Presentation on theme: "THE GREAT WEST AND THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION,"— Presentation transcript:
1THE GREAT WEST AND THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION, 1865-1896 Chapter 26
2Indians Embattled In The West The Great WestAt the time of the Civil War was a vast unsettled areaBy 1890 territories carved out and Indians being squeezed outfinal showdown for the independent Indian tribes.Area inhabited by “plains” Indianshunted and relied on the vast herds of Buffalo that roamed freely over the prairie.
3Pressure on Western Indians 1500—HorsePre-Civil WarGunsDiseasesCattleResult: More pressure on and competition between tribes
4TreatiesWhites tried to pacify the tribes by signing treaties with the “chiefs”Beginning of the reservation system in the west.Treaties doomed to failureThe Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed on September 17 between United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Shoshone, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations. The treaty sets forth traditional territorial claims of the tribes as between themselves. The Indians guaranteed safe passage for settlers on the Oregon Trail in return for promises of an annuity in the amount of fifty thousand dollars for fifty years. The Native American nations also allowed roads and forts to be built in their territories. The United States Senate ratified the treaty, adding Article 7, to adjust compensation from fifty to ten years, if the tribes accepted the changes. Acceptance from all tribes, with the exception of the Crows, was procured. Several tribes never received the commodities promised as payments. The treaty produced a brief period of peace but was broken by the mass emigration during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush into the territory set aside for the Indians.
5ReservationsIn the 1860s Indians confined to even smaller reservations in exchange for promises to be left alone, food and other supplies.Northern plains Indians --the large Dakota territory (“Great Sioux Reservation”)South, Indian territory in present-day Ok.Promises were broken.Sioux uprising in Minnesota. during the civil war is bloodily crushedImageExecution of 38 Sioux, Mankato, Minnesota, 1862.The execution of 38 Sioux Indians at Mankato, Minnesota, on December 25, Late in the summer of that year, the easternmost Sioux, the Santee, rose in rebellion after several frustrating months of waiting for payment of their annuities. In 1851 these Minnesota bands had agreed to a treaty giving away 30 million acres of land for $1.6 million dollars to be paid in annual deliveries of food and cash. The government enforced payment of much of the cash to traders for debts incurred by Indians even when the traders had not delivered food and supplies. In 1858 the government cut in half the size of their reservation along the Minnesota River; in August 1862 bands of Sioux, led by Chief Little Crow, made open warfare on settlers in an attempt to drive whites off of land that had been theirs until Some 500 to 700 settlers were killed, but frontier army units diverted from Civil War service eventually put down the "Minnesota Uprising." Most of the warriors escaped farther west, but some 400 were captured. Of these, 38 were executed.
6Indian Wars 1868-90 -- Constant warfare between Indians and feds. Buffalo soldiers of the 10th Cavalry.Western Indians were a much bigger challenge than Eastern Indians.The 10th Cavalry was formed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas in Very high standards of recruitment were set by the regimental commander and Civil War hero Benjamin Grierson. As a result, recruitment and organization of the unit required slightly over one year. By the end of July 1867 eight companies of enlisted men had been recruited from the Departments of Missouri, Arkansas, and the Platte.Life at Leavenworth was not pleasant for the 10th. The Fort's commander, who was admittedly opposed to African- Americans serving in the regular army, made life as difficult as he could on the new troopers. Grierson sought to have his regiment transferred, and subsequently received orders moving the regiment to Fort Riley, Kansas later that summer. Within two months of the transfer, the final four companies were in place.For the next eight years, the 10th was stationed at numerous forts throughout Kansas and Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). They provided guards for workers of the Kansas and Pacific Railroad, strung miles of new telegraph lines, and to a large extent built Fort Sill. Throughout this period, they were constantly patrolling the reservations in an attempt to prevent Indian raids into Texas. In 1867 and 68, the 10th participated in Gen. Sherman's winter campaigns against the Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Comanches. Units of the 10th prevented the Cheyenne from fleeing to the northwest, thus allowing Custer and the 7th Cavalry to defeat them at the decisive battle near Fort Cobb, Indian Territory. In 1875, the 10th Cavalry moved its headquarters to Fort Concho in west Texas. Other companies were assigned to various forts throughout the area. The regiment's mission in Texas was to protect mail and travel routes, control Indian movements, provide protection from Mexican revolutionaries and outlaws, and to gain a knowledge of the areas terrain. The regiment proved highly successful in completing their mission. The 10th scouted 34,420 miles of uncharted terrain, opened more than 300 miles of new roads, and laid over 200 miles of telegraph lines. The scouting activities took the troops through some of the harshest and most desolate terrain in the nation. These excursions allowed the preparation of excellent maps detailing scarce water holes, mountain passes, and grazing areas that would later allow for settlement of the area. These feats were accomplished while having to be constantly on the alert for hit-and-run raids from the Apaches. The stay in west Texas produced tough soldiers, who became accustomed to surviving in an area that offered few comforts and no luxuries.
7Receding Native Population Atrocities on both sidesSand Creek or Chivington’s Massacre at Sand Creek, Colo Black Kettle, a friendly Cheyenne Indian Chief attacked by Colo MilitiaFetterman massacreFetterman pursued a small band of Sioux and was lured into an ambush. He found himself facing approximately 2,000 Indians. Within 20 minutes, Fetterman and his command had been wiped out.The Sand Creek Massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek or the Massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory. Based on the oral history of Southern Cheyenne Chief Laird Cometsevah, around 400 Cheyenne and Arapaho men,women, and children were killed at Sand Creek. More than 700 American soldiers were involved.Black Kettle, a chief of a group of around 800 mostly Northern Cheyennes, reported to Fort Lyon in an effort to declare peace. After having done so, he and his band, along with some Arapahos under Chief Niwot, camped out at nearby Sand Creek, less than 40 miles north. The Dog Soldiers, who had been responsible for much of the conflict with whites, were not part of this encampment. Assured by the U.S. Government's promises of peace, Black Kettle sent most of his warriors to hunt, leaving only around 60 men and women in the village, most of them too old or too young to participate in the hunt. Black Kettle flew an American flag over his lodge since previously he had been assured that this practice would keep him and his people safe from U.S. soldiers' aggression.Setting out from Fort Lyon, Colonel Chivington and his 800 troops of the First Colorado Cavalry, Third Colorado Cavalry and a company of First New Mexico Volunteers marched to Black Kettle's campsite. On the night of November 28, soldiers and militia drank heavily and celebrated their anticipated victory. On the morning of November 29, 1864, Chivington ordered his troops to attack. One officer, Captain Silas Soule refused to follow Chivington's order and told his men to hold fire. Other soldiers in Chivington's force, however, immediately attacked the village. Disregarding the American flag, and a white flag that was run up shortly after the soldiers commenced firing, Chivington's soldiers massacred the majority of its mostly unarmed inhabitants.Fetterman allegedly boasted that with 80 soldiers, he could "ride through the Sioux Nation." On December 21, 1866, a large band of Cheyenne and Sioux—including Crazy Horse—under the leadership of Red Cloud attacked a wood train near the fort. Despite his unfamiliarity with frontier conditions and methods of Indian fighting, Fetterman took command of a composite reaction force consisting of the former battalion quartermaster, Captain Frederick Brown, 2nd Lt. George Grummond, 49 enlisted troops of the 18th Infantry, 27 men of the 2nd Cavalry, and 2 civilian scouts, ironically totaling 80 men. Ignoring his orders not to venture beyond Lodge Trail Ridge (out of sight and support distance from the fort), Fetterman pursued a small band of Sioux and was lured into an ambush. He found himself facing approximately 2,000 Indians. Within 20 minutes, Fetterman and his command had been wiped out.The Fetterman Massacre, as the encounter became known, was second in notoriety only to Custer's disastrous defeat in It led to the dismissal of Fetterman's commanding officer, Henry B. Carrington, who was initially blamed for the disaster, but was eventually exonerated.Fetterman's grave is in the National Cemetery at the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. He had never married and left no heirs. His pension was sent to his mother.In 1867, the army designated a new outpost in the Dakota Territory as "Fort Fetterman" in honor of the slain officer, as well as Fetterman Street and Fetterman Drive in Laramie, Wyoming.
82nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868) Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (1867) Reservation Policy2nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868)guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black HillsTreaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (1867)The Treaty of Fort Laramie (also called the Sioux Treaty of 1868) was an agreement between the United States and the Lakota nation, Yanktonai Sioux, Santee Sioux, and Arapaho signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory,, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites. The treaty ended Red Cloud's War.The treaty included articles intended to "ensure the civilization" of the Lakota; financial incentives for them to farm land and become competitive - and stipulations that minors should be provided with an "English education" at a "mission building". To this end the US government included in the treaty that white teachers, blacksmiths, a farmer, a miller, a carpenter, an engineer and a government agent should take up residence within the reservation.Repeated violations of the otherwise exclusive rights to the land by gold prospectors led to the Black Hills War. Migrant workers seeking gold had crossed the reservation borders, in violation of the treaty. Indians had assaulted these gold prospectors, in violation of the treaty, and war ensued. The U.S. government seized the Black Hills land in 1877.More than a century later, the Sioux nation won a victory in court. On June 30, 1980, in United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, 448 U.S. 371, the United States Supreme Court upheld an award of $17.5 million for the market value of the land in 1877, along with 103 years worth of interest at 5 percent, for an additional $105 million. The Lakota Sioux, however, refused to accept payment and instead demanded the return of their territory from the United States.
9Gen. George Armstrong Custer Little Big HornCuster leads a “scientific expedition” into the Black Hills of South DakotaReports discovery of gold on Sioux territory.Hordes of gold seekers stream into the Sioux territory.The Sioux attack these “invaders” of their land led by Sitting Bull.Custer’s’ 7th Cavalry sent in to bring “peace.”Custer’s troops wiped out at Little Big Horn in present-day Montana when Custer blunders into an ambush sprung by a superior force. All 264 killed.Gen. George Armstrong CusterChief Sitting Bull
10ApacheApache’s in Arizona and New Mexico were the most difficult to subdue.Led by Geronimo.He appeared at fairs, including the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, and sold souvenirs and photographs of himselfThe great-grandson of Apache warrior Geronimo argues in a lawsuit that a secretive society at Yale University holds the remains of his great-grandfather.Apache warrior Geronimo was buried in Oklahoma, but some say a secret society absconded with his remains.1 of 2 Harlyn Geronimo has sued Yale and the society -- the Order of Skull and Bones -- to try to recover the remains."This appellation stemmed from a battle in which he repeatedly attacked Mexican soldiers with a knife, ignoring a deadly hail of bullets, in reference to the Mexicans' plea to Saint Jerome ("Jeronimo!"). The name stuck.The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. To counter the early Apache raids on Spanish settlements, presidios were established at Janos (1685) in Chihuahua and at Fronteras (1690) in northern Opata country. In 1835, Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps. Two years later Mangas Coloradas or Dasoda-hae (Red Sleeves) became principal chief and war leader and began a series of retaliatory raids against the Mexicans. Apache raids on Mexican villages were so numerous and brutal that no area was safe.Though outnumbered, Geronimo fought against both Mexican and United States troops and became famous for his daring exploits and numerous escapes from capture from 1858 to One such escape, as legend has it, took place in the Robledo Mountains of southwest New Mexico. The legend states Geronimo and his followers entered a cave, and the U.S. Soldiers waited outside the cave entrance for him, but he never came out. Later it was heard that Geronimo was spotted in a nearby area. The second entrance to the cave has yet to be found and the cave is still called Geronimo's Cave. At the end of his military career, he led a small band of 36 men, women, and children. They evaded thousands of Mexican and American troops for over a year. His band was one of the last major forces of independent Indian warriors who refused to acknowledge the United States Government in the American West.Geronimo and other Apaches were sent as prisoners to Fort Pickens, Florida, and his family was sent to Fort Marion. They were reunited in May 1887, when they were transferred to Mount Vernon Barracks in Alabama for seven years. In 1894, they were moved to Fort Sill, Oklahoma. In his old age, Geronimo became a celebrity. He appeared at fairs, including the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, and sold souvenirs and photographs of himself. However, he was not allowed to return to the land of his birth. He also rode in President Theodore Roosevelt's 1905 inaugural parade.In 1905, Geronimo agreed to tell his story to S. M. Barrett, Superintendent of Education in Lawton, Oklahoma. Barrett had to appeal to President Roosevelt to gain permission to publish the book. Geronimo came to each interview knowing exactly what he wanted to say. He refused to answer questions or alter his narrative. Barrett did not seem to take many liberties with Geronimo's story as translated by Asa Daklugie. Frederick Turner re-edited this autobiography by removing some of Barrett's footnotes and writing an introduction for the non-Apache readers. Turner notes the book is in the style of an Apache reciting part of his oral history.Geronimo died of pneumonia on February 17, 1909 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and was buried at the Apache Indian Prisoner of War Cemetery there.
11Nez Perce Nez Perce go to war in Idaho in 1877. Chief Joseph leads his band on 1700 mile trek over the Continental divide.Surrenders and sent to reservation in Kansas where 40% die of disease.When his father died in 1871, Joseph was elected to succeed him. He inherited not only a name but a situation made increasingly volatile as white settlers continued to arrive in the Wallowa Valley. Joseph staunchly resisted all efforts to force his band onto the small Idaho reservation, and in 1873 a federal order to remove white settlers and let his people remain in the Wallowa Valley made it appear that he might be successful. But the federal government soon reversed itself, and in 1877 General Oliver Otis Howard threatened a cavalry attack to force Joseph's band and other hold-outs onto the reservation. Believing military resistance futile, Joseph reluctantly led his people toward Idaho.Unfortunately, they never got there. About twenty young Nez Percé warriors, enraged at the loss of their homeland, staged a raid on nearby settlements and killed several whites. Immediately, the army began to pursue Joseph's band and the others who had not moved onto the reservation. Although he had opposed war, Joseph cast his lot with the war leaders.What followed was one of the most brilliant military retreats in American history. Even the unsympathetic General William Tecumseh Sherman could not help but be impressed with the 1,400 mile march, stating that "the Indians throughout displayed a courage and skill that elicited universal praise... [they] fought with almost scientific skill, using advance and rear guards, skirmish lines, and field fortifications." In over three months, the band of about 700, fewer than 200 of whom were warriors, fought 2,000 U.S. soldiers and Indian auxiliaries in four major battles and numerous skirmishes.By the time he formally surrendered on October 5, 1877, Joseph was widely referred to in the American press as "the Red Napoleon." It is unlikely, however, that he played as critical a role in the Nez Percé's military feat as his legend suggests. He was never considered a war chief by his people, and even within the Wallowa band, it was Joseph's younger brother, Olikut, who led the warriors, while Joseph was responsible for guarding the camp. It appears, in fact, that Joseph opposed the decision to flee into Montana and seek aid from the Crows and that other chiefs -- Looking Glass and some who had been killed before the surrender -- were the true strategists of the campaign. Nevertheless, Joseph's widely reprinted surrender speech has immortalized him as a military leader in American popular culture:I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is dead. Toohoolhoolzote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say, "Yes" or "No." He who led the young men [Olikut] is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are -- perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.Joseph's fame did him little good. Although he had surrendered with the understanding that he would be allowed to return home, Joseph and his people were instead taken first to eastern Kansas and then to a reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) where many of them died of epidemic diseases. Although he was allowed to visit Washington, D.C., in 1879 to plead his case to U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, it was not until 1885 that Joseph and the other refugees were returned to the Pacific Northwest. Even then, half, including Joseph, were taken to a non-Nez Percé reservation in northern Washington, separated from the rest of their people in Idaho and their homeland in the Wallowa Valley.In his last years, Joseph spoke eloquently against the injustice of United States policy toward his people and held out the hope that America's promise of freedom and equality might one day be fulfilled for Native Americans as well. An indomitable voice of conscience for the West, he died in 1904, still in exile from his homeland, according to his doctor "of a broken heart."
12Bellowing Herds Of Bison Million buffalo.Integral to the way of life for Nomadic Western Indians.They were the staff of life for Indians,By 1885 fewer than a 1000.Shot to feed RR gangs, for skins, for sport and as a way to subdue the Indians.
13The End Of The Trail 1880s national conscience awakening. Helen Hunt Jackson -- A Century of Dishonor; RamonaHumanitarians:Christianize the IndiansTurn them into productive farmersIntegrate them as citizens.Hardliners insisted on forced containment.Helen Maria Hunt Jackson (October 18, August 12, 1885) was an American writer best known as the author of Ramona, a novel about the ill treatment of Native Americans in southern California.During this time, Jackson read an account in a Los Angeles newspaper about a Cahuilla Indian who had been shot and killed. His wife, it turned out, was named Ramona. On one excursion, Jackson was escorted by wagon to Santa Barbara and stopped off at Rancho Camulos in the Santa Clara River Valley, where she visited the adobe of the del Valle family. But the Señora del Valle was not home the day Jackson was there. And at the Mission Santa Barbara, Jackson made the acquaintance of Father Sanchez, a source of great inspiration.In 1883, she completed her fifty-six page report, which called for a massive government relief effort ranging from the purchase of new lands for reservations to the establishment of more Indian schools. A bill embodying her recommendations passed the U.S. Senate but died in the House of Representatives.Jackson, however, was not discouraged by this Congressional rejection. She decided to write a novel that would depict the Indian experience "in a way to move people's hearts." An inspiration for the undertaking, Jackson admitted, was Uncle Tom's Cabin written years earlier by her friend, Harriet Beecher Stowe."If I can do one-hundredth part for the Indian that Mrs. Stowe did for the Negro, I will be thankful," she told a friend. Jackson was particularly drawn to the fate of her Indian friends in the Temecula area of Riverside County and decided to use the story of what happened to them in her novel. She began writing the outline for her novel while staying at the Grapevine Inn in San Gabriel, but it wasn't till December 1883 that she actually started to write the novel in her New York hotel room, with an original title of In The Name of the Law, and completed the manuscript in slightly over three months. The result was her classic novel Ramona about a part-Indian orphan raised in Spanish Californio society and her Indian husband, Alessandro, which was published in November 1884 and achieved almost instant success.Encouraged by the popularity of her book, Jackson planned to write a children's story on the Indian issue. But less than a year after the publication of Ramona, while she was examining the condition of the California Indians as a special government commissioner, she died of cancer in San Francisco, California.Her last letter was written to President Grover Cleveland, urging him to read her early work A Century of Dishonor. Speaking to a friend, Jackson said, "My Century of Dishonor and Ramona are the only things I have done of which I am glad. They will live and bear fruit."
14Assimilating IndiansMissionary policies ignored the culture of the Indians.Christian missionaries on the reservations tried to force Indian culture out of the Indians. Didn’t workGhost Dance cultWounded Knee massacre.In the Wounded Knee Massacre, on December 28, 1890, 500 troops of the U.S. 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns (a lightweight artillery piece designed for travel with cavalry and used as a replacement for the aging twelve-pound mountain howitzer), surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou Sioux (Lakota) and Hunkpapa Sioux (Lakota). The Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day prior, the Sioux had given up their protracted flight from the troops and willingly agreed to turn themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do so. They were met by the 7th Cavalry, who intended to use a display of force coupled with firm negotiations to gain compliance from them.The commander of the 7th had been ordered to disarm the Lakota before proceeding. During the process of disarmament, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote refused the order to give up his rifle because he did not understand the order to disarm. This set off a chain reaction of events that led to a scene of sheer chaos and mayhem with fighting between both sides in all directions.By the time it was over, more than 300 men, women, and children of the Lakota Sioux had been killed. Twenty-five troopers also died during the massacre, some believed to have been the victims of "friendly fire" as the shooting took place at point blank range in chaotic conditions. Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, with an unknown number later dying from hypothermia.The site has been designated a National Historic Landmark.[4
15Dawes Severalty Act of 1887Attempt to transform Indians into good American farmers.Major shift in Indian policy. Ends reservation system.Provisions:Dissolved many tribes as legal entitieswiped out tribal joint ownership of land.Individual family heads given 160 acres of land.Full title and citizenship in 25 years if behaved themselves.Leftover reservation land sold; money to be used to educate and civilize the Indians.Missionaries and teachers sent to reservations to Christianize and teach women to sew and keep house.The Dawes Act was enacted on February 8, 1887 regarding the distribution of land to Native Americans in Oklahoma. Named after its sponsor, U.S. Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, the act was amended in 1891 and again in 1906 by the Burke Act. The act remained in effect until 1934.Section One authorizes the President to survey Native American tribal areas and divide the arable land into sections for the individual. It says that a Native American family may receive 160 acres (0.65 km2) if they are to farm, 80 acres (320,000 m2) if they are to raise cattle and 40 acres (160,000 m2) for any normal living purposes.Section Two states that each Native American will choose his or her own allotment and the family will choose for each minor child. The Native American agent will choose for orphan children.Section Three requires the U.S. American agent to certify each allotment and provide two copies of the certification to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs one to be kept in the Indian Office and the other to be transmitted to the United States Department of the Interior (Secretary of the Interior) for his action, and to be sent to the General Land Office.Section Four provides that Native Americans not residing on their reservation and Native Americans without reservations will receive the equal allotment.Section Five provides that a Secretary of the Interior will hold the allotments "in trust" for 25 years. At that time, the title will belong to the allotment holder or heirs. It also allows the Secretary to negotiate under existing treaties for the land not allotted to be purchased on "terms and conditions as shall be considered just and equitable between the United States and said tribe of Indians."Section Six states that upon completion of the land patent process, the allotment holder will become a United States citizen and "be entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens".Section Seven addresses water rights on irrigated land.Section Eight exempts the Five Civilized Tribes and several others from the act.Section Nine appropriates the funds to carry out the act.Section Ten asserts the Power of Eminent Domain of the Congress over the allotments.Section Eleven contains a provision for the Southern Ute Native Americans that they could move from their present reservation in Southwestern Colorado to a new reservation if a majority of the adult male members wanted so.
16Dawes FailureDawes act failed. By 1900 Indians had lost half of the land they had held 20 years earlier.Dawes Act remains as basic framework for dealing with Indians until 1934The land granted to most allottees was not sufficient for economic viability, and division of land between heirs upon the allottees' deaths resulted in land fractionalization. Most allotment land, which could be sold after a statutory period of 25 years, was eventually sold to non-Native buyers at bargain prices. Additionally, land deemed to be "surplus" beyond what was needed for allotment was opened to white settlers, though the profits from the sales of these lands were often invested in programs meant to aid the American Indians. Native Americans lost, over the 47 years of the Act's life, about 90 million acres (360,000 km²) of treaty land, or about two-thirds of the 1887 land base. About 90,000 Indians were made landless.The Dawes Act, with its emphasis on individual land ownership, also had a negative impact on the unity, self-government, and culture of Indian tribes.By dividing reservation lands into privately-owned parcels, legislators hoped to complete the assimilation process by forcing the deterioration of the communal life-style of the Native societies and imposing Western-oriented values of strengthening the nuclear family and values of economic dependency strictly within this small household unit (Gibson, 1988).
17Mining Mining brought many people west and helped settle the west. Gold in California in 1849,Gold Rush in Colorado in Pike’s Peak or Bust.Comstock load in Nevada in 1859.Additional smaller strikes in Montana, Idaho and other Western states.Many boomtowns spring up
18Mining Small-time mining replaced by corporations Increased role for women in WestEffect on economy of mining.Helped finance the Civil War,Facilitated building of the RR,Reduced the value of silver
20Cattle Drives 1866-1888 was the era of the Cattle drives Wild Longhorns in Texas and Mexico.Reason cattle driven north,000 head herdsAbilene, Dodge City, Ogallala and Cheyenne.
21Cattle Drives Pros and cons for terminus towns Wyatt Earp 4 million steers were driven north. Profits as high as 40%.Why Cattle drives endedWyatt Berry Stapp Earp (March 19, 1848–January 13, 1929) was an American farmer, teamster, sometime buffalo hunter, officer of the law in various Western frontier towns, gambler, saloon-keeper, miner and boxing referee. He is best known for his participation in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, along with Doc Holliday, and two of his brothers, Virgil Earp and Morgan Earp. He is also noted for the Earp Vendetta. Wyatt Earp has become an iconic figure in American folk history. He is the major subject of various movies, TV shows, biographies and works of fiction.
22Free Land For Free Families Homestead Act of 1862.Any adult could claim 160 acres of public land on certain conditionsDetailsDramatic change in land policy.Trickle-downIntent was to provide a stimulus to the family farm, seen as the back-bone of democracy. Homestead Act of 1862Summary The Homestead Act of 1862 was passed by the U.S. Congress. It provided for the transfer of 160 acres (65 hectares) of unoccupied public land to each homesteader on payment of a nominal fee after five years of residence; land could also be acquired after six months of residence at $1.25 an acre. The government had previously sold land to settlers in the West for revenue purposes. As the West became politically stronger, however, pressure was increased upon Congress to guarantee free land to settlers. Several bills providing for free distribution of land were defeated in Congress; in 1860 a bill was passed in Congress but was vetoed by President Buchanan. With the ascendancy of the Republican party (which had committed itself to homestead legislation) and with the secession of the South (which had opposed free distribution of land), the Homestead Act, sponsored by Galusha A. Grow, became law. In 1976 it expired in all the states but Alaska, where it ended in 1986.movie
23Reality of Western Farming Problem: 160 acres often inadequate to sustain a farmer in the Trans-Mississippi west because of the scant rainfall.Perhaps 2/3 failed to stay for the full five years.In 40 years, nearly half a million families took advantage of the Homestead Act,Many more than that purchased their lands from the RR, land companies or the states.Rampant Fraud.
25Great American DesertWestern Prairie had think sod, no trees. Thought to be un-farmable.Rich soil underneathSod-bustingOxen and heavy plow1870s farmers stream onto Western Prairie
26Busting in Kansas Farmers pushed too far west. 100th Meridian. 1870s Farmers do well. Why?1880s and early 1890s many of these farmers busted. Why?Western Kansas lost half its population between 1888 and 1892.What new innovations help western farmers.dry-land farming;heartier wheat;new crops;irrigation
28The Far West Comes Of Age 1870 and 1890 a boom time for the far west.Colorado, Dakotas, Montana, Washington, Idaho and Wyoming all become states during this period..Oklahoma Land RushLast gasp of the large-scale opening of new lands for settlementApril, 1889 Oklahoma thrown open to settlement.SoonersBoomersBy end of year, 60,000 inhabitants. Oklahoma a state in 1909.
29The frontier is considered to have closed in 1890. The Folding FrontierThe frontier is considered to have closed in 1890.No longer a discernable frontier line.No longer “good” free land readily available.Lots of unsettled land, but largely undesirable.No longer line beyond which wilderness and no civilization.Role of Frontier in shaping America
31The Significance of the Frontier in American Society (1893) Frederick Jackson TurnerUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison in 1884, where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity. He gained his Ph.D. in history from Johns Hopkins University in 1890 with a thesis on the Wisconsin fur trade. As a professor of history at Wisconsin (1890–1910) and Harvard (1910–1922), Turner trained scores of disciples who in turn dominated American history programs throughout the country. His emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories. His model of sectionalism as a composite of social forces, such as ethnicity and land ownership, gave historians the tools to use social history as the foundation of all social, economic and political developments in American history. At the American Historical Association, he collaborated with J. Franklin Jameson on major projects. Turner's Frontier ThesisTurner is remembered for his "Frontier Thesis", which he first published July 12, 1893, in a paper read in Chicago to the American Historical Association during the Chicago World's Fair. In it, he stated that the spirit and success of the United States is directly tied to the country's westward expansion. According to Turner, the forging of the unique and rugged American identity occurred at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness. This produced a new type of citizen - one with the power to tame the wild and one upon whom the wild had conferred strength and individuality. WorksHis essays are collected in The Significance of Sections in American History, which won the Pulitzer Prize for History in Turner's sectionalism thesis had almost as much influence among historians as his frontier thesis. He argued that different ethno-cultural groups had distinct settlement patterns, and this revealed itself in politics, economics and society.The Significance of the Frontier in American Society (1893)
32The Farm Becomes A Factory Farming more of a business post-Civil War.More farmers raise cash crops. Problems with this?Farmers have to buy more stuff.Increased mechanization boosted production, but also boosted the cash farmers need.Needed heavy machinery in order to plant and harvest their bigger crops on larger farms.Many bought the new harvester-reaper
33Unhappy Farmers Much more dependence on banks, RR and manufacturing Farmers had to be much better businessmenFarmers were and felt much more vulnerable and powerless.Farmers grew resentful of eastern banking and RR, which they blamed for their problems.Farming became a much larger-scale operation.Small farmers were pushed out by increased mechanization
34Deflation Dooms the Debtor 1880s and 1890s: deflation and depressed commodity pricesFarmers in debt to buy land and harvesters behind the 8-ball. Debts harder to pay off.Causes of deflationNot enough dollars in circulationmoney supply did not keep pace with increased economic activity.After the Civil War, Grant contracts the money supply to get rid of greenbacks and to shore up US credit.
35Falling Grain Prices Effect of mechanization on grain supply. Farmers went bankrupt in great numbersEspecially in the south, farmers became tenants rather than owners.By 1880 ¼ of all American farms operated by tenants.
36Unhappy Farmers Farmers faced additional problems: GrasshoppersBoll weevilDroughtsLand was over-taxed by state and federal governmentProtective tariffTrusts exacted inflated prices.RR freight rates were sometimes ruinous.Farmers still half the population in 1890 but hopelessly disorganized
37The Farmers Take Their Stand The Grange (1867).Oliver Kelley the founderSpread quickly; by 1875 had 800,000 membersAdvocated regulation of RR rates, grain storage fees.Cooperatives .Got into politics.Got states to pass laws regulating RR and grain elevators, but Supreme Court struck down these laws
38Prelude to Populism Farmers’ Alliance founded in Teas in late 1870s. By 1890 more than a million members.Problemstargeted to land-owners, thus ignoring all the tenant farmersexcluded blacks, half all southern farmersGoals:nationalize RR,abolish national banks,institute a graduated income taxgovernment-owned warehouses where they could store their crops until market prices rose while taking out loans against the assumed future value of their crops.
39Profits of PopulismMary Lease. Early populist “Raise More Hell and less Corn.”Electoral success of Farmers’ Alliance.Jim Crow laws passed as a result.Movement matures into the Populist Party.Lease became involved in the Populist Party, drumming up support for their cause. She believed that big business had made the people of America into "wage slaves", declaring, "Wall Street owns the country. It is no longer a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, but a government of Wall Street, by Wall Street, and for Wall Street. The great common people of this country are slaves, and monopoly is the master." Although she is widely believed to have exhorted Kansas farmers to "raise less corn and more hell", she later said that the admonition had been invented by reporters. Lease decided to let the quote stand because she thought "it was a right good bit of advice."In 1888, she began to work for the Union Labor Party and gave a speech at their state convention. From there she became involved in the movement that would become the Populist party. By 1890, her involvement in the growing revolt of Kansas farmers against high mortgage interest and railroad rates had placed her in the forefront of the People's (Populist) Party. She was recognized as being a powerful orator who was adept at expressing the discontent of the people. However not many agreed that she was a skilled or even relevant orator. Reporters had described her as "...untrained, and while displaying plenty of a certain sort of power, is illogical, lacks sequence and scatters like a 10-gauge gun."  Lease was often heavily criticized. She was accused of being overly vulgar and foulmouthed. She was described by a republican editor as "the petti-coated smut-mill [...] Her venomous tongue is the only thing marketable about the old harpy, and we suppose she is justified in selling it where it commends the highest price." . She stumped all over Kansas, as well as the Far West and the South, making more than 160 speeches for the cause. She was a powerful and emotional speaker. Emporia editor William Allen White, who did not share her political views, wrote on one occasion that "she could recite the multiplication table and set a crowd hooting and harrahing at her will."More an agitator than a practical politician, historian Gene Clanton describes her political career as being defined by three characteristics; an exaggerated sense of self-importance, an intense hatred for the democrats and a shallow understanding of the actual problems plaguing Kansas. Lease began drifting away from the Populist party after Populist Governor Lewellin was elected into office. By November 1893 she was reported to have openly criticized the Lewellin administration only to deny it in an interview several days later. . Yet it would seem that the first interview reflected her true feelings. By December of that same year Lewellin attempted to have her removed from the board of charities, a position which he had appointed her to originally. Yet she claimed that the attempt to have her removed stemmed from her determination to have women's suffrage and temperance as her main focus at the Populist party's next state convention. Her outraged reaction at the attempt to have her removed prompted even her own party members to distance themselves from her. Governor Lewellin's secretary Osborn was quoted saying "I am no longer suprised at anything she says. The woman is crazy." . By 1896 Lease had become alienated from the Populist Party and historian Gene Clanton cites her split with the Populist party as being a major contributor to the Populist party's defeat in 1894.
40McKinley William McKinley of Ohio. McKinley pro-business – laissez faire.Mark Hanna’s money and political influence get McKinley the nomination on the first ballotHANNA, Marcus Alonzo,called Uncle Mark Hanna ( ), American politician and businessman, born in New Lisbon (now Lisbon), Ohio. After one year of schooling at Western Reserve College (now Western Reserve University), he entered his father's wholesale grocery business. He was singularly successful in this and other enterprises, including the coal and iron business, the operation of railway and steamship lines, and banking.Beginning in 1880, Hanna became increasingly active in the Republican party. At the Republican National Convention of 1888 he managed the unsuccessful bid of U.S. senator John Sherman for the presidential nomination. In 1896, Hanna did secure the Republican presidential nomination for another protégé of his, Gov. William McKinley of Ohio. As chairman of the Republican National Committee, Hanna managed the promotion of his candidate as well as the subsequent campaign, raising a huge war chest as a means to win the election for McKinley.In 1897 the governor of Ohio appointed Hanna to fill an unexpired term in the U.S. Senate; he was elected to a full Senate term the following year. One of the most influential advisers of President McKinley, Hanna advocated and secured a lasting alliance between the Republican party and corporate business interests. After the assassination of McKinley in 1901, Hanna acted as adviser to the new president, Theodore Roosevelt, and helped him settle the anthracite coal strike of His influence, however, declined in the new administration
41Bryan’s Cross of GoldIn 1896 Democrats were in turmoil. Cleveland very unpopularSilverite faction in firm control.William Jennings BryanCross-of-Gold SpeechFloor the convention and gets him the nominationBRYAN, William Jennings( ), American political leader, editor, and lecturer, known for his spellbinding oratory.Bryan was born on March 19, 1860, in Salem, Ill., and educated at Illinois College, Jacksonville, and at Union College of Law, Chicago. He began to practice law in Illinois in 1883 and served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Nebraska from 1891 to During this period he became a leader of the movement for the unlimited coinage of silver. At the Democratic National Convention of 1896, Bryan, who had become celebrated as an orator, delivered his most famous talk, generally known as the "cross of gold" speech, in behalf of the bimetallic theory, and received the presidential nomination; he was defeated in the election of that year by the Republican governor of Ohio, William McKinley. During his subsequent career he twice again (1900 and 1908) received the Democratic nomination for president, but on both occasions he was defeated at the polls. In 1901 Bryan founded the Commoner, an influential weekly paper, in Lincoln, Nebr. The nomination of the Democratic governor of New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson, for the presidency in 1912 was due in part to Bryan's efforts in his behalf. As secretary of state ( ) in the Wilson administration, Bryan negotiated 30 treaties of arbitration with foreign countries. He resigned his office in 1915 in protest against the administration's hostile attitude toward Germany. Although his political career had come to an end, he retained recognition as an eminent national figure. Many of the reforms for which he worked were eventually adopted. Among the most notable of these were woman suffrage, the national income tax, popular election of U.S. senators, and prohibition.Bryan's last years were devoted largely to activities in behalf of the American religious movement known as fundamentalism. In 1925, at Dayton, Tenn., he acted as an associate prosecutor in the trial of a schoolteacher, John Thomas Scopes ( ), who had taught the biological theory of evolution to his pupils in defiance of a state law prohibiting the teaching of doctrines contrary to the Bible. The chief defense attorney was the famous American lawyer Clarence Darrow, who also had strong personal convictions about the principles involved. The case attracted considerable attention throughout the U.S. Bryan won the case, and Scopes was found guilty and fined $100, but the humiliating cross-examination to which Bryan was subjected by Darrow, revealing his ignorance of scientific discoveries, probably hurt the fundamentalist cause and may have been a contributing factor in Bryan's sudden death on July 26, only five days after the conclusion of the trial. Bryan's writings include Heart to Heart Appeals (1917) and The Bible and Its Enemies (1921).
42“Cross of Gold” SpeechYou shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!
43Democratic PlatformPlatform calls for unlimited minting of silver at the ratio of 16 ounces for each ounce of gold.Why?.Many conservative democrats bolt the party and support McKinley.Populists endorse Bryan and sacrifice their identity.
44Silver v. GoldRepublicans assumed tariff would be the primary issue, but Bryan made it silver.He traveled tirelessly giving 600 speeches.His campaign like a religious crusade.Silver became the rallying cry.Debtors and Farmers v. eastern big-money interests.Gold standard a scapegoat.Return of Jacksonian Democrats?
45Hanna Leads Gold BugsConservatives and business interests saw the free-coinage of silver as the road to economic ruin.Allowed Hanna to raise tons of money from big businessesRepublicans had a 16-1 money advantage.Hanna wages campaign of fear against Bryan.Slogan “McKinley and a full dinner pail.”McKinley campaigns from his porchEmployers scare employees
46McKinley wins decisively by 500,000 votes and 271-176 in Electoral College. Turnout is very high
47Election of 1896 Bryan loses Election was a major victory for middle-class values, big business and conservative monetary policies.Most significant election since Lincoln and until FDR in 1932.Renewed Republican dominance of Presidency
48Inflation Without Silver McKinley was a cautions, temperate, conservativeWorked well with congress and with his own partyDid not advocate major reforms.Tariff rates back to 46.5%Soon after the election, prosperity returned; natural business cycle. Republicans took credit.Inflation happened naturally.New gold discoveries and new processes for extracting gold from ore increase money supply
49Was Bryan right? Was a shortage of currency Did hurt debtors and farmersBanking system did favor big business.But, Silver would have taken US off Gold standardSilver the wrong cure