu__w

78 Alphabet __bc__jk__rs __cd__kl__st __de__lm__tu __ef__mn__uv __fg__no__vw __gh__op__wx __hi__pq__xy __ij__qr__yz

79 Alphabet __b____i____p____w__ __c____j____q____x__ __d____k____r____y__ __e____l____s____z__ __f____m____t__ __g____n____u__ __h____o____v__

80 Alphabet a’__ch’__jo’__qv’__x b’__di__kp’__rw’__y c’__ej’__lq’__sx’__z d’__fk’__mr’__t e’__gl’__ns’__u f’__hm’__ot’__v g’__in’__pu’__w

81 At the Same Time….. We know that less than 10 minutes a day, five days a week gets us to where we want to be with alphabet knowledge far better that random or sporadic instruction. We do not move on or terminate instruction because the rest of the class is moving forward. We stay with this activity until we have the mastery we require.

82 Phonemic Awareness Always done in context. It must be fun Engaging interactive


84 First We Say It

85 One Way…. That very night in Max’s room a forest grew, and grew and grew… That very night in Max’s room a forest grew, and grew and grew…

86 Phonological Processing Skills Alphabetic languages represent language at the phoneme level (i.e. letters typically correspond to phonemes in words). Almost all poor readers have a problem with phonological processing.

87 Use Elkonin or Sound Boxes

88 sh i p c t a

89  Determine whether the problem is accuracy or fluency Look for possible patterns: oMore than 1 error every 10 words indicates a need to look at accuracy oFew errors but low rate - work on fluency oRates less than 30–40 wpm typically indicate a need for word recognition instruction If students are not firm on word recognition skills, focusing on increasing speed will be counter- productive

90 Designing Word Recognition Instruction  Identify word recognition error types  Provide systematic word recognition instruction on specific skills  Pre-teach word types in the text prior to reading  Structure time for student to practice the text with a peer, adult, or tape

91 High Frequency Word Instruction  High frequency/sight words: is, be, to, us, am, in  High frequency phrases: by the dog for the day on the bed over the top

92 Reading Decodable Text and Phrases The bad cat The bad cat sat The mad cat sat The mad cat’s hat The sad cat’s black hat The black cat’s sad dad

93 Dysfluency When the reader focuses all of his/her attention on word recognition, it drains cognitive resources, and thereby leaves little room for comprehension

94 IS it FUN??? Humor Fun to the learning task Experience the Words in CONTEXT Exposure

95 Now Where Do We Start? First: phonemes (we did this one already) Second: alphabet (been there) Third: phonograms Then we go to …….

96 Syllables! Automatic, orthographic reading ability depends on the knowledge of the six syllable types

97 ORAL LEVEL FIRST For full integration of language and reading we must make careful and deliberate linkages between oral language and the written representation of that language.

98 Syllable A syllable is a word, or part of a word, made by one opening of the mouth or one impulse of the voice. A syllable has at least one vowel sound. A monosyllable is a word of only one syllable. “Mono “means one.

99 Accent When a word or syllable is accented the mouth opens wider and the voice is louder and higher. This is where the alphabet work comes in.

100  Teacher reads the text with and without prosody  Students analyze text for clues to prosody  Students add “signals” to text  Students practice reading Prosody

101 Punctuation Use the same cards only now do them with punctuation. _____ b c? e _____g? h i _____?

102 Alphabet ab___?ij___?qr___? bc___? jk___?rs___? cd___?kl___?st___? de___?lm___?tu___? ef___?mn__?uv___? fg___?no___?vw___? gh___?op___?wx___? hi___?pq___?


104 Syllable Types – 6 of them. Closed – the VOWEL makes its short sound Open – the VOWEL makes its long sound Silent e – the word ends in the vowel/consonant/e pattern Vowel combination – also called vowel digraph – two vowel letters in the same syllable that make one sound. R-controlled – the VOWEL sound is changed by the letter R Consonant l-e at the end of the word.

105 CLOSED SYLLABLES Closed Syllables (the most frequent syllable type) Closed syllables have one vowel, followed by one or more consonants. The vowel has a short sound. (So the vowel is CLOSED in on the right side by one or more consonants.) Examples: in on cat him pot truck stick French trash

106 OPEN SYLLABLES Open Syllables An open syllable ends in one vowel and the vowel says its name (long sound). Remember: U and Y have two long sounds. U can sound like U as in (U/tah) or oo as in (flu). Y can sound like I or E as in shy or ba/by. Examples: Me So I Fly She Flu

107 VOWEL-CONSONANT-e Vowel-Consonant-E Syllables (Commonly known as silent E syllables) In this syllable type, there is a vowel followed by a consonant and silent e. The silent e makes the vowel before it say its name (long sound) Examples: hate mile hole grape

108 VOWEL DIGRAPH (VOWEL TEAM) This syllable type contains two vowels next to each other. The vowels make one sound. About fifty percent of the time, this rule will apply to double vowels: If two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking and says its name. The other vowel stays quiet. You can compare it to a bully. The first vowel shouts its name and the second one is quiet. Examples: Wait Beach Beet Play

109 R-CONTROLLED R-Controlled Syllables In r-controlled syllable types, a vowel is followed by the letter r. The r "controls" vowel, and gives it a different sound that is neither long or short. Examples: Car Bar Ar sounds like the name of the letter R. You don’t hear the A at all. Tar Er Ir Often sounds like ER as in her Ur OR sounds like the word or. Any of the R controlled syllables (ar, er, ir, or, ur) can sound like ER when it appears at the end of words and is not accented. Example: Sailor Regular Grammar

110 CONSONANT-LE Consonant-le Syllables Consonant-le syllables are normally found at the end of a word. They consist of a consonant followed by the letters le. The le sounds like UL. Examples: Tur/tle Lit/tle Sta/ble

111 CLOVER sevenmicehotdog windowtruckpaper yellowtoyselephant Closed Consonant Le Open Vowel Pair Magic E Bossy R


113 Sorting When we sort we develop orthographic strategies for classifying various groups of items. By sorting syllable types we are able to develop a systematic approach to decoding. Various sorts help students develop that necessary orthographic skill.


115 All sorts of sorts Open — student develops a rule Closed — student is given the rule Blind — oral sort, listen and classify Speed — How fast can you follow the rule? (develops automaticity) Writing — student records the words under the correct rule

116 Water ecosystem Desert ecosystem

117 swampsmarshes sand duneslittle rainfall many plantslanes and ponds few plantsbrackish water many flowerslizards salt water thorny plants riversfresh water cactusvery dry few flowersmany ferns many fishtall trees

118 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Comprehension Successful Readers Vocabulary

119 Fluency Automaticity at the lower levels leads to fluency.

120  Speed + Accuracy = Fluency  Reading quickly and in a meaningful way (prosody)  Decoding and comprehending simultaneously  Freedom from word identification problems  Fluency is derived from the Latin word fluens which means “to flow”  Smooth and effortless reading What is Fluency?

121 What is Automaticity? Automaticity is reading with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort Fundamental skills are so “automatic” that they do not require conscious attention Examples of automaticity : Shifting gears on a car Playing an instrument Playing a sport

122 What Can Inhibit Fluency?  Unfamiliarity with text  Limited vocabulary  Difficulty with syntax  Decoding breakdown


124 Who’s at risk “It is well established that children with a history of spoken language delays and difficulties are at risk for subsequent literacy problems, understanding the nature of this risk still presents an important challenge both to reading specialists and speech-language professionals.” (Snowling, 2004)

125 Vocabulary Words in Sentences Vocabulary instruction should be designed to use the words students encounter every day. The difference is that these words are used ORALLY first. This makes all the difference as most students we work with cannot transition from what they look up in an dictionary to how they are supposed to use the word in school and the world.

126 What Works in you brain? Think: “recital” What happens with a concrete word? “tiger” Do you notice an image? Do you visualize? “pusillanimous”

127 How About….? “megiza” No? “eagle” Megiza is eagle in Ojibway. Ha! Now you see – literally SEE the word! That is what has been missing all along. Without an image for meaning the oral and written symbol is meaningless.

128 Megiza

129 The image is the great instrument of instruction.

130 Dual Coding “The dual coding interpretation is straightforward. The concrete descriptive tasks require a high degree of referential exchange between the verbal and the imagery systems.” (Paivio: 1986)

131 Concrete to Abstract Three Levels 1.The REAL thing 2.The mental representation 3.The oral and written representation

132 Vocabulary Each word we teach initially should have a definition and high imagery sentences for the individual to VISUALIZE. The student then must VERBALIZE what he visualizes. The goal is for the student’s sentence to be: 1.Personal using the word in an familiar context 2.Descriptive by comparison 3.Humorous or exaggerated

133 Identifying Appropriate Text Independent reading level: – 95% accuracy – Misread one of every 20 words  50–200 words  Various genres Put Reading First 2001, p. 27

134  Read the same passage several times until the desired rate is reached  Keep reading at the same level until the same rate is reached (three times), then move on to a new level and repeat procedure  Do daily  Perform at least 3-4 repetitions of the text each day  Read with a partner Repeated Readings

135 Assisted RR (student or adult):  Child and fluent reader read aloud together  Fluent reader pushes finger along rapidly Choral RR:  Child listens to fluent reader, then read passage together Tape-assisted:  Listen to the tape  Read with the tape Put Reading First 2001, pp. 27-28 Repeated Readings (RR)

136 Partner Reading Children read in pairs One child reads the text three times The other child reviews errors and rates the reader on fluency on the third reading The children reverse roles Koskinen & Blum 1986, pp. 70-75

137 Organizing Repeated Reading Student fluency folders: – Graphs – Laminated text – Color coded Structures and routines: – Teach routines and expectations – Where to get materials

138 Some Programs

139 Sounds and Letters! Sounds and Letters Card Set: Jane Fell Greene Ed.D ISBN: 157035183XGrade: 4- 12Price: $44.49 Sounds and Letters Manual: Jane Fell Greene Ed.D ISBN: 1570351260Grade: 3- 12Price: $37.95

140 Soundations SOUNDATIONS! Games and Activities for Phonological and Phonemic Awareness with Concept Review Cards for Soundations! Review Cards are still sold separately under MTS Cost: $32.53

141 Fundations Author: Barbara Wilson A phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics and spelling program for the general education classroom. It is based upon the Wilson Reading System® principles and serves as a prevention program to help reduce reading and spelling failure. Rather than completely replace core curriculum. Fundations provides the research-validated strategies that complement installed programs to meet federal standards and serve the needs of all children. It is taught 30 minutes a day in the classroom.

142 Multi-Sensory Teaching System Author: Margaret Taylor Smith MTS addresses the phonological and phoneme awareness and direct decoding instruction components required in Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English language arts. Phonics alone is not enough. MTS addresses four of five necessary and sufficient conditions for learning to read as defined by Barbara Foorman: Phonological awareness, phoneme awareness, alphabetic principle, orthographic awareness. These four conditions plus comprehension instruction provide for a balanced reading program. MTS is not intended to be a comprehensive reading program: it is the direct instruction component for teaching phonological awareness, the alphabetic code and the structure of the language. It is intended as a failure prevention program. MTS only requires 15 to 30 instructional minutes a day.


144 Fluency On reading fluency, the NRP concluded that guided repeated oral reading had a significant impact on word recognition, reading fluency, and comprehension for students of all ages. For silent reading, another common instructional approach for fluency, more research is needed to understand what factors of independent silent reading practices affect reading fluency because while it may have some type of intuitive appeal (I would LOVE an hour a day to just read!!!) the research does NOT support it as an instructional methodology.

145 Structure of the English Language  The Greek Layer  Science  Mathematics  The Romance Layers  French  Latin  Found in Literature and Social Studies  The Anglo-Saxon Layer  Our glue layer  The foundation for the language

146 Anglo-Saxon A man loves his mother, father, brother, sister, wife, son and daughter; lifts his hand to his head, his cup to his mouth, his eye to heaven and his heart to God; hates his foes, likes his friends, kisses his kin and buries his dead; draws his breath, eats his bread, drinks his water, stands his watch, wipes his sweat, feels his sorrow, weeps his tears and sheds his blood; and all these things he thinks about and calls both good and bad.

147 Alphabet Phonics Developed by Lucius Waites, M.C. and Aylett R. Cox Based on Orton-Gillingham techniques and emphasizes intense phonetic analysis of written language. The program is presented in a structured, multi-sensory sequence of alphabet, reading and spelling. Contact: Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, 222 Welborn Street, Dallas, TX 75219: 214.559.7425

148 The Association Method A multi-sensory, phonetically based, systematic, incremental instructional program for teaching and/or refining oral and written language. uses auditory, visual, tactile and motor-kinesthetic cues for learning; use of the Northampton Symbol system for teaching sound/symbol relationships for reading; use of cursive writing for initial instruction-children learn to read manuscript, but write only in cursive; a slower temporal rate of speech is used to provide children more time to process auditory material and more time to observe the speaker's lip movements; precise articulation is required from the beginning; and color differentiation is used as an attention-getter, to differentiate phonemes within words, and to highlight verbs and new concepts in language structures. An individual child's book is made as he/she progresses through the Method. For more information contact The DuBard School for Language Disorders, University of Southern Mississippi, Box 10035, Hattisburg, MS 39406-0035. Phone 601/266-5223The DuBard School for Language Disorders

149 Tactile Cues for Speech

150 Northampton Coding Northampton Phoneme Symbols

151 Noun Vocabulary Cards Utilizing manuscript writing. The use of two colors indicates the number of phonemes in the word and where one phoneme ends and the next phoneme begins.

152 Noun Picture Cards Lines indicate the number of phonemes in the word

153 Barton Reading and Spelling System Developed by Susan Barton. The Barton System is an Orton-Gillingham based program designed for volunteer tutors in adult literacy programs. Training is provided on videotape with fully scripted lesson plans. This is important!!! Contact: Barton Reading and Spelling System, 2059 Camden Ave., Suite 186, San Jose, CA 95124, 408.559.3652,

154 Multi-sensory Teaching Approach (MTA) Developed by Margaret Taylor Smith. MTA is a comprehensive, multi-sensory program in reading, spelling, cursive handwriting, and alphabet and dictionary skills. Based on Orton-Gillingham techniques and Alphabetic Phonics. Contact: Educators Publishing Service: 800.225.5750

155 The Herman Method Developed by Renee Herman. Teaches decoding, sight words, structural analysis, contextual clues and dictionary skills with consistent emphasis on comprehension. A remedial reading program that can be taught by trained paraprofessionals. A phonetic, structured, sequential approach based on the Orton-Gillingham Contact: Romar Publications, 4700 Tyrone Ave, Sherman Oaks, CA 94123: 818.784.9566.

156 Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program (LiPS) Developed by Charles and Patricia Lindamood. LiPS offers intensive treatment to develop the ability to conceptualize sound shifts in syllables - AT THE AUDITORY LEVEL!!! Contact: Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes, 416 Higuera, San Luis Obispo, CA 9430: 800.233.1819 / 805.541.3836

157 Project READ Developed by Dr. Mary Lee Enfield and Victoria Green. Project READ is a method of teaching that is systematic, multi-sensory, concrete and involves direct instruction. A language arts program that provides an inductive instruction based reading system. This is a classroom system and incorporates many multi-sensory components. Contact: Project READ, P.O. Box 20631, Bloomington, MN 55420

158 Slingerland Approach Developed by Beth Slingerland. Based on Orton-Gillingham techniques. All learning takes place through the involvement of the Auditory, Visual and Kinesthetic motor channels. The Slingerland Approach starts with the smallest unit of sight, sound and feeling – a single letter. Expanding upon that single unit students are taught through an approach which strengthens inner-sensory association and enables the strong channel of learning to reinforce the weak. It is thorough and integrated, providing a complete language learning experience. Contact: Slingerland Institute, One Bellevue Center, 411 108th Ave. N.W., Bellevue, WA 98004, 206.453.1190

159 Wilson Reading System Developed by Barbara Wilson. The system is a 12-step remedial reading and writing program for individuals with a language-based learning disability. The system specifically teaches strategies for decoding and spelling. It also includes oral expressive language development and comprehension. Visualization techniques are used for comprehension. This is for small groups and individuals. It has many multi-sensory components. Contact: Wilson Language Training, 162 West St, Millbury, MA 01527-1943: 800.899. 8454

160 Spalding The Writing Road to Reading, forms the foundation for all elements of the language are integrated in spelling, writing, and reading lessons. Phonemic awareness Systematic phonics High-frequency vocabulary Word meanings and usages Word parts Grammar Composition Literary appreciation Text structure Fluency Listening Reading comprehension The Writing Road to Reading is often used in classrooms and by resource room teachers, adult educators as well as home educators

161 S.P.I.R.E. Appropriate Grades Pre-K–8+ By: Sheila Clark-Edmands It is designed to prevent reading failure and to build reading success through an intensive, structured, and spiraling curriculum. It integrates phonological awareness, phonics, handwriting, fluency, vocabulary, spelling, and comprehension in a 10-Step lesson plan that is specifically designed for the way struggling readers learn. This is a classroom program that can also be used in small group and with individuals.

162 Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing SMILE – Structured Methods in Language Education – is a multi-sensory program that teaches speech, reading and writing to children with severe language and communication delays, including those with hearing loss, dyslexia or autism. Unique in its engaging yet simple focus, SMILE uses expressive and receptive modalities to improve reading skills of children with severe communication challenges.

163 Oral Activities The importance of oral activities is paramount. Students need to practice complex sentences, using a variety of possible syntactic structures, among themselves and with a teacher. The vocabulary must be incorporated into this as well.

164 Phonics Cards i

165 n

166 n

167 t

168 t

169 New Letter p

170 New Concept/Letter p

171 Coding and Reading 1) dillpanttiltsip 2) niptilllilttip 3) napsillsistiff 4) tinsiftlasstap 5) pansniffladsap 6) pinstiffdaftsand 7) pillstillliftland

172 Spelling Do you hear the sound? -----------YES-------------------NO----- ------------

173 Spelling Where do you hear the sound? I M F

174 Spelling NOW you are ready to write the words! Follow the same procedure as SOS. Say the word. Student echoes the word. Identifies the sounds/letters. Sequences the sounds/letters. May have to use blocks to indicate the number of letters, or tap with fingers, or use some other tracking method. Language labels the letter, THEN he/she writes the word letter by letter. Checks (proofreads) each word by coding and checking for grammatical correctness, proper associations, word spelling formulas. ONLY GIVE WORDS that are configured with the letters, syllables, patterns that have been directly instructed. 10 to 15 spelling words EVERY DAY. The students do not know what words they will be given. We cannot hope to cover all the spelling necessary if we only gave 10 to 15 words a week. We cannot hope to develop spelling if we make the students memorize the words.

175 Unless it happens to be a sight word.

176 Starts at the oral level. Continues through to the written level. Oral telling of a story with simple illustrations, pictures, felt representations, other pictorial devices. Child then retells the story using the manipulatives. Setting, plot, conflict, characters, ascending action, climax, descending action. Language label the elements in the story and directly instruct each – using visuals and story maps. Comprehension

177 Visualizing and Verbalizing A Lindamood Bell Program This program begins at picture/oral level and develops techniques using twelve specific cue words. It expands with the cue word format from pictures to words to phrases to sentences to paragraphs and finally to passages. It can also be used for written expression using the same cue word format.

178 Techniques/Programs Developing Metacognitive Skills: Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension – Neuhaus Education Center – – This program develops the link between reading comprehension and written expression by retelling orally presented materials and texts. It uses picture prompts and webs to help children organize their thoughts.

179 The Story Grammar Marker This program was developed to two speech and language pathologists to teach multisensory linkages between oral language and written expression. It uses pictures, hand gestures, manipulatives, maps, and flow charts to facilitate sequencing and organization. It also directly teaches error correction.

180 Framing Your Thoughts Project Read at This program is designed to teach children how to write more interesting and more complex sentences that serve as a vehicle for expressing higher level concepts and thoughts.

181 LANGUAGE! Curriculum for At-Risk Students Through Grade 12 By Jane Fell Greene, Ed.D Sopris West 1140 Boston Avenue Longmont, Colorado 80501 (303) 651-2829

182 Language! Language! provides a structured, linguistic base for reading, writing, spelling, and language concepts. Content areas include: – Phonological awareness – Decoding and encoding of isolated words – Reading sentences, paragraphs, and passages for meaning – Using figurative and abstract language – Grammatical structures and Mechanics – Morphology and Vocabulary through Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and Greek roots.

183 Language! Language! provides a structured, linguistic base for reading, writing, spelling, and language concepts. Content areas include: – Phonological awareness – Decoding and encoding of isolated words – Reading sentences, paragraphs, and passages for meaning – Using figurative and abstract language – Grammatical structures and Mechanics – Morphology and Vocabulary through Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and Greek roots.

184 Great Leaps  Organized into three parts: Phonics  Phrases  Oral reading selections

185 Review of New Concept P

186 Read a Story Princess Prunella Has a Purple Peanut On Her Nose Pigs Aplenty Pigs Galore Pig Pig Gets a Job

187 Stage, Not Grade! Children should be placed in reading programs according to their actual stage and profile as readers. One size does not fit all. There is no one program for all children. REMEMBER CINDERELLA!!

188 Reading Instruction Fails When… The instruction does not target the specific nature of the deficit. Students in the group have different skills levels. The instruction is not intense enough.


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