Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Biomes Broad aquatic ecological associations can be characterized by their physical environment, chemical environment, geological features, photosynthetic."— Presentation transcript:
1 Aquatic Biomes Broad aquatic ecological associations can be characterized by their physical environment, chemical environment, geological features, photosynthetic organisms, and heterotrophs
2 97% oceans 2% glaciers 1% lakes, rivers, streams Transport over land Solar energyNet movement ofwater vapor by windPrecipitationover landPrecipitationover oceanEvaporationfrom oceanEvapotranspirationfrom landThe Water CycleWater is essential to all organisms97% of the biosphere’s water is contained in the oceans, 2% is in glaciers and polar ice caps, and 1% is in lakes, rivers, and groundwaterWater moves by the processes of evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and movement through surface and groundwaterPercolationthroughsoilRunoff andgroundwater
3 fresh water or salt water (marine) LakesCoral reefsRiversOceanicpelagic andbenthic zonesEstuariesIntertidal zonesTropic ofCancerEquatorCapricorn30ºN30ºSFigure The distribution of major aquatic biomesfresh water or salt water (marine)Oceans cover about 75% of Earth’s surface and have an enormous impact on the biosphere
4 Inland aquatics“Areas of marsh, fen, peatland, or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, static or flowing, fresh, brackish, or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 meters” International Union for the Conservation of Nature ENSC 2400 will cover the intertidal in Marine Biomes lecture
5 Running water flows down Standing water – LENTIC systemsFlowing water – LOTIC systems
7 Streams and Rivers Current Life Effect of damming Fig dStreams and RiversCurrentLifeEffect ofdammingFigure Aquatic biomesA headwater stream in the GreatSmoky MountainsThe Mississippi River far fromits headwaters
8 Wetlands Okefenokee National Wetland Reserve in Georgia Fig. 52-18c Figure Aquatic biomesOkefenokee National Wetland Reserve in Georgia
9 Estuaries An estuary in a low coastal plain of Georgia Fig. 52-18f Figure Aquatic biomesAn estuary in a low coastal plain of Georgia
10 Limnetic zone is too deep Fig aLittoralzoneLimneticzonePhoticzonePelagiczoneBenthiczoneAphoticzoneFigure Zonation in aquatic environmentsRooted and floating aquatic plants live in the shallow and well-lighted littoral zoneLimnetic zone is too deep
11 Winter Spring Summer Autumn Stratification - Dimictic example, effects oxygen and nutrient levels in waterWinter4º4ºCSpringSummerAutumnThermocline2º0º5º6º8º18º20º22ºFigure Seasonal turnover in lakes with winter ice cover
12 Hydrology and wetland diversity Climate (rainfall, temperature, seasonality)Geomorphology (soils, geology, relief)Impact defined by the water budget where the volume of water depends onPrecipitationInterceptionSurface flowGroundwater in and outflowTidal flow
13 Groundwater in and outflow Water budgetsGeneralMarsh – Borders open water (rivers, estuaries), high energy, may be tidal, no OM buildup, plenty of dissolved O2Swamp – Occur in depressions, low energy, OM buildup – peat formation, low O2Bog- On level groundhigh rain, low evaporation,low energy, organic sediment,high water tablePrecipitationInterceptionSurface flowGroundwater in and outflowTidal flow
14 Permanence and periodicity Hydroperiod:Frequency of inundationtidal marshgroundwater fed (constant)vernal poolseasonal rapid flooding from rain or meltwater
15 Hydrology factors and results High energyLow EnergyStreams, rivers, tidal marshesHigh dissolved O2High flushingOpen cyclingErosion dominantNot much organic matterHigh primary productivityBenthic invertebratesSwamps and bogs and lakesLow dissolved O2Low flushingClosed nutrient cyclingSedimentation dominantOrganic matter accumulatesVariable Primary ProductivityBenthic/planktonic inverts.
16 Human impacts Water removal for human use Wetlands drained, rivers dammed, groundwater depletedSustainable water usage requires considering the needs of the environmentGlobal warming effects on montaine snow
19 LightLight penetration depth determines how deep photosynthesis can occurPenetration of light into the water depends on color of the water and turbidityColor – caused by dissolved substances from decaying organic matterTurbidity – from suspended materials (clay, algae)Depends on flow, erosion, rainfall rate
20 Human Impacts - LightClearing vegetation – increased sediment, less shading, quicker photodegradation of organic matterRunoff from impermeable surfaces (roads)Nutrients in sediments cause algal blooms, clog gills, increase turbidity for other aquatic vegetation
22 Temperature and Dissolved O2 Dissolved O2 (DO)Temperature more variable due to shallower depthChanges seasonally or dailyAffects stratification, metabolismAffects dissolved O2Human impacts include:Tree clearing reduces shadingWarm/cold water pollution release from power plants or damsDepends on energy of system, temp, photosynthesis, and stratificationUsed during respiration and decompositionFish kills occur when DO is lowSecondary human impacts due to effects on other things like temperature
24 pH (acidity), Salinity pH Salinity Salts Decreases due to decompositionReduces wetland metabolism at extremes (peat or limestone bogs)Human impacts include acid rain (Nox, SO2) from power generation , acid sulfate soils in depleted waters.Lowered pH increases availability of heavy metals which then kills fishHeavy metal waters can pollute groundwaterSaltsFresh water, brackish, sea water, salt marsh, hypersalineChanges in salt concentration affect osmoregulation of animals
25 pH (acidity), Salinity pH Salinity Salts Decreases due to decompositionReduces wetland metabolism at extremes (peat or limestone bogs)Human impacts include acid rain (Nox, SO2) from power generation , acid sulfate soils in depleted waters.Lowered pH increases availability of heavy metals which then kills fishHeavy metal waters can pollute groundwaterSaltsFresh water, brackish, sea water, salt marsh, hypersalineChanges in salt concentration affect osmoregulation of animalsHuman impacts: secondary salinity (removal of deeper rooted perennials with shallow rooted annuals, or through irrigation ) causes salts from the soil to rise and stay in surface soil. Then runoff adds salinity to waterways.
26 NO3 – NH3 NH4 + NO2 – N2 in atmosphere Assimilation Denitrifying Fig cN2 in atmosphereAssimilationDenitrifyingbacteriaNO3–Nitrogen-fixingbacteriaDecomposersNitrifyingbacteriaThe Terrestrial Nitrogen CycleNitrogen is a component of amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acidsThe main reservoir of nitrogen is the atmosphere (N2), though this nitrogen must be converted to NH4+ or NO3– for uptake by plants, via nitrogen fixation by bacteriaOrganic nitrogen is decomposed to NH4+ by ammonification, and NH4+ is decomposed to NO3– by nitrificationDenitrification converts NO3– back to N2AmmonificationNitrificationNH3NH4+NO2–Nitrogen-fixingsoil bacteriaNitrifyingbacteria
27 Precipitation Geologic Weathering uplift of rocks Runoff Consumption Fig dPrecipitationGeologicupliftWeatheringof rocksRunoffConsumptionDecompositionPlantuptakeof PO43–PlanktonDissolved PO43–SoilUptakeLeachingThe Phosphorus CyclePhosphorus is a major constituent of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and ATPPhosphate (PO43–) is the most important inorganic form of phosphorusThe largest reservoirs are sedimentary rocks of marine origin, the oceans, and organismsPhosphate binds with soil particles, and movement is often localizedSedimentation
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