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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS L ESSON 20

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY The Language of Financial Markets: Terms Stocks, Bonds, and Mutual Funds Bond Common Stock Initial Public Offering (IPO) Index Fund Mutual Fund Preferred Stock Technical Terms Capital Gain Dividend Growth Stock Income Stock Liquidity Risk Return Stock Spill Buying and Selling in the Market Buying on Margin Commission Ponzi Scheme Price Short Selling Exchanges and Indexes Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) NASDAQ Stock Market New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Over-the-Counter Market S&P 500 Stock Index People in Financial Markets Broker Dealer Institutional Investor Investment Bank Stockholder L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS S LIDE 20.1

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY The Language of Financial Markets: Quiz Bowl Score Sheet GroupScore 1 2 3 4 5 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS S LIDE 20.2

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY The Language of Financial Markets: Quiz Bowl Game Board L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Invest in This Potent Investments Index or Exchange Earn ItWho Am I? Financial Markets Potpourri 10 20 30 40 50 S LIDE 20.3

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Invest in This: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A debt investment in which an investor lends money to an entity (corporate or governmental) that borrows the money for a defined period of time at an agreed interest rate. Click to Check S LIDE 20.4

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Bond 10 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The correct answer is… Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.5

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Invest in This: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS An ownership share or shares of ownership in a corporation. Click to Check S LIDE 20.6

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Common Stock 20 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The correct answer is… Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.7

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Invest in This: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A company that pools money from investors and uses it to buy stocks or bonds on the investors’ behalf. Click to Check S LIDE 20.8

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Mutual Fund 30 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The correct answer is… Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.9

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Invest in This: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The stock of a firm that is expected to do well – to have above-average increases in revenues and earnings. These stocks often pay no dividend, but the stockholder gains if the price of the stock increases. Click to Check S LIDE 20.10

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Growth Stock 40 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The correct answer is… Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.11

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Invest in This: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS An ownership share in a corporation with a guaranteed dividend that is paid before any dividends are paid on common stock. Click to Check S LIDE 20.12

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Preferred Stock 50 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The correct answer is… Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.13

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Potent Investments: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Buying stock by paying only a percentage of the purchase price (typically 50 percent) and borrowing the balance from a broker. Click to Check S LIDE 20.14

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Buying on Margin 10 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The correct answer is… Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.15

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Potent Investments: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A mutual fund whose objective is to match the composite investment performance of a large group of stocks or bonds such as those represented by the Standard & Poor’s 500. Click to Check S LIDE 20.16

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Index Fund 20 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.17 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Potent Investments: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS An investment fraud that holds no real assets, paying off existing investors by using funds from new investors. Click to Check S LIDE 20.18

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Ponzi Scheme 30 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.19 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Potent Investments: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The chance of losing money on an investment. Click to Check S LIDE 20.20

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Risk 40 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.21 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Potent Investments: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A stock transaction that allows an investor to make money on a stock expected to fall in value. This transaction involves the immediate sale of shares not owned by the seller, who expects to buy them back later at a lower price. Click to Check S LIDE 20.22

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Short Selling 50 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.23 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Index or Exchange: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The acronym stands for American Stock Exchange, formerly an independent market but now part of the New York Stock Exchange. Click to Check S LIDE 20.24

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY AMEX 10 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.25 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Index or Exchange: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The most commonly quoted measure of stock- market performance. The averages it reports are calculated by reference to 30 large, well- known firms. Click to Check S LIDE 20.26

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Dow Jones Industrial Average 20 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.27 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Index or Exchange: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Founded in 1971, this stock market is the world’s largest in terms of trading volume and is the home to many technology stocks including Apple, eBay, Intel, and Yahoo! Click to Check S LIDE 20.28

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY NASDAQ Stock Market 30 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.29 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Index or Exchange: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The oldest stock exchange in the United States, founded in 1792. Merged in 2007 with the European stock exchange Euronext. Click to Check S LIDE 20.30

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY New York Stock Exchange 40 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.31 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Index or Exchange: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The acronym stands for the Standard and Poor’s 500 Stock Index. The index includes 500 large and varied stocks. Click to Check S LIDE 20.32

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY S&P 500 50 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.33 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Earn It: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A profit realized from the sale of property, stocks, or other investments. Click to Check S LIDE 20.34

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Capital Gain 10 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.35 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Earn It: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A percentage of a stock trade (a buy or sell) paid by a customer to a stockbroker. Click to Check S LIDE 20.36

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Commission 20 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.37 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Earn It: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A share of a company’s profits paid to shareholders. Click to Check S LIDE 20.38

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Dividend 30 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.39 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Earn It: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The market value of anything being offered for sale. Click to Check S LIDE 20.40

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Price 40 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.41 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Earn It: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Money earned from an investment. The money could be profits, interest, appreciation, or a combination of these. Click to Check S LIDE 20.42

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Return 50 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.43 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Who Am I? L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A professional trader who buys and sells stocks for individuals and institutional customers. Click to Check S LIDE 20.44

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Broker 10 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.45 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Who Am I? L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Someone who buys and sells stocks from his or her own accounts or the accounts of the firm he or she represents. Click to Check S LIDE 20.46

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Dealer 20 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.47 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Who Am I? L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS An organization (an insurance company or pension fund, for example) that invests in the stock market for clients. Click to Check S LIDE 20.48

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Institutional Investor 30 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.49 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Who Am I? L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS An institution that participates in the primary markets for the sale of newly issued stocks and corporate and government bonds. Click to Check S LIDE 20.50

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Investment Bank 40 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Return to Game Board S LIDE 20.51 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Who Am I? L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A person who owns stock; sometimes called a shareholder. Click to Check S LIDE 20.52

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Stockholder Return to Game Board 50 S LIDE 20.53 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Financial Markets Potpourri: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A stock that pays dividends regularly. Click to Check S LIDE 20.54

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Income Stock Return to Game Board 10 S LIDE 20.55 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Financial Markets Potpourri: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The first sale of stock by a private company to the public. Click to Check S LIDE 20.56

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Initial Public Offering Return to Game Board 20 L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS S LIDE 20.57 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Financial Markets Potpourri: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The ease with which savings or investments can be turned into cash. Click to Check S LIDE 20.58

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Liquidity Return to Game Board 30 S LIDE 20.59 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Financial Markets Potpourri: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS A network of securities dealers connected by a computer network to buy and sell stock without a centralized trading floor. Click to Check S LIDE 20.60

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Over-the-Counter Market Return to Game Board 40 S LIDE 20.61 The correct answer is…

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY Financial Markets Potpourri: L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS The division of a firm’s outstanding shares of stock into a higher number of shares. The purpose is to lower the price of the stock to attract more buyers. Click to Check S LIDE 20.62

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L EARNING, E ARNING, AND I NVESTING FOR A N EW G ENERATION © C OUNCIL FOR E CONOMIC E DUCATION, N EW Y ORK, NY L ESSON 20 – T HE L ANGUAGE OF F INANCIAL M ARKETS Stock split Return to Game Board 50 S LIDE 20.63 The correct answer is…

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