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Aquatic Biomes Broad aquatic ecological associations can be characterized by their physical environment, chemical environment, geological features, photosynthetic.

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Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Biomes Broad aquatic ecological associations can be characterized by their physical environment, chemical environment, geological features, photosynthetic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aquatic Biomes Broad aquatic ecological associations can be characterized by their physical environment, chemical environment, geological features, photosynthetic organisms, and heterotrophs

2 97% oceans 2% glaciers 1% lakes, rivers, streams Precipitation over land Transport over land Solar energy Net movement of water vapor by wind Evaporation from ocean Percolation through soil Evapotranspiration from land Runoff and groundwater Precipitation over ocean

3 Lakes Coral reefs Rivers Oceanic pelagic and benthic zones Estuaries Intertidal zones Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn 30ºN 30ºS fresh water or salt water (marine) Oceans cover about 75% of Earth’s surface and have an enormous impact on the biosphere

4 Inland aquatics “Areas of marsh, fen, peatland, or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, static or flowing, fresh, brackish, or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 meters” International Union for the Conservation of Nature ENSC 2400 will cover the intertidal in Marine Biomes lecture

5 Running water flows down Standing water – LENTIC systems Flowing water – LOTIC systems

6 Lakes Oligotrophic lakes Eutrophic Lakes

7 Fig d A headwater stream in the Great Smoky Mountains Streams and Rivers The Mississippi River far from its headwaters Current Life Effect of damming

8 Fig c Okefenokee National Wetland Reserve in Georgia Wetlands

9 Fig f An estuary in a low coastal plain of Georgia Estuaries

10 Fig a Littoral zone Limnetic zone Photic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone Aphotic zone Rooted and floating aquatic plants live in the shallow and well-lighted littoral zone Limnetic zone is too deep

11 Stratification - Dimictic example, effects oxygen and nutrient levels in water Winter 4º 4ºC 4º Spring Summer Autumn Thermocline 4º 4ºC 4º 4ºC 2º 0º 4ºC 5º 6º 8º 18º 20º 22º

12 Hydrology and wetland diversity Climate (rainfall, temperature, seasonality) Geomorphology (soils, geology, relief) Impact defined by the water budget where the volume of water depends on Precipitation Interception Surface flow Groundwater in and outflow Tidal flow

13 Water budgets General Marsh – Borders open water (rivers, estuaries), high energy, may be tidal, no OM buildup, plenty of dissolved O2 Swamp – Occur in depressions, low energy, OM buildup – peat formation, low O2 Bog- On level ground high rain, low evaporation, low energy, organic sediment, high water table Precipitation Interception Surface flow Groundwater in and outflow Tidal flow

14 Permanence and periodicity Hydroperiod: Frequency of inundation tidal marsh groundwater fed (constant) vernal pool seasonal rapid flooding from rain or meltwater

15 Hydrology factors and results High energy Streams, rivers, tidal marshes High dissolved O2 High flushing Open cycling Erosion dominant Not much organic matter High primary productivity Benthic invertebrates Low Energy Swamps and bogs and lakes Low dissolved O2 Low flushing Closed nutrient cycling Sedimentation dominant Organic matter accumulates Variable Primary Productivity Benthic/planktonic inverts.

16 Human impacts Water removal for human use – Wetlands drained, rivers dammed, groundwater depleted – Sustainable water usage requires considering the needs of the environment – Global warming effects on montaine snow

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18 Environmental factors Light, Temperature, Dissolved O2, pH, Salinity, Nutrients, Stratification

19 Light Light penetration depth determines how deep photosynthesis can occur Penetration of light into the water depends on color of the water and turbidity – Color – caused by dissolved substances from decaying organic matter – Turbidity – from suspended materials (clay, algae) Depends on flow, erosion, rainfall rate

20 Human Impacts - Light Clearing vegetation – increased sediment, less shading, quicker photodegradation of organic matter Runoff from impermeable surfaces (roads) Nutrients in sediments cause algal blooms, clog gills, increase turbidity for other aquatic vegetation

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22 Temperature and Dissolved O2 Temperature Temperature more variable due to shallower depth Changes seasonally or daily Affects stratification, metabolism Affects dissolved O2 Human impacts include: – Tree clearing reduces shading – Warm/cold water pollution release from power plants or dams Dissolved O2 (DO) Depends on energy of system, temp, photosynthesis, and stratification Used during respiration and decomposition Fish kills occur when DO is low – Secondary human impacts due to effects on other things like temperature

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24 pH (acidity), Salinity pH Decreases due to decomposition Reduces wetland metabolism at extremes (peat or limestone bogs) Human impacts include acid rain (Nox, SO2) from power generation, acid sulfate soils in depleted waters. Lowered pH increases availability of heavy metals which then kills fish Heavy metal waters can pollute groundwater Salinity Salts – Fresh water, brackish, sea water, salt marsh, hypersaline Changes in salt concentration affect osmoregulation of animals

25 pH (acidity), Salinity pH Decreases due to decomposition Reduces wetland metabolism at extremes (peat or limestone bogs) Human impacts include acid rain (Nox, SO2) from power generation, acid sulfate soils in depleted waters. Lowered pH increases availability of heavy metals which then kills fish Heavy metal waters can pollute groundwater Salinity Salts – Fresh water, brackish, sea water, salt marsh, hypersaline Changes in salt concentration affect osmoregulation of animals Human impacts: secondary salinity (removal of deeper rooted perennials with shallow rooted annuals, or through irrigation ) causes salts from the soil to rise and stay in surface soil. Then runoff adds salinity to waterways.

26 Fig c Decomposers N 2 in atmosphere Nitrification Nitrifying bacteria Nitrifying bacteria Denitrifying bacteria Assimilation NH 3 NH 4 NO 2 NO 3 + – – Ammonification Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

27 Fig d Leaching Consumption Precipitation Plant uptake of PO 4 3– Soil Sedimentation Uptake Plankton Decomposition Dissolved PO 4 3– Runoff Geologic uplift Weathering of rocks

28 Lakes Oligotrophic lakes Eutrophic Lakes

29 When excess nitrogen and phosphorus is discharged from the watershed, massive algal blooms develop which result in the depletion of dissolved oxygen. Eutrophication

30 A Dead Zone 6,000-7,000 sq miles develops Pollution


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