Presentation on theme: "THE GREAT WEST AND THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION, 1865-1896 Chapter 26."— Presentation transcript:
THE GREAT WEST AND THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION, 1865-1896 Chapter 26
Indians Embattled In The West The Great West At the time of the Civil War was a vast unsettled area By 1890 territories carved out and Indians being squeezed out 1865-1890 final showdown for the independent Indian tribes. Area inhabited by plains Indians hunted and relied on the vast herds of Buffalo that roamed freely over the prairie.
Pressure on Western Indians 1500Horse Pre-Civil War Guns Diseases Cattle Result: More pressure on and competition between tribes
Treaties Whites tried to pacify the tribes by signing treaties with the chiefs Beginning of the reservation system in the west. Treaties doomed to failure
Reservations In the 1860s Indians confined to even smaller reservations in exchange for promises to be left alone, food and other supplies. Northern plains Indians --the large Dakota territory (Great Sioux Reservation) South, Indian territory in present-day Ok. Promises were broken. Sioux uprising in Minnesota. during the civil war is bloodily crushed
Indian Wars 1868-90 -- Constant warfare between Indians and feds. Buffalo soldiers of the 10th Cavalry. Western Indians were a much bigger challenge than Eastern Indians.
Receding Native Population Atrocities on both sides Sand Creek or Chivingtons Massacre at Sand Creek, Colo. 1864. Black Kettle, a friendly Cheyenne Indian Chief attacked by Colo Militia Fetterman massacre. 1866. Fetterman pursued a small band of Sioux and was lured into an ambush. He found himself facing approximately 2,000 Indians. Within 20 minutes, Fetterman and his command had been wiped out.
Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (1867) 2 nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868) guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills Reservation Policy
Chief Sitting Bull Gen. George Armstrong Custer Little Big Horn Custer leads a scientific expedition into the Black Hills of South Dakota Reports discovery of gold on Sioux territory. Hordes of gold seekers stream into the Sioux territory. The Sioux attack these invaders of their land led by Sitting Bull. Custers 7th Cavalry sent in to bring peace. Custers troops wiped out at Little Big Horn in present-day Montana when Custer blunders into an ambush sprung by a superior force. All 264 killed.
Apache Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico were the most difficult to subdue. Led by Geronimo. He appeared at fairs, including the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, and sold souvenirs and photographs of himself
Nez Perce Nez Perce go to war in Idaho in 1877. Chief Joseph leads his band on 1700 mile trek over the Continental divide. Surrenders and sent to reservation in Kansas where 40% die of disease.
Bellowing Herds Of Bison 1865--15 Million buffalo. Integral to the way of life for Nomadic Western Indians. They were the staff of life for Indians, By 1885 fewer than a 1000. Shot to feed RR gangs, for skins, for sport and as a way to subdue the Indians.
The End Of The Trail 1880s national conscience awakening. Helen Hunt Jackson -- A Century of Dishonor; Ramona Humanitarians: Christianize the Indians Turn them into productive farmers Integrate them as citizens. Hardliners insisted on forced containment.
Assimilating Indians Missionary policies ignored the culture of the Indians. Christian missionaries on the reservations tried to force Indian culture out of the Indians. Didnt work Ghost Dance cult Wounded Knee massacre.
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 Attempt to transform Indians into good American farmers. Major shift in Indian policy. Ends reservation system. Provisions: Dissolved many tribes as legal entities wiped out tribal joint ownership of land. Individual family heads given 160 acres of land. Full title and citizenship in 25 years if behaved themselves. Leftover reservation land sold; money to be used to educate and civilize the Indians. Missionaries and teachers sent to reservations to Christianize and teach women to sew and keep house.
Dawes Failure Dawes act failed. By 1900 Indians had lost half of the land they had held 20 years earlier. Dawes Act remains as basic framework for dealing with Indians until 1934
Mining Mining brought many people west and helped settle the west. Gold in California in 1849, Gold Rush in Colorado in 1858 Pikes Peak or Bust. Comstock load in Nevada in 1859. Additional smaller strikes in Montana, Idaho and other Western states. Many boomtowns spring up
Mining Small-time mining replaced by corporations Increased role for women in West Effect on economy of mining. Helped finance the Civil War, Facilitated building of the RR, Reduced the value of silver
Mining Centers: 1900
Cattle Drives 1866-1888 was the era of the Cattle drives Wild Longhorns in Texas and Mexico. Reason cattle driven north 1000-10,000 head herds Abilene, Dodge City, Ogallala and Cheyenne.
Cattle Drives Pros and cons for terminus towns Wyatt Earp 4 million steers were driven north. Profits as high as 40%. Why Cattle drives ended
Free Land For Free Families Homestead Act of 1862. Any adult could claim 160 acres of public land on certain conditions Details Dramatic change in land policy. Trickle-down Intent was to provide a stimulus to the family farm, seen as the back-bone of democracy. movie
Reality of Western Farming Problem: 160 acres often inadequate to sustain a farmer in the Trans-Mississippi west because of the scant rainfall. Perhaps 2/3 failed to stay for the full five years. In 40 years, nearly half a million families took advantage of the Homestead Act, Many more than that purchased their lands from the RR, land companies or the states. Rampant Fraud.
A Pioneers Sod House, SD
Great American Desert Western Prairie had think sod, no trees. Thought to be un- farmable. Rich soil underneath Sod-busting Oxen and heavy plow 1870s farmers stream onto Western Prairie
Busting in Kansas Farmers pushed too far west. 100th Meridian. 1870s Farmers do well. Why? 1880s and early 1890s many of these farmers busted. Why? Western Kansas lost half its population between 1888 and 1892. What new innovations help western farmers. dry-land farming; heartier wheat; new crops; irrigation
Average Annual Precipitation
The Far West Comes Of Age 1870 and 1890 a boom time for the far west. Colorado, Dakotas, Montana, Washington, Idaho and Wyoming all become states during this period.. Oklahoma Land Rush Last gasp of the large-scale opening of new lands for settlement April, 1889 Oklahoma thrown open to settlement. Sooners Boomers By end of year, 60,000 inhabitants. Oklahoma a state in 1909.
The Folding Frontier The frontier is considered to have closed in 1890. No longer a discernable frontier line. No longer good free land readily available. Lots of unsettled land, but largely undesirable. No longer line beyond which wilderness and no civilization. Role of Frontier in shaping America
Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
Frederick Jackson Turner The Significance of the Frontier in American Society (1893)
The Farm Becomes A Factory Farming more of a business post-Civil War. More farmers raise cash crops. Problems with this? Farmers have to buy more stuff. Increased mechanization boosted production, but also boosted the cash farmers need. Needed heavy machinery in order to plant and harvest their bigger crops on larger farms. Many bought the new harvester-reaper
Unhappy Farmers Much more dependence on banks, RR and manufacturing Farmers had to be much better businessmen Farmers were and felt much more vulnerable and powerless. Farmers grew resentful of eastern banking and RR, which they blamed for their problems. Farming became a much larger-scale operation. Small farmers were pushed out by increased mechanization
Deflation Dooms the Debtor 1880s and 1890s: deflation and depressed commodity prices Farmers in debt to buy land and harvesters behind the 8-ball. Debts harder to pay off. Causes of deflation Not enough dollars in circulation money supply did not keep pace with increased economic activity. After the Civil War, Grant contracts the money supply to get rid of greenbacks and to shore up US credit.
Falling Grain Prices Effect of mechanization on grain supply. Farmers went bankrupt in great numbers Especially in the south, farmers became tenants rather than owners. By 1880 ¼ of all American farms operated by tenants.
Unhappy Farmers Farmers faced additional problems: Grasshoppers Boll weevil Droughts Land was over-taxed by state and federal government Protective tariff Trusts exacted inflated prices. RR freight rates were sometimes ruinous. Farmers still half the population in 1890 but hopelessly disorganized
The Farmers Take Their Stand The Grange (1867). Oliver Kelley the founder Spread quickly; by 1875 had 800,000 members Advocated regulation of RR rates, grain storage fees. Cooperatives. Got into politics. Got states to pass laws regulating RR and grain elevators, but Supreme Court struck down these laws
Prelude to Populism Farmers Alliance founded in Teas in late 1870s. By 1890 more than a million members. Problems targeted to land-owners, thus ignoring all the tenant farmers excluded blacks, half all southern farmers Goals: nationalize RR, abolish national banks, institute a graduated income tax government-owned warehouses where they could store their crops until market prices rose while taking out loans against the assumed future value of their crops.
Profits of Populism Mary Lease. Early populist Raise More Hell and less Corn. Electoral success of Farmers Alliance. Jim Crow laws passed as a result. Movement matures into the Populist Party.
McKinley William McKinley of Ohio. McKinley pro-business – laissez faire. Mark Hannas money and political influence get McKinley the nomination on the first ballot
Bryans Cross of Gold In 1896 Democrats were in turmoil. Cleveland very unpopular Silverite faction in firm control. William Jennings Bryan Cross-of-Gold Speech Floor the convention and gets him the nomination
Cross of Gold Speech You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!
Democratic Platform Platform calls for unlimited minting of silver at the ratio of 16 ounces for each ounce of gold. Why?. Many conservative democrats bolt the party and support McKinley. Populists endorse Bryan and sacrifice their identity.
Silver v. Gold Republicans assumed tariff would be the primary issue, but Bryan made it silver. He traveled tirelessly giving 600 speeches. His campaign like a religious crusade. Silver became the rallying cry. Debtors and Farmers v. eastern big-money interests. Gold standard a scapegoat. Return of Jacksonian Democrats?
Hanna Leads Gold Bugs Conservatives and business interests saw the free-coinage of silver as the road to economic ruin. Allowed Hanna to raise tons of money from big businesses Republicans had a 16-1 money advantage. Hanna wages campaign of fear against Bryan. Slogan McKinley and a full dinner pail. McKinley campaigns from his porch Employers scare employees
McKinley wins decisively by 500,000 votes and 271-176 in Electoral College. Turnout is very high
Election of 1896 Bryan loses Election was a major victory for middle-class values, big business and conservative monetary policies. Most significant election since Lincoln and until FDR in 1932. Renewed Republican dominance of Presidency
Inflation Without Silver McKinley was a cautions, temperate, conservative Worked well with congress and with his own party Did not advocate major reforms. Tariff rates back to 46.5% Soon after the election, prosperity returned; natural business cycle. Republicans took credit. Inflation happened naturally. New gold discoveries and new processes for extracting gold from ore increase money supply
Was Bryan right? Was a shortage of currency Did hurt debtors and farmers Banking system did favor big business. But, Silver would have taken US off Gold standard Silver the wrong cure