Presentation on theme: "Cheryl J. McAllister Southeast Missouri State University"— Presentation transcript:
1Tips for creating an inclusive mathematics classroom using universal design principles Cheryl J. McAllisterSoutheast Missouri State UniversityNCTM Regional ConferencePaducah, KYOctober 10, 2002
2What is inclusion?According to Vaughn and Schumm (1995) inclusion is “the development of a school-based education model that is student centered and that bases educational placement and service provision on each student’s needs.”
3The mandate for inclusive education Federal and state lawsSchool board policySpecial interest groups (Council for Exceptional Children)Professional organizations’ position statements (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, National Association for the Education of Young Children)
4Federal and state lawIndividuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1997.Standardized testing required by states for all students
5NCTM(2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics, p. 12 The equity principle. Excellence in mathematics education requires equity – high expectations and strong support for all students. … Achieving this goal requires raising expectations for students’ learning, developing effective methods of supporting the learning of mathematics by all students, and providing students and teachers with the resources they need.
6NCTM(2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics, p NCTM(2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics, p. 12 (con’t)All students, regardless of their personal characteristics, backgrounds, or physical challenges, must have opportunities to study – and support to learn - mathematics.
7NCTM(2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics, p NCTM(2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics, p. 12 (con’t)Equity does not mean that every student should receive identical instruction; instead it demands that reasonable and appropriate accommodations be made as needed to promote access and attainment for all students.
8NCTM(2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics, p NCTM(2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics, p (con’t)Technology can assist in achieving equity and must be accessible to all students.Help students explore complex problemsComputer tutorialsLink students in rural communities to advanced classesVoice recognition software(More on this later)
9NAEYC and NCTM (2002). Early childhood mathematics: Promoting good beginnings, a joint position statement.“In mathematics … learners benefit from having a variety of ways to understand a given concept. Building on children’s individual strengths and learning styles makes mathematics curriculum and instruction more effective. … Even with comparable learning opportunities, some children will grasp a concept earlier and others somewhat later. Expecting and planning for such individual variations are always important.”
10The reality Not enough resources Large class sizes Inadequate planning timeTeachers not consulted about placement of special needs studentsTeacher isolation and little support from special education staffInadequate training for working with special-needs studentsInadequate technology and equipment
11How do we attempt to meet the mandate? Professional development to increase regular classroom teachers’ knowledge of educating exceptional studentsCareful planning and instructional designUse technology to allow subject matter to be accessible in a variety of formats
12Professional development Attend workshops and conference sessions at professional meetingsSuggest in-service workshops on including special needs students in the regular classroomSuggest in-service workshops on how to use technology, i.e. computers, websitesGraduate coursesPersonal research
14What types of students are we talking about? Students for which English is a second languageStudents with physical disabilitiesStudents with learning disabilitiesGifted studentsStudents with non-traditional learning stylesOlder adult studentsAll students
15Barriers to access Communication barriers: Learning barriers: Language disordersSpeech disordersLearning barriers:Learning disabilitiesNon-standard learning stylesAttention disordersMobility barriers:Extreme physical disabilities
17Instructional design Universal design Accommodation Accommodations are built into the curriculum and instructional plans from the beginningMore responsibility on educatorsLess work overall for teacherAccommodationIs developed as ‘add-on’ to existing curriculum and instructional plansMore responsibility on studentSeen as additional work for the teacher
18Common accommodations Extended time on exams and assignmentsAlternative assessmentNote-takers or tape recordersReaders or taped textsLearning centers or resource roomsAdapted equipmentUse of word processor for written assignmentsUse of calculator for all computationsTeaching aide or peer tutor
19What is universal design? First developed by by architects to make buildings, parks, and other facilities accessible to allCurb cutsRampsAutomatic doorsUniversal design concepts were adopted by educators to make learning accessible to all
20What is universal design? …the design of instructional materials and activities that makes the learning goals achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember.(Bowe quoting CEC, 2000)
21What is universal design? (con’t) …achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with differing abilities. These alternatives are built into the instructional design…they are not added on after the fact. (Bowe quoting CEC, 2000)
227 principles of universal design Equitable useFlexibility in useSimple and intuitive usePerceptible informationTolerance for errorLow physical effortSize and space for approach and use
23Two components of universal design Use of teaching methods and activities that are adaptable and address multiple learning stylesUse of technology to provide alternative access to information to be learned
24Key characteristics of universal design when applied to education The needs of the entire range of learners is considered when designing curricula, materials, methods, and environmentsProvides multiple representations of informationAddresses engagement by considering individual preferences whenever feasibleOffers various methods of expression
25Key characteristics of universal design when applied to education Includes strategies to engage all 3 brain systems:recognition systems, strategic systems, and affective systemsOffers an array of strategy prompts, hints, or models of expert performance to assist learners
26What about assessment?Universal design principles must also be applied to assessment strategies if a fair and equitable measure of student understanding and learning is to be determined.
27Now that we know what the theory is… The question is: how do we accomplish all this in our own classrooms?
28Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Select textbooks and other materials that support and include students who have a wide range of abilities to see, hear, speak, and read.
29Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Selecting mathematics textbooksResearch indicates that 75% - 90% of classroom instruction is based on textbooks and the scope and sequence is determined by the bookOnly about 3% of educational materials are field-tested with students prior to being publishedA marketing survey found that the most important characteristic in the sale of math textbooks was the attractiveness of the art
30Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Research-based guidelines for selecting mathematics curricula for diverse learnersEmphasis on ‘big ideas’Explicit strategies should be evidentProvide an adequate range of examplesLook for scaffolding strategiesLook for strategic integration of conceptsBuild prerequisite skills before introducing new onesReview should be sufficient, distributed, and cumulative
31Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment When using technology be sure to:Provide captions for audio presentationsProvide educationally relevant descriptions for images and graphical layouts and videosIf possible put important course content on-line
32Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Permit and encourage the use of adaptive technologyWord processorsSpecial keyboardsVoice-input devicesSpeech softwareWebsites and networked systemsBraille printersTranslation software
33Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Low-tech learning aidsSticky notesHighlighter pensCalculatorsDigital clocksTape recordersCarbon paper note padsFanny packs to keep track of personal belongings
34Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment When teaching provide cognitive supports for content and activities:Provide assessments for background knowledge and skill levelSummarize ‘big ideas’Include explicit strategies to make clear the goals and methods of instructionProvide scaffolding for learning and generalizationBuild fluency through practice
35Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Good teaching tips you already useGive immediate feedback, clarify instructions, ask for questions, repeat or give additional examplesRelate new topics to already learned topics or real-life examplesGo from concrete to abstractUse peer mentoring, group discussions, and cooperative learning situations
36Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Make content personalDevelop study guidesGive more frequent, but shorter examsConsider alternative assessment methods
37Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Offer multiple ways for students to interact with and respond to curricula and materialsAssignments where students choose method of learningAssignments where students choose method of demonstrating knowledgeAssignments where review material is individualized to student’s interests or preferred learning style
38Tips for regular classroom teachers to create an inclusive environment Learn about the cultures of your students and reflect on how that will affect themDevelop a close collaboration with the special education staffDon’t try to change everything at once
39Final thoughts on universal design from Frank Bowe “Universal design in education is based upon the premise that by preparing to meet diverse needs, we will better serve people with no special needs.” p.46“We all need to remember that being among the ‘temporarily able-bodied’ is a short term gift.” p.47