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A Guide To The oral Exam Dr. IZZELDIN EL-JACK, M.D Consultant Public Health DHA DHA.

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Presentation on theme: "A Guide To The oral Exam Dr. IZZELDIN EL-JACK, M.D Consultant Public Health DHA DHA."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Guide To The oral Exam Dr. IZZELDIN EL-JACK, M.D Consultant Public Health DHA DHA

2 Oral Exam Setting General advices Face to face Face to face Comfortable position Comfortable position Be a good listener Be a good listener Understand the question Understand the question Think before you speak Think before you speak Organize what you say, short pause permissible Organize what you say, short pause permissible Good start is essential (1 st impression is the last) Good start is essential (1 st impression is the last) Say what you know, do not bluff or guess Say what you know, do not bluff or guess Rationalize and defend your answer Rationalize and defend your answer Show good manners & do not argue with the examiner Show good manners & do not argue with the examiner

3 ICD International Classification for Disease Viral hepatitis A => ICD – ;ICD –10B15 Viral hepatitis A => ICD – ;ICD –10B15 Malaria => ICD – 9 084; ICD-10 B50-B54 Malaria => ICD – 9 084; ICD-10 B50-B54

4 Epidemiology Epidemiology The study of distribution, determinants and disease frequency in human population The study of distribution, determinants and disease frequency in human population Descriptive Epidemiology Descriptive Epidemiology Analytical Epidemiology Analytical Epidemiology Distribution: time, place, person Distribution: time, place, person Determinants of health: hereditary, environmental, lifestyle, socio-economic, family and serviced welfare services Determinants of health: hereditary, environmental, lifestyle, socio-economic, family and serviced welfare services Frequency: prevalence, incidence Frequency: prevalence, incidence

5 Screening Screening Is the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease or disability by rapid application of tests, examination, or other procedures Is the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease or disability by rapid application of tests, examination, or other procedures Screening criteria - Disease - Test

6 Reliability Reliability - Repeatability The ability of the test to provide consistent results - Errors: 1. Observer error 1.( intra-observer error): observer him self 2.( inter-observer error) : different observers 2. Instrumental error 3. Biological error: pt himself: not fasting, smoking before doing BP check

7 Validity The ability of the test to correctly identify those individuals who actually have the disease and those who do not Sensitivity The ability of the test to identify correctly those who have the disease The ability of the test to identify correctly those who have the diseaseSpecificity The ability of the test to identify correctly those who do not have the disease The ability of the test to identify correctly those who do not have the disease

8 Validity Positive Predictive Value The likelihood that a person with a positive test has the disease The likelihood that a person with a positive test has the disease Negative Predictive Value The likelihood that a person with a negative test has not got the disease The likelihood that a person with a negative test has not got the disease Likely hood ratio + = sensitivity / 1- specificity _ = 1- sensitivity / specificity

9 Surveillance The ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data in the process of describing and monitoring a health event. The information is used for planning, implementing and evaluating public health interventions and programs. The ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data in the process of describing and monitoring a health event. The information is used for planning, implementing and evaluating public health interventions and programs.

10 Sources of disease surveillance data Individual case reports Individual case reports Laboratory reports Laboratory reports Accident & Emergency (A&E) records Accident & Emergency (A&E) records Hospital discharges summaries Hospital discharges summaries Case investigations revealing additional cases Case investigations revealing additional cases Death certificates Death certificates Surveys Surveys

11 Purposes of Surveillance 1. Monitor disease trends so that planning can be adjusted to meet new situations. 2. Identify,investigate and help control outbreaks or epidemics. 3. Identify specific population groups at high risk of illness or death from priority health events. 4. Evaluate the impact of preventive and curative control activities on the incidence and prevalence of priority diseases in the community. 5. Confirm current priorities among disease control activities.

12 Health It is the over-all Physical, Mental and Social well-being of a person. It is the over-all Physical, Mental and Social well-being of a person. WHO definition WHO definition Is state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease. Is state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease. in order to lead socially and economically productive live. in order to lead socially and economically productive live.

13 Dimensions of health From the definition (scope of health) : From the definition (scope of health) : Physical Physical Mental Mental Social Social Others Others

14 Determinants of health الاشياء المؤثرة على الصحة الاشياء المؤثرة على الصحة Heredity: genetic : what we born with Heredity: genetic : what we born with Environmental: newborn: malaria bite Environmental: newborn: malaria bite Life style: smoking, diet Life style: smoking, diet Socio economic conditions Socio economic conditions Health and family welfare services Health and family welfare services

15 Indicators of health Tools to measure health Tools to measure health 1. Mortality 2. Morbidity and disability 3. Nutritional 4. Environmental: municipality 5. Psycho-social 6. Health services 7. Utilization :of services 8. Health policies: budget provided by government, and their interest in heath

16 Why indicators are important Compare between countries Compare between countries Plan for services Plan for services Plan for control and prevention Plan for control and prevention Indentify measures of health problem Indentify measures of health problem To allocate resources To allocate resources Evaluation of the problem Evaluation of the problem

17 Health care Multitude of services rendered to individuals, families or communities by the agents of the health services for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health. Multitude of services rendered to individuals, families or communities by the agents of the health services for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health. Largely a government function. Largely a government function. Medical care is a subset of health care Medical care is a subset of health care

18 Health care Group of services provided to individual, family, community by the agent of health services (PHC, community doctors, municipality.. ) for the purpose of: Group of services provided to individual, family, community by the agent of health services (PHC, community doctors, municipality.. ) for the purpose of: promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring (those who have disease) health.

19 Definitions Definitions Disease (Morbidity): pathology It is a departure from state of well-being to unhealthy state…when one organ go unwell It is a departure from state of well-being to unhealthy state…when one organ go unwell The inability of the human body to meet internal or external stresses with adequate reaction The inability of the human body to meet internal or external stresses with adequate reactionIllness: Subjective..sense of feeling unwell Sickness: Social dysfunction: he cant come today because he is sick, he took sick off

20 Disability Any temporary or long term reduction of an individual activity as a result of acute or chronic condition ; CVA consider temporarily as pt might recover after rehabilitation Any temporary or long term reduction of an individual activity as a result of acute or chronic condition ; CVA consider temporarily as pt might recover after rehabilitation Risk Factors Factors favoring development of disease often are present early in life outdating the appearance of disease by many years Factors favoring development of disease often are present early in life outdating the appearance of disease by many years e.g.: person obese (risk factor) now, after 10 years will develop DM

21 Concept Of Disease Disease = without ease (uneasiness-discomfort): Disease = without ease (uneasiness-discomfort): when something is wrong with the bodily function. when something is wrong with the bodily function. Illness : Illness : Individuals perceptions and behavior in response to the disease. Individuals perceptions and behavior in response to the disease. (a subjective state of the person who feels aware of not being well) (a subjective state of the person who feels aware of not being well) Sickness refers to state of social dysfunction. Sickness refers to state of social dysfunction.

22 Concept of Epidemic Epidemic Vs outbreak Epidemic Vs outbreak The occurrence of a number of cases of a disease (or condition) in excess of a number expected in a given time and place. The occurrence of a number of cases of a disease (or condition) in excess of a number expected in a given time and place. In some instances a single case will constitute such an unusual occurrence In some instances a single case will constitute such an unusual occurrence e.g UAE is free of malaria: 0 cases, so one case consider epidemic e.g UAE is free of malaria: 0 cases, so one case consider epidemic The cases are present in the country in certain percentage, but when it exceed this percentage expected, so here we call it epidemic The cases are present in the country in certain percentage, but when it exceed this percentage expected, so here we call it epidemic And to know if the number is exceed normal: we go back to surveillance we did about this disease And to know if the number is exceed normal: we go back to surveillance we did about this disease

23 - Epidemic curve - 1.Common source epidemic -Point source: e.g people invited to dinner, all ate same food, all get food poison, all report to hospital at the same time. -Continuous source: one same source like the story of water source in London. like the story of water source in London. OR shawarma cook has salmonella, every day he will transmit the disease to some one, continuously from same source. - 2.Propagated epidemic: not same source - people got dystenry, they treated, but one of them partially recovered, we to al ain, transmit the disease to other group, this group treated, but one transmitted to other group and so on. - Slow epidemic - Investigation of outbreak

24 Investigation of outbreak 1. Verification of diagnosis: confirm Dx 2. Confirm the existence of an out break: No. exceed expected 3. Defining the population at risk: case definition 4. Rapid search for all cases and their characteristics 5. Evaluation of ecological factors: cause of the problem 6. Formulation of hypothesis: dystentry from water source in khawaneej 7. Testing hypothesis: Data analysis: odds ratio, epidemic curve 8. Control and prevention: action 9. Final report: recommendation

25 Steps by Ameera 1. Confirm the Dx 2. Make sure it is an out break 3. Make case definition and search for the cases 4. Put the hypothesis: the cause is …. 5. Test the hypothesis: collect the data and analyze, odds ration, epidemic curve 6. Develop and implement control and prevention 7. Report.

26 Endemic Endemic Continuous presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographical area Continuous presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographical area e.g. TB in India e.g. TB in India - Hyper-endemic - Hyper-endemic Expresses a persistence intense Transmission Expresses a persistence intense Transmission - Holo-endemic - Holo-endemic A high level of infection beginning early in life which affect most population. A high level of infection beginning early in life which affect most population.

27 Control Vs Eradication Control Vs Eradication Control: Control: It is reduction of the disease transmission to an acceptable minimum, or to a level not be considered a major public health problem It is reduction of the disease transmission to an acceptable minimum, or to a level not be considered a major public health problem Eradication: Eradication: Complete elimination of a disease, or complete cessation of transmission and infectious agent Complete elimination of a disease, or complete cessation of transmission and infectious agent

28 Communicable disease every communicable d. is infectious every communicable d. is infectious A disease capable of being transmitted from an infected person or species to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly. A disease capable of being transmitted from an infected person or species to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly. Carrier carry disease without symptoms : HIV Carrier carry disease without symptoms : HIV A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of clinical disease and serve as a potential source of infection. A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of clinical disease and serve as a potential source of infection. Contact Contact A person or animal that has associated with an infected person or animal that might provide an opportunity to acquire the infection. A person or animal that has associated with an infected person or animal that might provide an opportunity to acquire the infection. Infectious disease: disease caused by infectious agent

29 Disinfection Killing of infectious agents outside the body by direct exposure to chemical or physical agents. Killing of infectious agents outside the body by direct exposure to chemical or physical agents. High level disinfections refers to the inactivation of all microorganisms except some bacterial spores. High level disinfections refers to the inactivation of all microorganisms except some bacterial spores. e.g. what we do at home: cleaning Concurrent disinfection Immediate disinfections and disposal of discharges and infective matter all through the course of a disease. Immediate disinfections and disposal of discharges and infective matter all through the course of a disease.

30 Concept of communicability Infectivity: Infectivity: Ability of the infective agent to enter, survive, and multiply in the host Ability of the infective agent to enter, survive, and multiply in the host He has the disease but not showing S&S He has the disease but not showing S&S Pathogenicity: cause destruction of organs Pathogenicity: cause destruction of organs The property of an organism that determines the extent to which overt disease is produced in an infected population i.e the power of an organism to cause disease The property of an organism that determines the extent to which overt disease is produced in an infected population i.e the power of an organism to cause disease Virulence: Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity, it is the disease-evoking power of the organism in a given host The degree of pathogenicity, it is the disease-evoking power of the organism in a given host

31 Measures of Morbidity 1. Incidence: new cases, need immediate action, it measure risk 2. Prevalence : existing cases: new & old: used to plan for future, measure magnitude of disease

32 3. Attack rate: for primary cases Index case: first person report health services (went to hospital)Index case: first person report health services (went to hospital) Primary cases: people who first exposed directly to the source of infectionPrimary cases: people who first exposed directly to the source of infection 4. Secondary attack rate Secondary cases :who got the disease but didnt expose to the source of infection, bur from the primary casesSecondary cases :who got the disease but didnt expose to the source of infection, bur from the primary cases Why we calculate the 2ndy Attack rate:Why we calculate the 2ndy Attack rate: To know the infectivity(communicabilty) of the disease.i.e. if it is infectious or not. To know the infectivity(communicabilty) of the disease.i.e. if it is infectious or not.

33 Measures of Mortality 1. Crude death rates : all death in dubai, it is not accurate, cant be used for comparison, to make it better we have standardized it 2. Specific death rates 3. Standardized rates 4. Case fatality rates: اكثر فتكا 5. Proportionate mortality ratio : اكثر تسببا في الوفاة e.g.We have 10 diseases causes death, breast cancer PMR is the highest 6. Fetal and maternal mortality rate

34 Disaster An event that overwhelmed the affected community and that really requires outside assistance. Emergency: same but require inside assistance only

35 Epidemiologist is involved during the entire time from exposure and disease. Randomized Trial Define treatment and control groups. Follow through time and compare rate of disease in treatment group with rate of disease in control group. Administer exposure to treatment group, but not controls. Whats the Design?

36 Epidemiologist is involved during the entire time from exposure and disease. Cohort Study Select a healthy study sample. Follow through time and compare rate of disease in exposed group to rate of disease in unexposed group. Observe who is exposed and who is not exposed. Whats the Design?

37 Epidemiologist is involved after disease has occurred and relies on subjects memories to gather information about exposure. Case-Control Study Select a group of people with disease and a similar group of people without the disease. Compare proportion of exposure in diseased group to proportion of exposure in non-diseased group. Ask both groups about their exposures in the past. Whats the Design?

38 Cross-Sectional Study Ask each person about both exposure and disease at that point in time. Epidemiologist gathers data only at that one point in time. Disease rate in exposed group is compared to disease rate in unexposed group. Select a study sample.

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