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Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 20 User Research – Part II Virtual University Human-Computer Interaction
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 2 © Imran Hussain | UMT In the Last Lecture Qualitative Research vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Techniques –Stakeholder Interviews –Subject matter expert (SME) interviews –User and customer interviews –Literature reviews –Product/prototype and competitive audits
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 3 © Imran Hussain | UMT In Today’s Lecture Qualitative Research Techniques –Ethnographic field studies
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 4 © Imran Hussain | UMT Common Issues in Software Engineering Users cannot articulate their needs Software engineers complain of changing requirements Software engineers don’t respect users –“users are a pain”
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 5 © Imran Hussain | UMT The Solution: Ethnographic Field Studies One-on-one interviews –Directed ethnographic interview techniques Observing users (Work/lifestyle observation) –Immersive observation
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 6 © Imran Hussain | UMT User-Centered Design (UCD) Approaches User-centered design approaches (a philosophy) –Involves finding out about users, their goals and tasks –Involves users in development process Principles of UCD –Early focus on users and tasks –Empirical measurement –Iterative design
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 7 © Imran Hussain | UMT User-Centered Design Approaches –A.k.a. Naturalistic Observation
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 8 © Imran Hussain | UMT Ethnography Branch of anthropology (a social science) Literally means “writing the culture” Deals with scientific description of individual human societies In anthropology –Ethnography understands behaviors and social rituals of entire culture In human-computer interaction –Ethnography understands behaviors and rituals of people interacting with individual computer-based products
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 9 © Imran Hussain | UMT Ethnography Framework Structures presentation of ethnographies Enables designers to use efficiently use ethnographic data
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 10 © Imran Hussain | UMT Dimensions of Ethnography Framework Distributed Coordination –Focuses on distributed nature of work Plans and Procedures –Focuses on organizational support for work Awareness of Work –Focuses on how people keep themselves aware of other people’s work
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 11 © Imran Hussain | UMT Ethnographic Field Study Methods These provide notational and procedural mechanisms that allow designers to gain first-hand information 2 methods –Coherence (Viller and Sommerville, 1999) –Contextual Design (Beyer and Holtzblatt, 1996)
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 12 © Imran Hussain | UMT Contextual Inquiry An ethnographic interviewing technique Based on observing and asking user questions Based on master-apprentice model of learning Based 4 principles
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 13 © Imran Hussain | UMT Principles of Contextual Inquiry Context Partnership Interpretation Focus
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 14 © Imran Hussain | UMT Principles of Contextual Inquiry Context –Observe in normal working environments Partnership –Adopt collaborative tone Interpretation –Analyze and interpret data, but verify assumptions Focus –Subtle direction of interviews
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 15 © Imran Hussain | UMT Improving Contextual Inquiry Shorten the interview process –1 hr-long instead 1-day long interviews Use smaller design teams –Perform sequential interviews with same team Identify goals first –Identify and prioritize goals, then relate tasks Look beyond business contexts –Use in consumer domains
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 16 © Imran Hussain | UMT Preparing for Ethnographic Interviews Need to capture entire range of user behaviors Identify diverse sample of users Create a hypothesis that identifies users to interview
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 17 © Imran Hussain | UMT The Persona Hypothesis Primarily based on behaviors Also considers target markets and demographics Product domain also considered –Business user behavior different then that of consumer users Addresses at a high level: –Who might use this product? –How would their needs and behaviors might vary? –Ranges of behavior and types of environments?
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 18 © Imran Hussain | UMT Roles in Business and Consumer Domains User types vary based on needs and behaviors in different domains (business, technical, consumer) Roles –Common sets of tasks and information needs related to distinct classes of users Business and technical contexts –Roles often map to job descriptions Consumer contexts –Roles map to lifestyle choices
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 19 © Imran Hussain | UMT Behavioral Variables Distinguish users based on their needs and behaviors (e.g., e- commerce) –Frequency of shopping (frequent—infrequent) –Desire to shop (love—hate) –Motivation to shop (bargain hunting—searching for just the right item) User types defined by combination of behavioral variables
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 20 © Imran Hussain | UMT Demographic Variables Make use of demographic data (from market research data) –Age, location, gender, income Identified through user data
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 21 © Imran Hussain | UMT Domain Expertise vs. Technical Expertise Domain expertise –Knowledge of a specialized subject pertaining to a product Technical expertise –Knowledge of digital technology
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 22 © Imran Hussain | UMT Environmental Variables Company size (small – multinational) IT presence (ad hoc – draconian) Security level (lax – tight)
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 23 © Imran Hussain | UMT Creating an Interview Plan Create an interview plan based on persona hypothesis Explore all possible variables in 4-6 interviews Map variables to interview screening profiles –An interviewee might cover a number of variables E.g., young female office worker, 20 years old, university educated, loves to shop (this covers variables of age, gender, education, designation, desire to shop, etc.)
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