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Group 3: Renaissance Art Chapters 15-17

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1 Group 3: Renaissance Art Chapters 15-17
Christian Westhorpe:Ch15 Courtney Rowland: CH16 Patricia Figueroa: Ch 17

2 Adversity and Challenge: The Fourteenth-Century Transition
Chapter 15 Adversity and Challenge: The Fourteenth-Century Transition

3 The Black Death The most devastating natural catastrophe of the early modern era Bubonic plague struck Europe in 1347, destroying 1/3 to almost ½ of it’s population in less than 10 years The disease was carried in by black rats who were carrying fleas Passed trough a bite from either the infected flea, or the rat. Then it was passed by those who were infected

4 Black Death-Continued
The plague got its name “Black Death” from the symptoms seen from those infected Pus would form around the body, mainly in the lymph glands, turning the body a “deathly” black Once a person became infected, they would usually die within two to three days There was no way for doctors to treat this epidemic, all treatments proved useless Europe faced four waves of this plague between 1347 and 1375

5 Effects of the Black Death
The Black Death caused people to question the existence of God Some saw it as God’s way of showing his displeasure, other’s viewed it as God’s warning to Christians The “Dance of Death” by Hans Holbein, was one of the most famous depictions of this time period (skeletons taking there victims to the grave)

6 Effects of the Black Death-Continued
The Black Death effected Europe’s economy as well There was a shortage of labor, creating a greater demand for workers Peasants took advantage, fleeing to cities where jobs were readily available The first every labor revolts took place in France and England during the mid-fourteenth century

7 The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy
Lower classes started to demand equality The Magna Carta was signed by King John of England in the year 1215 It disallowed the king to make up additional taxes without consent of the royal council It also guaranteed; trail by jury, which made sure that justice was served properly, over the will of the ruler Helped develop the constitutional monarchy

8 The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy-Continued
50 years after the signing of the Magna Carta, England sent King Henry III to jail Middle-class reps began to participate in the Great Council This was the first example of representative government

9 The Hundred Years’ War A war fought between France and England, taking place all on French soil It carried on from 1337 until 1453 The war began because of the English’s claim to continental lands, as well as the English claim to the French throne. The English were outnumbered by 4/1 by the French, yet they still managed to win most of the early battles by introducing secret weapons England Finally withdrew from France in 1450

10 Secret Weapons English success was linked to the use of three new weapons The foot soldier The longbow Gunpowder

11 The Decline of the Church
The Avignon Papacy ( ) and the Great Schism ( ) caused a huge decline in the prestige of the Catholic Church Avignon Papacy was the relocation of the papacy from Rome to the city of Avignon in Southern France The Great Schism was the election of two popes, one rule from Avignon, the other from Rome This caused conflicting views Violent controversy within the Church Lasted almost a decade

12 Literature in Transition-Boccaccio
Social Realism was a large part of Boccaccio’s writing Social Realism is the objective attention to human society and social interaction Boccaccio’s most famous piece of work would be the Decameron Decameron is made up of hundred lively vernacular tales told by seven young women and three young men (they each tell a story every night for ten days) His stories remain a lasting tribute to the varieties of human affection and desire

13 Christine de Pisan Christine was the first feminist writer, as well as the first female professional writer She argued the thought that women don’t deserve the same amount of education and rights of a man Titles of her work “Epistle of the God of Love” “Book of the City of Ladies” She was a spokesperson for female achievements and talents

14 Geoffrey Chaucer He was one of the most famous writers of fourteenth century literature Most famous for his Canterbury Tales Modeled off of Boccaccio’s Decameron Used memorable details to bring his characters to life Chaucer shaped the development of English literature

15 Art and Music in Transition-Giotto
Giotto anticipated the shift to realism Brought life to his painting’s by giving the image a robust and lifelike interpretation Some of his artwork include Madonna Enthroned Arena Chapel Lamentation

16 The Ars Nova in Music Ars Nova stands for “new art”
Ars Nova introduced isorythm which means “same rhythm” It used the same rhythmic patterns at different times during the composition A famous composer of this time was Guillaume de Machaut His most famous piece of work was his Mass or Our Lady

17 Terms to Know Ars Nova: a term meaning “new art”, used to distinguish fourteenth century art from the old art Indulgence: a church pardon from the temporal penalties for sins Isorhythm: the close repetition of identical rhythmic patterns in different sections of musical composition

18 Trivia Questions! What was the first example of representative government? Ars Nova stands for what? Who wrote Mass or Our Lady? Who was the first feminist writer? What is the correct term for a church pardon from the temporal penalties for sins?

19 Trivia Answers! Constitutional Monarchy New Art Guillaume de Machaut
Christine de Pisan Indulgence

20 Classical Humanism in the Age of the Renaissance
Chapter 16 Classical Humanism in the Age of the Renaissance

21 “Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance”
Era of The Renaissance Classical Humanism refers to the revival of the Greco-Roman culture its distinctly secular stamp. The humanists of the Renaissance were the cultural archeologists of their age. Politically: The Italian states were independent and disunited Italian Renaissance cities were ruled either by members of the petty nobility, by mercenary generals or by wealthy middle-class families.

22 The Medici Family One of the most notable families dominating the Italian political life: The Medici Family The Medici family was a wealthy banking family that rose to power during the 14th century and gradually assumed reins of state. The Medici family ruled for four generations. They supported scholarship and patronized the arts.

23 Petrarch: “The Father of Humanism”
Francesco Petrarch, the most famous of the early Florentine humanists Petrarch was a poet and scholar. He lived from 1304 to 1374. Devoted his life to recovering, copying, and editing Latin manuscripts. Petrarch used Latin for his letters and essays. But, he wrote is poems and songs in Vernacular Italian. Petrarch was acclaimed as the finest practitioner of the sonnet form.

24 Alberti and Renaissance Virtu’
Leon Battista Alberti ( ) Formative figure of the Early Renaissance. Leon Alberti was a mathematician, architect, engineer, musician, and playwright. “Man can do anything he wants” is a famous statement made by Alberti, who is living proof that this is true.

25 Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Marsilio Ficino ( ) was a famous humanist philosopher. Founded the Platonic Academy in Florence. Launched the reappraisal of Plato and the Neo-Platonist Giovanni Pico della Mirandola ( ) was a humanist poet and theologian. Pico’s program to recover the past and his reverence for the power of human knowledge dominated the arts and ideas of the High Renaissance.

26 Baldassare Castiglione
Castiglione was an Italian diplomat who wrote :The Book of the Courtier” Castiglione’s Courtier was inspired by a series of conversations that had taken place among a group of 16th century aristocrats at the Court of Urbino. His book is an index to cultural changes that were taking place between medieval and early modern times. His book was extremely popular. In 1527, he Aldine Press in Venice printed more then 1000 copies. It was translated into 5 languages.

27 Renaissance Women Once married, Renaissance women’s roles and rights were carefully limited by men, most of whom considered women their social and intellectual inferiors. Were held in high esteem as housekeepers and mothers. They were not respectable models for male children, who were supposed to steer away from feminine ways. Renaissance women’s occupations remained limited to service tasks, such as midwifery and inn keeping. They reaped the benefits of an increasingly commercialized economy in which they might compete successful with men.

28 Ideal Renaissance Women
Duchess of Urbino was admired for her knowledge of Greek and Latin and for her role as patron of the arts. Laura Cereta married at age 15 and continued her studies even after the death of her husband. To the conventional list of famous women, Cereta adds the female humanists of her own time.

29 Machiavelli and Power Politics
Niccolo’ Machiavelli ( ) was a Florentine diplomat. Machiavelli formulated the idea of the state as an entity that remains exempt from the bonds of conventional morality. Machiavelli was a ruthless master of power politics who’s views shaped the modern character of humanistic tradition in the European west.

30 Trivia Questions! Which family was one of the most notable families dominating the Italian political life? Who was named “The Father of Humanism”? Baldassare Castiglione, the Italian diplomat, wrote what famous book? Where is the “Birthplace of the Renaissance”?

31 Trivia Answers! Francesco Petrarch “The Book of the Courtier” Italy
The Medici Family Francesco Petrarch “The Book of the Courtier” Italy

32 Renaissance Chapter 16 Art Architecture Science Music and Dance

33 Renaissance Art Italy and the Neitherlands were a breeding ground for new artists and their ideas and inventions which were expressed through their art. Patrons of the arts had the most influence on the wealth and acceptance of new artists’ ideas and discoveries. Through the many renaissance artists many new ideas changed the way people behaved and viewed the world and their fellow man. Each artist brought with them ideas and how to show a realistic view of life through the use of their art, whether it was through sculptor, painting, architect, or music.

34 Early Renaissance Artists
Donatello – bronze statue - “David” – an anatomically correct sculpture of man with an innocent boy like expression Lucca Della Robbia – marble sculptor - “Drummers” – a lifelike depiction of Psalms 150 a musical joyous scene to praise god Sandro Botticelli – Tempura on Canvas - “Birth of Venus” a painting which represents beauty, love, earth and spirit, the goddess of earthly and spiritual love is depicted

35 Early Renaissance Architecture
Filippo Brunelleschi – architect, sculptor, and theorist. Designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral. Designed architecture with symmetry and proportions Leon Battista Alberti – a humanist designer Believed in harmonious design in architecture Designed the “Santa Maria Novella

36 Portrait Revival Leonardo Da Vinci – with the of light and shade and the mouth and eyes delicately blurred the portrait expression is undetermined - “Mona Lisa” Jan Van Eyck – painted everyday life. He introduced through his paintings “the psychological portrait – the portrait that probed the temperament, character, or unique personality of the subject.” – “Arnolfini Marriage

37 Artist-Scientists’ Use of Different Perspectives
Picture Pane – the two dimensional surface of the panel or canvas to recreate the illusion of reality and three dimensional space. First used by Jan Van Eyck was improved upon. Linear Perspective – a tool for translating three dimensional space onto a two dimensional surface. The first laws were formulated by architect, sculptor, Brunelleschi. Aerial Perspective – subtle blurring of details and diminution of color intensity in objects perceived at a distance. Perspective Intarsia – the inlay of various kinds of wood to achieve new levels of pictorial illusion. Reference – Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition Book 3. Fifth Ed. Chapter 15, p

38 Masaccio – aka Tommaso Guidi use of picture pane and linear perspective created depth in this painting “Trinity with the Virgin” The paintings in the Brancacci Chapel represents a more elaborate synthesis of illusionistic techniques. “Tribute Money” demonstrates the use of aerial perspective and light and shade. Lorenzo Ghiberti made use of perspecive intarsia depicted in the “Gates of Paradise”

39 Leonardo Da Vinci An artist and scientist.
“Embryo of the Womb” “Wing Construction” “Proportional Study of Man” “The Last Supper” An artist and scientist. Studied animal, human and plants in all aspects of life. Studied wind and water. Inventor of hundreds of mechanical devices which never left his notebook. 1513 Undertakes scientific studies of botany, geology, and hydraulic power

40 Other Prominent Artists
Raphael - known for his clarity, harmony and unity of design. “The Alba Madonna” is seen as a picture that although religious in nature could represent any mother with her children. “The School of Athens” depicts many philosophers as well as artists and people who have had an impact on the painter’s life. Michelangelo – poet architect, painter, engineer, regarded himself as a sculptor. Painted the “Sistine Chapel” the creation and fall of humankind. “Pieta” – marble sculpture where Mary is disproportonately larger larger than Jesus in her arms. “David” – larger than life a heroic looking statue with disproportionate hands.

41 High Renaissance in Venice
1.Venice was called “The jewel of the Adriatic”. It was also a center for trade. 2. Leading artist Gentile Bellini created the oil on canvas “Procession of the Reliquary of the Cross in Piazza San Marco” it captures all the cultures in the Byzantine, Islamic and Western Christian decorative styles. 3. Colorist Giorgio Barbarelli aka Giorgione 4. Colorist Tiziano Vecelli aka Titian

42 Art of Venice Venice Bellini Giorgione/Titian Titian

43 Music & Dance The printing press allowed for all types of music to be printed and shared. The study of music became an important pastime and household entertainment. Both common musicians and professional musicians created musical works. With an emphasis on natural sounding music which corresponded to the renaissances idea of natural depicted art in all forms. Dance became a theatrical form of expression performed by members of court.

44 Early and High Renaissance Music
Early Renaissance Musician - Guillaume Dufay created motets, masses, and chansons (secular songs). High Renaissance Musician – Josquin des Prez manipulated music to go along with a picture to express its meaning called “word painting.” Roland de Lassus created many madrigals, a composition for three to six unaccompanied voices. The instuments of the time included th clavichord, harpsichord, lute, shawns, cromornes, trumpets trombones, drums and portable organs.

45 Trivia Questions! Who painted the Sistine Chapel?
What city was called “the jewel of the Adriatic”? Name an instrument of used to create music during the renaissance. What invention allowed for the sharing of musical creations from city to city? Besides being a painter what else did Leonardo DaVinci study during his lifetime? What is perspective inarsia and which picture in this presentation displays this artistic technique?

46 Trivia Answers Michelangelo Venice
The instruments of the time included the clavichord, harpsichord, lute, shawns, cromornes, trumpets trombones, drums and portable organs. The printing press Studied animal, human and plants in all aspects of life, Studied wind and water. Inventor of hundreds of mechanical devices which never left his notebook Undertakes scientific studies of botany, geology, and hydraulic power. the inlay of various kinds of wood to achieve new levels of pictorial illusion.

47 Works Cited

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