2Some Questions of Interest What are some key steps involved in solving problems?What are the differences between problems that have a clear path to a solution versus problems that do not?What are some of the obstacles and aids to problem-solving?How does expertise affect problem-solving?What is creativity, and how can it be fostered?
3Problem-Solving Cycle Discuss resource allocation, monitoring problem solving and evaluating success as completing the process. You can also elaborate on the arrows to demonstrate how one may cycle through several strategies before achieving the final goal or solution.
4Problem Representation what information is relevant and what is irrelevantPeople pay attention to the wrong informationPeople need to focus on the right information
5Strategy Formation Select a strategy to solve the problem Analysis: Breaking into subgoalsEX: Study for exam subgoalsRead textbook and class notesIdentify most relevant topicsCreate study questions and answers on note cardsLearn all concepts on note cardsTest self with note cardsRecycle through learning and testing until mastery is achieved
6Strategy Formation Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Generate multiple solutions to problemConvergent thinkingNarrow down to best answer
7Organization of Information Organize to aid solutionSymbolsMatrixesDiagramsLet L = Lucy, S = Sean,2L=3S, S=10MangoPeachSteakAlexxJarodHenry
8Types of Problems Well-structured problems Clear path to the solution Math problemsAnagrams
9How do you get them all to the other side? Three hobbits and three orcs come to a river and find a boat that holds twoIf the orcs ever outnumber the hobbits on either bank, the hobbits will be eatenHow do you get them all to the other side?This is a well structured problems
10Strategies to Solve Problems AlgorithmsSystematic procedure guaranteed to find a solutionHeuristicsUseful rule of thumb based on experienceEfficient but does not guarantee a correct solution
11Heuristic: Means-End Analysis Compare your current state with the goal and choose an action to bring you closer to the goalBreak a problem down into smaller subgoalsEX: Win at MonopolyStart by buying properties, continue to buy until you get a set, buy houses, then buy hotels, wait for others to land on spaces, etc.May not work if subgoals cannot be identified
12Heuristic: Working Forward Start at initial state and work to goal stateEX: Math problems(2 + 6)/(4 x 1) = ?Complete the math inside parenthesis first, then divide the quantities to get to solution
13Heuristic: Working Backward Figure out the last step needed to reach your goal, then the next-to-the-last step, and so onEX: You have lost your keysTry to remember the last time you used them and work backwardWork backward from goal state
14Heuristic: Generate and Test Trial-and-error strategyCreate possibilities, test them, and discard the ones that are incorrectEX: Your car will not startWait a moment and try again, may be floodedCheck to see if there is gas, if no successCheck to see if the battery is charged… etc.This may not be the most efficient strategyTower of HanoiVisit for an interactive trial and error example. Move all the discs from the left peg to the right one. Only one disc may be moved at a time. A disc can be placed either on an empty peg or on top of a larger disc. The goal is to move all the discs using the smallest number of moves possible.You may also watch the computer solve the Tower of Hanoi if you like.
15Tower of HanoiMove all the discs from the left peg to the right one. Only one disc may be moved at a time. A disc can be placed either on an empty peg or on top of a larger disc. The goal is to move all the discs using the smallest number of moves possible.If you are connected to the internet, you can click the blue base bar and open a web page that allows you to try the tower of Hanoi game. The website is Mazeworks atYou may also watch the computer solve the Tower of Hanoi if you like.15
16Types of Problems Ill-structured problems Dimensions of problem are not specified or easy to inferFinding an apartmentWriting a book
18Gestaltist View of Insight Sudden rearrangement of elements creates “insight”Apparent sudden solution to a problem some time after the problem has been presentedWertheimer- humans and insightKohlerAnimal model of insightSultan stacked boxes to get banana
19Non-Gestaltist View of Insight Insight: A prisoner was attempting escape from a tower. He found in his cell a rope that was almost long enough to permit him to reach the ground safely. He divided the rope in half and tied the two parts together and escaped.Algebra: (3x2 + 2x = 10)(3x) = ?Participants indicated how close they were to solution every 15 seconds1 being very cold to 7 being very warm
20Neuroscience and Insight fMRI studies foundright hippocampus is active during problem-solvinganother found spike in right anterior temporal lobe just before insightneural correlates measured before an individual sees a problem can predict if insight will occurPrior to viewing of a problem, participants who had activation in the frontal lobes would later generate an insightful solution
21Obstacles to Problem-Solving Mental setFunctional fixednessStereotypes
22Mental SetSeeing a problem in a particular way instead of other plausible ways due to experience or contextMay cause you to adopt an ineffective strategy and prevents problem-solvingMay make assumptions without realizing itMay find it hard to approach the problem in a new way
23How would you use 3 jars with the indicated capacities to measure out the desired amount of water? ProblemJar AJar BJar CDesired129322021127100141632599418431059426593172349815392876
24Functional FixednessAn inability to assign new functions and roles to elements of a problem
25Transfer Negative transfer Positive transfer Solving prior problem makes it more difficult to solve later problemPositive transferSolving earlier problem helps to solve later problem
26Gick & Holyoak (1980) Results Control group that only tried to solve the radiation problemA group previously given the analogous general/fortress problem and solutionA group given the general/fortress problem and told that its solution would help solve radiation problem
27IncubationTime away from a problem provides new insights or otherwise facilitates the problem-solving processRelease from a problem-solving set, or functional fixednessRetrieval of new information by changing contextRecovery from fatigue
28Neuroscience and Planning during Problem-Solving Frontal lobe active in problem-solvingPrefrontal cortex active in planningGreater bilateral prefrontal activation with incorrect than correct responsesBoth problem-solving and planning ability decline following traumatic brain injury
29Intelligence and Problem-Solving Participants who score higher on traditional intelligence teststake longer to encode the terms of the problem (global planning)are faster at forming and implementing strategies for the details of the task (local planning)
30Expertise Not a general ability Experts have extensive knowledge that is used to organize, represent, and interpret informationThus affecting their abilities to remember, reason, and solve problems
31Chess Experts Experts vs. beginners Under what condition did the experts remember more?Check student’s understanding of the graph by having them look at graphs and explain the results found.Fig : When experts and novices were asked to recall realistic patterns of chess pieces, as in panel a, experts demonstrated much better performance, as shown in panel b. However, when experts and novices were asked to recall random arrangements of chess pieces, as shown in panel c, experts performed no better than novices, as shown inpanel d.
32Beer Experts?? Beer experts Beer novices Two-year beer training program in FranceBeer novicesNo prior trainingTasted a series of 8 different beersAssessed memory of beers between experts and novicesExperts remembered more
33Experts Differ from Novices Better schemasWell-organized knowledge in specific domainLess time to set up problemSelect more appropriate strategiesFaster at solving problemsAre more accurate
34Computer “experts”? The Turing test What questions would you ask? ELIZA:Alison:MeBot:Several downloadable chatterbots:As the site says, “The Loebner Prize is the first formal instantiation of a Turing Test.”It provides additional information on the prize, rules for the contest, and winners of previous contest.
35CreativityProcess of creating something that is original and worthwhile
36Test of creativity2 minutes- 4 is about average, 8 is very good, 12 is rare, and only 1 in 1,000 people think of 16 uses
37Improving creativity?What is a product or service that needs to be improved?select 10 common nouns at random from the dictionarytask is to figure out ways to change and improve the product/serviceuse the 10 stimulus words to stimulate thinking.
38Theories of creativity Psychometric viewEmphasis is on the measure of the product a person creates—creativity test scoresThe process approachNothing innately special about peopleHard work and dedication leads to creativityPersonality approachWay of looking at thingsIntrinsic motivation is important
39Environment Approach Csikszentmihalyi (1996) Must examine historical and social context in which product is madeWhen one achieves balance with context, one achieves flowFlow is the enjoyment we experience when we are engaged in mental and physical challenges that absorb us
40A Synthesis Examined case studies of creative people Albert Einstein (logical-mathematical)Pablo Picasso (spatial)T.S. Elliot (linguistic)Mohandas Gandhi (interpersonal)Most had strengths in more than one intelligence and weaknesses in othersFirst become a master; then creativity is possibleGardner (1993)
41What is necessary for creativity? Synthetic abilityTo see problems using novel perspectives and not be bound by conventional thinkingAnalytic abilityTo recognize the importance of ideas and focus energy on those worth pursuingPractical-contextualTo be able to convey and sell the importance of the ideas to othersSternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Pretz, J. E. (2002). The creativity conundrum. New York: Psychology Press.
42Neuroscience of Creativity Prefrontal regions are activeBrodmann’s area 39 is activeThese areas were measured while partiicipants had to make up a story: either using semantically related words or unrelated words (presumarbly more creative task)Area 39: part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. BA39 encompasses the angular gyrus