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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 The intent of this presentation is to present enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge of Three Phase Alternating Current and to better understand basic Michelin system and equipment operations.

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Characteristics of Three Phase Systems A three phase (3 ) system is a combination of three single phase (1 ) systems. In a 3 balanced system, the power comes from an AC generator that produces three separate but equal voltages, each of which is out of phase with the other voltages by 120 (illustrated below). When any of the three voltages is at its maximum value (negative or positive), each of the other two voltages will be at 50 percent of their maximum value in the opposite direction. Although single phase circuits are widely used in electrical systems; most generation and distribution of alternating current is 3 . Characteristics of Three Phase Systems A three phase (3 ) system is a combination of three single phase (1 ) systems. In a 3 balanced system, the power comes from an AC generator that produces three separate but equal voltages, each of which is out of phase with the other voltages by 120 (illustrated below). When any of the three voltages is at its maximum value (negative or positive), each of the other two voltages will be at 50 percent of their maximum value in the opposite direction. Although single phase circuits are widely used in electrical systems; most generation and distribution of alternating current is 3 . 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Definitions Single Phase System- System energized by a single alternating voltage. Poly Phase System- System energized by two, three or more alternating voltages. Three Phase System- System energized by three equal alternating voltages 120 apart. Line Voltage (V L )- The voltage measured between terminals of an alternator, motor or branch circuit feeder wires. Phase- Each winding of an alternator, of a motor, or of a branch circuit forming part of a load. Phase Voltage (V ph )- The voltage measured across a phase of an alternator, motor or load. Definitions Single Phase System- System energized by a single alternating voltage. Poly Phase System- System energized by two, three or more alternating voltages. Three Phase System- System energized by three equal alternating voltages 120 apart. Line Voltage (V L )- The voltage measured between terminals of an alternator, motor or branch circuit feeder wires. Phase- Each winding of an alternator, of a motor, or of a branch circuit forming part of a load. Phase Voltage (V ph )- The voltage measured across a phase of an alternator, motor or load. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Advantages of a 3 phase system versus a single phase system 3 circuits require less weight of conductors than 1 circuits of the same power rating. 3 circuits permit flexibility in the choice of voltages. 3 circuits can be used for 1 loads. 3 equipment is smaller in size, lighter in weight, and more efficient than 1 machinery of the same rated capacity. Advantages of a 3 phase system versus a single phase system 3 circuits require less weight of conductors than 1 circuits of the same power rating. 3 circuits permit flexibility in the choice of voltages. 3 circuits can be used for 1 loads. 3 equipment is smaller in size, lighter in weight, and more efficient than 1 machinery of the same rated capacity. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 The three phases of a 3 system may be connected in two ways. In most industrial applications, the 3 phase generation is done by the power company and distributed through a power distribution system. The voltage is stepped down along the way and delivered to the facilities. The facility uses three phase transformers to supply the loads in the facility. The following representations are of the secondary windings of a 3 phase transformer not a standalone generator. 1.If the three common ends of each secondary phase winding are connected together at a common terminal marked N for neutral, then the other three ends become the A, B, and C 3 line conductors. This system is Wye or Y-connected. This configuration can be related as being connected in series. Sometimes the neutral connection is grounded and brought out to form a 3 , 4-wire system. The three phases of a 3 system may be connected in two ways. In most industrial applications, the 3 phase generation is done by the power company and distributed through a power distribution system. The voltage is stepped down along the way and delivered to the facilities. The facility uses three phase transformers to supply the loads in the facility. The following representations are of the secondary windings of a 3 phase transformer not a standalone generator. 1.If the three common ends of each secondary phase winding are connected together at a common terminal marked N for neutral, then the other three ends become the A, B, and C 3 line conductors. This system is Wye or Y-connected. This configuration can be related as being connected in series. Sometimes the neutral connection is grounded and brought out to form a 3 , 4-wire system. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 The three phases of a 3 system may be connected in two ways. 2. If the three phases are connected to form a closed loop, the system is delta or Δ-connected. This configuration can be related as being connected in parallel. The three phases of a 3 system may be connected in two ways. 2. If the three phases are connected to form a closed loop, the system is delta or Δ-connected. This configuration can be related as being connected in parallel. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Wye Relationships Voltage Relationship in a Wye Configuration - Since the line voltage is connected across two windings and the phase voltage is only connected across one winding, the line voltage (V L ) is much larger than the phase voltage (V ph ). At first, you would think that the line voltage is twice as large as the phase voltage, this is not the case. The actual relationship is as follows: Current Relationship in a Wye Configuration - Since the line current does not split as it leaves the phase winding, the line current (I L ) is equal to the phase current (I ph ). The relationship is as follows: Three Phase Wye Relationships Voltage Relationship in a Wye Configuration - Since the line voltage is connected across two windings and the phase voltage is only connected across one winding, the line voltage (V L ) is much larger than the phase voltage (V ph ). At first, you would think that the line voltage is twice as large as the phase voltage, this is not the case. The actual relationship is as follows: Current Relationship in a Wye Configuration - Since the line current does not split as it leaves the phase winding, the line current (I L ) is equal to the phase current (I ph ). The relationship is as follows: 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Wye Relationships Power Relationship in a Wye Configuration - As discussed in AC concepts, there are three different power relationships for AC circuits. Real, reactive and apparent power still applies for three phase circuits. There are some minor differences as shown with the relationships below: Three Phase Wye Relationships Power Relationship in a Wye Configuration - As discussed in AC concepts, there are three different power relationships for AC circuits. Real, reactive and apparent power still applies for three phase circuits. There are some minor differences as shown with the relationships below: 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Delta Relationships Voltage Relationship in a Delta Configuration - Since the line voltage is connected across one winding just as is the phase voltage, the line voltage (V L ) is equal to the phase voltage (V ph ). The actual relationship is as follows: Current Relationship in a Delta Configuration - Since the line current is a combination of current from two windings and the phase current only comes from one winding, the line current (I L ) is much larger than the phase current (I ph ). At first, you would think that the line current is twice as large as the phase current, this is not the case. The actual relationship is as follows: Three Phase Delta Relationships Voltage Relationship in a Delta Configuration - Since the line voltage is connected across one winding just as is the phase voltage, the line voltage (V L ) is equal to the phase voltage (V ph ). The actual relationship is as follows: Current Relationship in a Delta Configuration - Since the line current is a combination of current from two windings and the phase current only comes from one winding, the line current (I L ) is much larger than the phase current (I ph ). At first, you would think that the line current is twice as large as the phase current, this is not the case. The actual relationship is as follows: 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Wye Relationships Power Relationship in a Delta Configuration - As discussed in AC concepts, there are three different power relationships for AC circuits. Real, reactive and apparent power still applies for three phase circuits. There are some minor differences as shown with the relationships below: Three Phase Wye Relationships Power Relationship in a Delta Configuration - As discussed in AC concepts, there are three different power relationships for AC circuits. Real, reactive and apparent power still applies for three phase circuits. There are some minor differences as shown with the relationships below: 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Generation The generation of 3 AC and the associated relationships has been discussed. We now need to talk about the 3 loads and their associated relationships. Remember, without a load connected to the supply, there will be no current flow. The voltage, current and power relationships that apply to the generation of 3 AC also applies to 3 loads. There are two different types of loads: balanced and unbalanced. We will only be discussing the balanced loads. In actual industrial applications there are several different configurations for loads: Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive, as well as, many combinations of each. To better understand the basic concepts for line and phase voltages and currents we will only use loads that are resistive. Balanced 3 loads have identical resistances in each winding. The phase voltage V ph and the phase current I ph are the same for each winding. Three Phase Generation The generation of 3 AC and the associated relationships has been discussed. We now need to talk about the 3 loads and their associated relationships. Remember, without a load connected to the supply, there will be no current flow. The voltage, current and power relationships that apply to the generation of 3 AC also applies to 3 loads. There are two different types of loads: balanced and unbalanced. We will only be discussing the balanced loads. In actual industrial applications there are several different configurations for loads: Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive, as well as, many combinations of each. To better understand the basic concepts for line and phase voltages and currents we will only use loads that are resistive. Balanced 3 loads have identical resistances in each winding. The phase voltage V ph and the phase current I ph are the same for each winding. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Generation Once the phase voltage of the load V ph and phase current of the load I ph are established, the circuit can be evaluated just as a single phase AC circuit. You can then evaluate the circuit just as we did in AC Theory. Three Phase Generation Once the phase voltage of the load V ph and phase current of the load I ph are established, the circuit can be evaluated just as a single phase AC circuit. You can then evaluate the circuit just as we did in AC Theory. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Wye Connected Loads 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Delta Connected Loads 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Three Phase Calculation Example 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 1.First label the given information on the circuit, then what you need to find. 2.Next do the Supply calculation for V L. 3.Then do the Load calculation for V Ph. 1.First label the given information on the circuit, then what you need to find. 2.Next do the Supply calculation for V L. 3.Then do the Load calculation for V Ph. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 4.Now we can draw a single phase circuit that represents only one phase of the 3 phase delta load. 5.Next do the single phase calculation. 6.Then do the I L calculation. 4.Now we can draw a single phase circuit that represents only one phase of the 3 phase delta load. 5.Next do the single phase calculation. 6.Then do the I L calculation. 10 – Three Phase Theory

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Practice Exercises 10 – Three Phase Theory 1. Given: V ph 120v (Supply) freq. = 60Hz R Ph = 12 Find:P real = I L = V L =

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Practice Exercises 10 – Three Phase Theory 2. Given: V ph 208v (Supply) freq. = 60Hz R Ph = 100 Find:P real = I L =

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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 10 – Three Phase TheoryAuthor : IMS StafffCreation date : 5 Nov 2012Classification : D3 Practice Exercises 10 – Three Phase Theory 3. Given:V L = 480v f = 60Hz R Ph Load = 20Ω Find:I PH Load = V PH Supply I L = P real =

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