Presentation on theme: "Indicators of health and disease frequency measures"— Presentation transcript:
1 Indicators of health and disease frequency measures Manish ChaudharyMPH(BPKIHS)
2 Indicators of health and disease frequency measures A health indicator is " a construct of public health surveillance that defines a measure of health (i.e., the occurrence of a disease or other health-related event) or a factor associated with health (i.e., health status or other risk factor) among a specified population," Health indicators represent summary measure that capture relevant information on different health attributes and dimensions, and the performance of the health system.Seen together, these measures attempt to reflect and monitor the health status of a population.
3 Health indicatorsHealth indicators are required to answer how healthy is a given community.Health indicators measure the health status of community; compare the health status of one country with that of another; assess the health care needs; allocate scare resources; monitor and evaluate health services, activities and programs.
4 Health indicators should have following characteristics: Should be validShould be reliableShould be sensitiveShould be specificShould be measurableShould be policy relevanceShould be easy to use and interpretShould be understandable by information user
5 Type of health indicators Mortality indicatorsMorbidity indicatorsDisability ratesNutritional status indicatorsHealth care delivery indicatorsUtilization ratesIndicators of social and mental healthEnvironmental indicatorsSocio-economic indicatorsHealth policy indicatorsIndicators of quality of lifeOther indicators: social indicators, basic need indicators, health for all indicators.
6 MortalityThe total number of death due to the disease is known as mortality. Mortality data provides the starting point in many epidemiological studies. The death rate or crude mortality rate is calculated as,CMR (CDR) = No. of death in a specified period x 10nAverage total population during that periodMortality rate are also measure as specific death rates (disease specific, age specific, sex specific), case fatality rates, proportional mortality rate, survival rate.
7 The mortality data has following limitations The incomplete reporting of deathLack of accuracyLack of uniformityChoosing a single cause of deathChanging fashions in diagnosis
8 The mortality data are employed in: Explaining trends and differentials in overall mortalityIndicating priorities for health actionAllocation resources,Designing intervention programAssessment and monitoring of public health problems and programs.
9 MorbidityMorbidity is defined as "any departure subjective or objective, from a state of physiological well-being". Morbidity (sickness, illness, disability) measures:Person who were illThe illnessesThe duration of illness
10 The morbidity data have values as follows: The morbidity is measured by incidence and prevalence. Describe extend and nature of the disease load in the community.Provide more comprehensive and more accurate and clinically relevant information on patient characterization.Serve as starting point for aetiological studies and play important role in disease prevention.Essential for monitoring and evaluation of diseases control activities.
11 IncidenceIncidence rate is defined as “the number of new cases occurring in a defined population during a specified period of time".
12 PrevalencePrevalence helps to estimate the existing magnitude of health and disease problem in the community. Prevalence rates are useful in administrative and planning purpose because it measures the need for treatment, hospital beds, and equipments, health facilities and manpower needs.
13 The disability rate may be event type or person type indicators. Disability rates:The disability rate may be event type or person type indicators.Event type:Number of activity restricted daysBed disability daysWork loss daysPerson typelimitation of morbidity (confined to bed)limitation of activities (eating, washing)
14 Health care delivery indicators: doctor-population ratiodoctor-nurse ratiopopulation bed ratiopopulation health/center
15 Utilization rates:To obtain information on health status, the extent of uses of health services are often investigated. e.g.,Proportion of infants who receive antenatal careProportion of pregnant women who receive antenatal care
16 Indicators of social and mental health: The social indicators include suicide, crime, road traffic accidents and mental indicators alcohol and drugs abuse, smoking etc.These social indicators provide a guide to social action for improving the health of the people.
17 Environmental indicators: These reflect the qualities of physical and biological environment in which disease occur and which the people live.These indicators include pollution of air and water, solid wastes, noise exposure to toxic substances in food or drink.
18 Socioeconomic indicators: These indirect indicators are of great importance in the interpretation of the indicators of health care. e.g.rate of population increaseper capita GNPlevel of unemploymentdependency ratio
19 Health policy indicators: The most important indicators is "allocation of adequate resources"i.e., proportion of GNP spent on health services; proportion of total health resources devoted to primary health care.
20 Indicator of quality of life: The physical quality of the life, infant mortality, life expectancy. Literacy etc are indicators of quality of life.
21 Other indicators:Social indicators: Population, family population, distribution of incomeBasic need of indicators: These include calorie consumption, assess to water etc