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VOCABULARY TERMS: IONIZATION Atoms can gain or lose electrons in order to form ions DISSOCIATION When ionic compounds dissolve in water, their ions separate.

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Presentation on theme: "VOCABULARY TERMS: IONIZATION Atoms can gain or lose electrons in order to form ions DISSOCIATION When ionic compounds dissolve in water, their ions separate."— Presentation transcript:

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2 VOCABULARY TERMS: IONIZATION Atoms can gain or lose electrons in order to form ions DISSOCIATION When ionic compounds dissolve in water, their ions separate from one another

3 Steve Spangler Acids and Bases Youtube

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5 Ionization of Water youtube Ionization of Water youtube (29 secs) H+ will quickly attach to another water molecule

6 What determines if it is becoming an acid or a base?

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9 Dissociation of Water Podcast (2:37) –southern accent Dissociation of Water Podcast reversible

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12 Equilibrium constant

13 What is Kw? Kw is essentially just an equilibrium constant for the reactions shown. You may meet it in two forms: Based on the fully written equilibrium or on the simplified equilibrium:

14 FYI A hydrogen ion is also just a proton.

15 Nice Nerdy Explanation Dissociation of Water (youtube 4:33) Dissociation of Water Nice Nerdy Explanation

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18 pH Indicates the acidity [H 3 O + ] of the solution pH = - log [H 3 O + ] From the French pouvoir hydrogene (“hydrogen power” or power of hydrogen) LecturePLUS Timberlake18

19 pH In the expression for [H 3 O + ] 1 x 10 -exponent the exponent = pH [H 3 O + ] = 1 x 10 -pH M LecturePLUS Timberlake19

20 pH Range: each number is 10 times more concentrated H+ than the number above it Neutral [H + ] > [OH - ] [H + ] = [OH - ] [OH - ] > [H + ] LecturePLUS Timberlake20 Acidic Basic

21 Some [H 3 O + ] and pH [H 3 O + ] pH 1 x M 5 1 x M 9 1 x M 11 LecturePLUS Timberlake21

22 pH of Some Common Acids gastric juice1.0 lemon juice2.3 vinegar2.8 orange juice3.5 coffee5.0 milk6.6 LecturePLUS Timberlake22

23 pH of Some Common Bases blood 7.4 tears 7.4 seawater 8.4 milk of magnesia10.6 household ammonia11.0 LecturePLUS Timberlake23

24 Learning Check A. The [H 3 O + ] of tomato juice is 1 x M. What is the pH of the solution? 1) - 42)43)8 B. The [OH - ] of an ammonia solution is 1 x M. What is the pH of the solution? 1) 32)113)-11 LecturePLUS Timberlake24

25 Learning Check A. The [H 3 O + ] of tomato juice is 1 x M. What is the pH of the solution? 1) - 42)43)8 B. The [OH - ] of an ammonia solution is 1 x M. What is the pH of the solution? 1) 32)113)-11 LecturePLUS Timberlake25

26 Learning Check The pH of a soap is 10. What is the [H 3 O + ] of the soap solution? 1) 1 x M 2) 1 x M 3) 1 x M LecturePLUS Timberlake26

27 Solution K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x A. [H3O+] = 1.0 x x [OH - ] = or pH 4 LecturePLUS Timberlake27

28 Buffers solution in which the pH of the solution is "resistant" to small additions of either a strong acid or strong base.

29 Buffer Animation Carbonic acid is a good blood buffer

30 Buffer exampls

31 Where are buffers used? chemical research, biological research industry Your body uses buffers to maintain a blood pH of , massive number of biochemical reactions involving enzymes.

32 Acid Rain Unpolluted rain has a pH of 5.6 Rain with a pH below 5.6 is “acid rain“ CO 2 in the air forms carbonic acid CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 Adds to H + of rain H 2 CO 3 H + (aq) + HCO 3 -(aq) LecturePLUS Timberlake32

33 Formation of acid rain: 1. Emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides SO2 26 million tons in 1980 NO and NO2 22 million tons in 1980 Mt. St Helens (1980) 400,000 tons SO2

34 Sources of Acid Rain Power stations Oil refineries Coal with high S content Car and truck emissions Bacterial decomposition, and lighting hitting N 2 LecturePLUS Timberlake34

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36 2. Reactions in the atmosphere form SO3 2SO2 + O2 2 SO3 3. Reactions with atmosphere water form acids SO3 + H2O H2SO4 sulfuric acid NO + H2O NO2 nitrous acid HNO2 + H2O HNO3 nitric acid

37 Effects of Acid Rain Leaches Al from soil, which kills fish Fish kills in spring from runoff due to accumulation of large amounts of acid in snow Dissolves waxy coatings that protect leaves from bacteria Corrodes metals, textiles, paper and leather LecturePLUS Timberlake37

38 Criteria Air Pollutants: NO x and SO x 200+ now-fishless lakes in Adirondacks Little Echo Pond, Franklin, NY  pH = 4.2 Thousands of lakes in Canada (Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick) now- fishless

39 pH Scale Matching Quia - The pH Scale Write the order you think these are from pH 1-14.

40 1 Stomach Fluids 7 Pure Water 11 Rolaids, Tums 13 Bleach 2 Lemon Juice 5 Coffee 3 Vinegar 8 Blood 10 Borax 14 Lye 4 Tomatoes 6 Milk 9 Baking Soda 12 Household Ammonia

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42 ACID RAIN MOVIE Acid Rain - Our Changing Planet – UMAC When precipitation goes below pH 5.6. Comes from burning of fossil fuels (cars, factories, airplanes). Sulfur and nitric oxides form sulfuric acid and nitric acid.

43 Main Pollutant of Acid Rain

44 Forest Destroyed by Acid Rain

45 Canada U.S.

46 Not just in US. China Guangzhou Shajiao on the Pearl River India Korba England

47 Effects on Wildlife Generally, the young of most species are more sensitive to environmental conditions than adults. At pH 5, most fish eggs cannot hatch. At lower pH levels, some adult fish die. Some acid lakes have no fish.

48 Young fish Wuhan dead fish (China)

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51 Acid Rain Stream

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53 Norilsk, in Russia's remote Artic region, is accused of being world's largest producer of acid rain.


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