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Chapter 20 The United States Looks Overseas

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1 Chapter 20 The United States Looks Overseas

2 Key Terms for the Chapter
Isolationism Avoiding involvement in other countries’ affairs Imperialism Building empires by imposing political and economic control over peoples around the world



5 The Turner Thesis Frederick Jackson Turner
Created idea that western frontier defined American History expansionists believed that overseas was the new frontier and would bring new riches and power

6 Economic Growth Expansionists argued that future prosperity depended on building up trade U.S. had a powerful industrial economy and produced more than Americans would buy

7 Economic Growth There was a fear that if U.S. did not expand it would be shut out of global markets and denied raw materials Alfred T. Mahan stated that the key to strong trade was a powerful navy

8 United States Looks Overseas
Purchasing Alaska 1867 The United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (about 2 cents an acre) Alaska was full of resources (gold and oil) Alaska Gold Rush of


10 Spreading American Values
In the late 1800s many Americans believed that Americans of the “Anglo-Saxon race” were superior to “lesser races” in other nations Argument was Americans had a divine duty to spread Christian values and western civilization around the world.

11 Gaining Foothold in the Pacific
Expansionists had interest in various Pacific islands, and saw them essential for expanding influence and trade

12 Samoa

13 Gaining Foothold in the Pacific
Samoa U.S. had interest in Samoa to use as coaling stations for ships Other European countries also wanted Samoa and Britain, Germany, and the U.S. almost went to war In 1899 the U.S. and Germany divided the islands People in Samoa had no say in the matter.



16 Gaining Foothold in the Pacific
Hawaii U.S. saw Hawaii as a military outpost in Pacific 1893 American planters and 50 U.S. Marines overthrew Queen Liliuokalani. President Grover Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because the revolt had been illegal on July 7, 1898 Hawaii became a territory of U.S. when it was annexed by President William McKinley


18 Hawaii




22 Carving Up China Late 1800s China lost a war and European powers wanted to take advantage of China’s weakness European power and Japan started dividing China into spheres of influence (areas where another nation has economic and political control)



25 Carving Up China At first, U.S. were not part of the activity, but U.S. officials feared they would be excluded from trading with China Secretary of State John Hay called on nations to keep an “open door” policy in China.

26 Carving Up China Boxer Rebellion
A secret Society called Righteous and Harmonious Fist was formed to try and combat foreigners in China Became known as Boxers because of their ceremonial exercises that resembled shadowboxing In spring of 1900 the Boxers began a rebellion to expel foreigners

27 Carving Up China The boxers attacked and killed westerners and Chinese Christians. European powers and the U.S. sent in 18,000 troops with modern weapons and crushed the rebellion


29 The Spanish-American War
Cuba had been under Spanish control since 1492 After Centuries of being under Spain’s harsh control Cuban’s started to rebel First rebellion started in 1868 and lasted 10 years, but was unsuccessful


31 The Spanish-American War
Cubans started another rebellion in 1895 To stop the revolt the Spanish began a policy of reconcentration (movement of large numbers of people into detention camps for military or political reasons) 200,000 Cubans would die in these camps due to poor sanitation and starvation

32 The Spanish-American War
Cubans, led by Jose Marti, asked for help from the U.S. Marti was a leader of the rebels, but was killed in Cuba before he was able to see Cuba free from Spanish rule


34 The Spanish-American War
Many Americans wanted to help the Cuban rebels, but U.S. government was resistant to send troops Americans wanted to help Cuba to protect their investments Americans had over $50 million in sugar plantations, railroads, and iron mines


36 Yellow Journalism yellow journalism- A sensational style of reporting that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news

37 The Spanish-American War
Newspapers swayed public opinion towards war by using Yellow Journalism Led by Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World and William Randolph Hearst of the New York Journal







44 The Spanish-American War
U.S. declares war -February 15, 1898 the Maine sinks and the United States declares war on Spain

45 Spanish-American War The U.S. Goes to War
April 20, 1898 the U.S. declares war on Spain The first main battle of the war took place in the Philippines May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey led a small fleet of ships to Manila Bay and sank the entire Spanish squadron The U.S. did not lose a single ship or life



48 Spanish-American War The Filipinos were also fighting for independence from Spain Emilio Aguinaldo was the leader of the Filipino rebels Instead of giving independence to the Filipinos the U.S. took control of the islands


50 Spanish-American War War in the Caribbean
Most of the fighting took place around Santiago and at sea


52 Spanish-American War War in the Caribbean
U.S. troops were poorly trained, but eager to fight One of the best known units was the Rough Riders, which was led by Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt led a successful charge up San Juan hill, which became the most celebrated event of the war


54 Spanish-American War Once Spain surrendered Cuba, American troops invaded and quickly took control of Puerto Rico


56 Spanish-American War December 1898, a treaty was signed
Cuba received its independence Puerto Rico, Philippines, islands of Guam, and Wake islands became territories of the U.S.






62 The United States and Latin America
Panama Canal The Isthmus of Panama was chosen because it was only 50 miles wide perfect location to shorten trips from the West Coast to the East Coast

63 The United States and Latin America
U.S. offered Columbia $10 million and $250,000 yearly rent to build the canal Columbia did not accept the deal



66 The United States and Latin America
Panamanians started a revolution against Columbia U.S. sent gunboats and Marines to support Panama Panama gains its freedom and the U.S. received the land to build the canal

67 “Gun Boat Diplomacy”



70 The United States and Latin America
Fighting Disease First obstacle to building the canal was overcoming diseases Malaria and Yellow Fever (carried by mosquitoes) William C. Gorgas

71 The United States and Latin America
Constructing the Canal Construction involved three main tasks Cut through a mountain Dam a river Build locks







78 The United States and Latin America
Canal Was finished August 15, 1914 (six months ahead of schedule)

79 The United States and Latin America
Wielding a “Big Stick” in Latin America Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine It was the job of the U.S. to protect the Western Hemisphere from European nations When neighbors of the U.S. got into disputes with foreign nations, the U.S. had the right to intervene and restore order


81 The United States and Latin America
William Howard Taft believed in dollar diplomacy Taft wanted bankers and businesses to invest in Latin America Dollar Diplomacy led to many military interventions because the U.S. had to protect its investments

82 The United States and Latin America
Relations With Mexico 1911 Mexico entered into a violent revolution President Woodrow Wilson believed U.S. foreign policy should support democracy throughout the world, and hoped Mexico would develop its own democratic government

83 The United States and Latin America
The United States had trouble staying out of the conflict 1914 an incident in Tampico, Mexico led to U.S. sailors being arrested Francisco Villa (Pancho Villa) kept entering New Mexico and raiding towns. (Killed 18 Americans in one raid)


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