Presentation on theme: "Group 3: Renaissance Art Chapters 15-17"— Presentation transcript:
1Group 3: Renaissance Art Chapters 15-17 Christian Westhorpe:Ch15Courtney Rowland: CH16Patricia Figueroa: Ch 17
2Adversity and Challenge: The Fourteenth-Century Transition Chapter 15Adversity and Challenge: The Fourteenth-Century Transition
3The Black DeathThe most devastating natural catastrophe of the early modern eraBubonic plague struck Europe in 1347, destroying 1/3 to almost ½ of it’s population in less than 10 yearsThe disease was carried in by black rats who were carrying fleasPassed trough a bite from either the infected flea, or the rat. Then it was passed by those who were infected
4Black Death-Continued The plague got its name “Black Death” from the symptoms seen from those infectedPus would form around the body, mainly in the lymph glands, turning the body a “deathly” blackOnce a person became infected, they would usually die within two to three daysThere was no way for doctors to treat this epidemic, all treatments proved uselessEurope faced four waves of this plague between 1347 and 1375
5Effects of the Black Death The Black Death caused people to question the existence of GodSome saw it as God’s way of showing his displeasure, other’s viewed it as God’s warning to ChristiansThe “Dance of Death” by Hans Holbein, was one of the most famous depictions of this time period (skeletons taking there victims to the grave)
6Effects of the Black Death-Continued The Black Death effected Europe’s economy as wellThere was a shortage of labor, creating a greater demand for workersPeasants took advantage, fleeing to cities where jobs were readily availableThe first every labor revolts took place in France and England during the mid-fourteenth century
7The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy Lower classes started to demand equalityThe Magna Carta was signed by King John of England in the year 1215It disallowed the king to make up additional taxes without consent of the royal councilIt also guaranteed; trail by jury, which made sure that justice was served properly, over the will of the rulerHelped develop the constitutional monarchy
8The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy-Continued 50 years after the signing of the Magna Carta, England sent King Henry III to jailMiddle-class reps began to participate in the Great CouncilThis was the first example of representative government
9The Hundred Years’ WarA war fought between France and England, taking place all on French soilIt carried on from 1337 until 1453The war began because of the English’s claim to continental lands, as well as the English claim to the French throne.The English were outnumbered by 4/1 by the French, yet they still managed to win most of the early battles by introducing secret weaponsEngland Finally withdrew from France in 1450
10Secret WeaponsEnglish success was linked to the use of three new weaponsThe foot soldierThe longbowGunpowder
11The Decline of the Church The Avignon Papacy ( ) and the Great Schism ( ) caused a huge decline in the prestige of the Catholic ChurchAvignon Papacy was the relocation of the papacy from Rome to the city of Avignon in Southern FranceThe Great Schism was the election of two popes, one rule from Avignon, the other from RomeThis caused conflicting viewsViolent controversy within the ChurchLasted almost a decade
12Literature in Transition-Boccaccio Social Realism was a large part of Boccaccio’s writingSocial Realism is the objective attention to human society and social interactionBoccaccio’s most famous piece of work would be the DecameronDecameron is made up of hundred lively vernacular tales told by seven young women and three young men (they each tell a story every night for ten days)His stories remain a lasting tribute to the varieties of human affection and desire
13Christine de PisanChristine was the first feminist writer, as well as the first female professional writerShe argued the thought that women don’t deserve the same amount of education and rights of a manTitles of her work“Epistle of the God of Love”“Book of the City of Ladies”She was a spokesperson for female achievements and talents
14Geoffrey ChaucerHe was one of the most famous writers of fourteenth century literatureMost famous for his Canterbury TalesModeled off of Boccaccio’s DecameronUsed memorable details to bring his characters to lifeChaucer shaped the development of English literature
15Art and Music in Transition-Giotto Giotto anticipated the shift to realismBrought life to his painting’s by giving the image a robust and lifelike interpretationSome of his artwork includeMadonna EnthronedArena ChapelLamentation
16The Ars Nova in Music Ars Nova stands for “new art” Ars Nova introduced isorythm which means “same rhythm”It used the same rhythmic patterns at different times during the compositionA famous composer of this time was Guillaume de MachautHis most famous piece of work was his Mass or Our Lady
17Terms to KnowArs Nova: a term meaning “new art”, used to distinguish fourteenth century art from the old artIndulgence: a church pardon from the temporal penalties for sinsIsorhythm: the close repetition of identical rhythmic patterns in different sections of musical composition
18Trivia Questions!What was the first example of representative government?Ars Nova stands for what?Who wrote Mass or Our Lady?Who was the first feminist writer?What is the correct term for a church pardon from the temporal penalties for sins?
19Trivia Answers! Constitutional Monarchy New Art Guillaume de Machaut Christine de PisanIndulgence
20Classical Humanism in the Age of the Renaissance Chapter 16Classical Humanism in the Age of the Renaissance
21“Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance” Era of The RenaissanceClassical Humanism refers to the revival of the Greco-Roman culture its distinctly secular stamp.The humanists of the Renaissance were the cultural archeologists of their age.Politically: The Italian states were independent and disunitedItalian Renaissance cities were ruled either by members of the petty nobility, by mercenary generals or by wealthy middle-class families.
22The Medici FamilyOne of the most notable families dominating the Italian political life: The Medici FamilyThe Medici family was a wealthy banking family that rose to power during the 14th century and gradually assumed reins of state.The Medici family ruled for four generations. They supported scholarship and patronized the arts.
23Petrarch: “The Father of Humanism” Francesco Petrarch, the most famous of the early Florentine humanistsPetrarch was a poet and scholar. He lived from 1304 to 1374.Devoted his life to recovering, copying, and editing Latin manuscripts.Petrarch used Latin for his letters and essays. But, he wrote is poems and songs in Vernacular Italian.Petrarch was acclaimed as the finest practitioner of the sonnet form.
24Alberti and Renaissance Virtu’ Leon Battista Alberti ( )Formative figure of the Early Renaissance.Leon Alberti was a mathematician, architect, engineer, musician, and playwright.“Man can do anything he wants” is a famous statement made by Alberti, who is living proof that this is true.
25Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola Marsilio Ficino ( ) was a famous humanist philosopher.Founded the Platonic Academy in Florence.Launched the reappraisal of Plato and the Neo-PlatonistGiovanni Pico della Mirandola ( ) was a humanist poet and theologian.Pico’s program to recover the past and his reverence for the power of human knowledge dominated the arts and ideas of the High Renaissance.
26Baldassare Castiglione Castiglione was an Italian diplomat who wrote :The Book of the Courtier”Castiglione’s Courtier was inspired by a series of conversations that had taken place among a group of 16th century aristocrats at the Court of Urbino.His book is an index to cultural changes that were taking place between medieval and early modern times.His book was extremely popular. In 1527, he Aldine Press in Venice printed more then 1000 copies. It was translated into 5 languages.
27Renaissance WomenOnce married, Renaissance women’s roles and rights were carefully limited by men, most of whom considered women their social and intellectual inferiors.Were held in high esteem as housekeepers and mothers. They were not respectable models for male children, who were supposed to steer away from feminine ways.Renaissance women’s occupations remained limited to service tasks, such as midwifery and inn keeping. They reaped the benefits of an increasingly commercialized economy in which they might compete successful with men.
28Ideal Renaissance Women Duchess of Urbino was admired for her knowledge of Greek and Latin and for her role as patron of the arts.Laura Cereta married at age 15 and continued her studies even after the death of her husband. To the conventional list of famous women, Cereta adds the female humanists of her own time.
29Machiavelli and Power Politics Niccolo’ Machiavelli ( ) was a Florentine diplomat.Machiavelli formulated the idea of the state as an entity that remains exempt from the bonds of conventional morality.Machiavelli was a ruthless master of power politics who’s views shaped the modern character of humanistic tradition in the European west.
30Trivia Questions!Which family was one of the most notable families dominating the Italian political life?Who was named “The Father of Humanism”?Baldassare Castiglione, the Italian diplomat, wrote what famous book?Where is the “Birthplace of the Renaissance”?
31Trivia Answers! Francesco Petrarch “The Book of the Courtier” Italy The Medici FamilyFrancesco Petrarch“The Book of the Courtier”Italy
32Renaissance Chapter 16ArtArchitectureScienceMusic and Dance
33Renaissance ArtItaly and the Neitherlands were a breeding ground for new artists and their ideas and inventions which were expressed through their art.Patrons of the arts had the most influence on the wealth and acceptance of new artists’ ideas and discoveries.Through the many renaissance artists many new ideas changed the way people behaved and viewed the world and their fellow man.Each artist brought with them ideas and how to show a realistic view of life through the use of their art, whether it was through sculptor, painting, architect, or music.
34Early Renaissance Artists Donatello – bronze statue - “David” – an anatomically correct sculpture of man with an innocent boy like expressionLucca Della Robbia – marble sculptor - “Drummers” – a lifelike depiction of Psalms 150 a musical joyous scene to praise godSandro Botticelli – Tempura on Canvas - “Birth of Venus” a painting which represents beauty, love, earth and spirit, the goddess of earthly and spiritual love is depicted
35Early Renaissance Architecture Filippo Brunelleschi – architect, sculptor, and theorist.Designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral.Designed architecture with symmetry and proportionsLeon Battista Alberti – a humanist designerBelieved in harmonious design in architectureDesigned the “Santa Maria Novella
36Portrait RevivalLeonardo Da Vinci – with the of light and shade and the mouth and eyes delicately blurred the portrait expression is undetermined - “Mona Lisa”Jan Van Eyck – painted everyday life. He introduced through his paintings “the psychological portrait – the portrait that probed the temperament, character, or unique personality of the subject.” – “Arnolfini Marriage
37Artist-Scientists’ Use of Different Perspectives Picture Pane – the two dimensional surface of the panel or canvas to recreate the illusion of reality and three dimensional space. First used by Jan Van Eyck was improved upon.Linear Perspective – a tool for translating three dimensional space onto a two dimensional surface. The first laws were formulated by architect, sculptor, Brunelleschi.Aerial Perspective – subtle blurring of details and diminution of color intensity in objects perceived at a distance.Perspective Intarsia – the inlay of various kinds of wood to achieve new levels of pictorial illusion.Reference – Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition Book 3. Fifth Ed. Chapter 15, p
38Masaccio – aka Tommaso Guidi use of picture pane and linear perspective created depth in this painting “Trinity with the Virgin”The paintings in the Brancacci Chapel represents a more elaborate synthesis of illusionistic techniques.“Tribute Money” demonstrates the use of aerial perspective and light and shade.Lorenzo Ghiberti made use of perspecive intarsia depicted in the “Gates of Paradise”
39Leonardo Da Vinci An artist and scientist. “Embryo of the Womb”“Wing Construction”“Proportional Study of Man”“The Last Supper”An artist and scientist.Studied animal, human and plants in all aspects of life.Studied wind and water.Inventor of hundreds of mechanical devices which never left his notebook.1513 Undertakes scientific studies of botany, geology, and hydraulic power
40Other Prominent Artists Raphael - known for his clarity, harmony and unity of design.“The Alba Madonna” is seen as a picture that although religious in nature could represent any mother with her children.“The School of Athens” depicts many philosophers as well as artists and people who have had an impact on the painter’s life.Michelangelo – poet architect, painter, engineer, regarded himself as a sculptor.Painted the “Sistine Chapel” the creation and fall of humankind.“Pieta” – marble sculpture where Mary is disproportonately larger larger than Jesus in her arms.“David” – larger than life a heroic looking statue with disproportionate hands.
41High Renaissance in Venice 1.Venice was called “The jewel of the Adriatic”. It was also a center for trade.2. Leading artist Gentile Bellini created the oil on canvas “Procession of the Reliquary of the Cross in Piazza San Marco” it captures all the cultures in the Byzantine, Islamic and Western Christian decorative styles.3. Colorist Giorgio Barbarelli aka Giorgione4. Colorist Tiziano Vecelli aka Titian
42Art of VeniceVeniceBelliniGiorgione/TitianTitian
43Music & DanceThe printing press allowed for all types of music to be printed and shared.The study of music became an important pastime and household entertainment.Both common musicians and professional musicians created musical works.With an emphasis on natural sounding music which corresponded to the renaissances idea of natural depicted art in all forms.Dance became a theatrical form of expression performed by members of court.
44Early and High Renaissance Music Early Renaissance Musician - Guillaume Dufay created motets, masses, and chansons (secular songs).High Renaissance Musician – Josquin des Prez manipulated music to go along with a picture to express its meaning called “word painting.”Roland de Lassus created many madrigals, a composition for three to six unaccompanied voices.The instuments of the time included th clavichord, harpsichord, lute, shawns, cromornes, trumpets trombones, drums and portable organs.
45Trivia Questions! Who painted the Sistine Chapel? What city was called “the jewel of the Adriatic”?Name an instrument of used to create music during the renaissance.What invention allowed for the sharing of musical creations from city to city?Besides being a painter what else did Leonardo DaVinci study during his lifetime?What is perspective inarsia and which picture in this presentation displays this artistic technique?
46Trivia Answers Michelangelo Venice The instruments of the time included the clavichord, harpsichord, lute, shawns, cromornes, trumpets trombones, drums and portable organs.The printing pressStudied animal, human and plants in all aspects of life, Studied wind and water. Inventor of hundreds of mechanical devices which never left his notebook Undertakes scientific studies of botany, geology, and hydraulic power.the inlay of various kinds of wood to achieve new levels of pictorial illusion.