Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Nature of Disease.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Disease."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature of Disease

2 Definitions Physiology
Function of the Body in the healthy state Pathology = From the Greek for Pathos meaning Disease Deals with the study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues and organs of the body that cause or are caused by disease Pathophysiology Focuses on the mechanisms of the underlying disease and provides the background for preventive as well as therapeutic health care measures and practices

3 The Nature of Disease Disease = an unhealthy state caused by the effect of injury Acute Disease = arises rapidly, lasts a short time Chronic Disease = usually begins slowly Has signs and symptoms Persists for a long time Can’t be cured by medication

4 Sign versus Symptom Symptom Sign Syndrome
A subjective complaint that is noted by the person with a disorder Sign A manifestation that is noted by an observer Syndrome A collection of clinical signs, symptoms and data

5 Etiology The cause or set of causes of a disease or condition.

6 Etiologic Factors Biological Agents Bacteria, viruses Physical Forces
Trauma, burns, radiation Chemical Agents Poisons, alcohol Nutritional Excesses of Deficits Most diseases are multi-factorial in origins Risk Factors For example, heart disease or cancer

7 Idiopathic versus Iatrogenic
If etiology is unknown the disease is said to be idiopathic Iatrogenic If the disease is a byproduct of medical diagnosis or treatment iatros = for physician

8 Diagnosis versus Differential
The designation as the the nature or cause of a health problem Requires history and physical examination Differential Diagnosis A systematic method used to identify unknowns. This method is essentially a process of elimination

9 Diagnosis Normality An important factor when interpreting diagnostic test results is the determination of whether they are normal or abnormal Within normal Range Not always accurate or appropriate Reliability The extent to which an observation is repeatable Validity The extent to which a measurement tool measures what is intended to measure

10 Diagnosis Sensitivity
The proportion of people with a disease who are positive for that disease on a given test or observation (e.g., Patient is 99% positive for the disease) Specificity The proportion of people without the disease who are negative on a given test or observation 95% accurate v. 100%

11 Prevalence on Tests Prevalence Incidence
The number of persons who have the disease at any given time Incidence The number of new cases per year

12 Mortality versus Morbidity
Death statistics Morbidity The effects of an illness has on a person’s life Concerned not only with the occurrence and incidence of the diseases but also the long-term impact of the disease

13 Prognosis Prognosis is the probable outcome and prospect of recovery from a disease

14 Levels of Prevention Primary Secondary Tertiary
Keeping disease from occurring by removing risk factors Secondary Detect disease early when it is still asymptomatic Pap smears Tertiary Clinical interventions that prevent further deterioration or reduces the complication of a disease once it is diagnosed

Download ppt "The Nature of Disease."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google