Presentation on theme: "November 15, 2010 What American and Soviet actions caused the Cold War to spread around the world? –Questions for you to research. –Answering the Worksheet."— Presentation transcript:
November 15, 2010 What American and Soviet actions caused the Cold War to spread around the world? –Questions for you to research. –Answering the Worksheet Homework: Study
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 2 Questions to Investigate: How does the Hydrogen bomb differ from the atomic bomb? What was the policy of brinkmanship? What covert actions did the U.S. undertake in the Middle East and Latin America? What was the Warsaw Pact? What happened at the Geneva Summit? How did the Suez War start another war? What was the Eisenhower doctrine? What happened during the Hungarian uprising?
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 3 Action/Reaction Soviets blow up atomic bomb in 1949 The U.S. Start prosecuting spies for handing Soviets the secrets begins working on hydrogen bomb
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 4 How did the Hydrogen Bomb differ from the Atomic Bomb? Hydrogen (H-Bomb) Fuses two hydrogen isotopes together Thermonuclear power comes from atomic trigger 67 times more powerful than the atom bomb U.S. the first to develop it (Soviets 1 year behind) Atomic (A-Bomb) Splits uranium atoms
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 5 What was the policy of Brinkmanship? The policy if the U.S. to go to the edge of war Policy under President Eisenhower and his secretary of State (John Foster Dulles) Cold War was moral crusade against communism Developed nuclear weapons which led to the practice of air raids and nuclear fall out shelters
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 6 Central Intelligence Agency Began to carry out covert operations to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the U.S. So, what covert actions did the U.S. undertake in the Middle East and Latin America?
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 7 Action/Reaction in Covert Operations 1951 – Iran’s prime minister (Mossadegh) placed private oil industries under Iranian control British stopped buying Iranian oil –Iranian economy began to drop U.S. fears Iran will turn to Soviets –CIA gave millions of dollars to anti- Mossadegh supporters (pro-American Shah) –Shah of Iran took over and returned oil fields to Western companies
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 8 Action/Reaction in Covert Operations 1954 – CIA took actions in Guatemala –Eisenhower believed they favored communism –Guatemala had given 200,000 acres of American-owned land to peasants –CIA trained an army (under an exiled army officer) which invaded Guatemala –This army refused to defend the president who then resigned (Guzman) –The army’s leader became the dictator (Armas)
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 9 What was the Warsaw Pact? Soviet Union’s military alliance in which seven Eastern European nations joined the Soviet Union
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 10 What happened at the Geneva Summit? President Eisenhower met with Soviet Leaders in Geneva, Switzerland Open Skies proposal – flights over each other’s territory to prevent nuclear attacks –Soviet Union said no Still seen as step towards peace
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 11 Stalin died in 1953 Nikita Krushchev eventually took over He believed communism would take over the world He criticized Stalin for committing crimes against the Soviet people Believed in friendly economic and scientific competition This would make some feel that the Soviet Union was weakening
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 12 Action/Reaction: Suez War 1955-1956 Egypt’s head of government tried to play U.S. and Soviet Union against each other –Improving relations with both to get more money U.S. learned this and withdrew its loans Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal (owned by France and Great Britain)
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 13 Action/Reaction: Suez War 1955-1956 Israeli ships not allowed to pass through the canal –Israel sent troops (so did Great Britain and France) The three seized the Meditteranean end of the canal and the U.N. stepped in to stop the fighting Egypt was able to keep the canal
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 14 What was the Eisenhower Doctrine? Soviet’s prestige in Middle East rose due to its support in Egypt Eisenhower issues warning: the U.S. would defend the Middle East against an attack by any communist country
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 15 Action/Reaction: The Hungarian Uprising 1956 Hungarians revolted against communism in 1956 Nagy formed new government (communist liberal) –Free elections –Denounced the Warsaw Pact –Demanded removal of Soviet troops
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 16 Action/Reaction: The Hungarian Uprising 1956 Soviets brought in tanks and killed thousands Soviets overthrew Nagy and replaced the government with Soviet leaders Nagy was executed and thousands fled Hungary
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 17 Action/Reaction: The Hungarian Uprising 1956 U.S. did nothing to help Hungary break free of Soviet control Hungarians bitterly disappointed as American containment did not extend to satellite nations U.N. did not help either as Soviet veto stopped them from taking action
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 18 The Space Race: How did Sputnik affect America? 1957 - Soviets launch Sputnik – world’s first artificial satellite U.S. shocked at being beaten –Prompt more spending on space program –First attempt at our own satellite was failure –1958 – U.S. successfully launches own satellite
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 19 U-2 Incident: 1960 1955 - CIA began making high altitude flights in U-2 planes Infared cameras took pictures of Soviet troop movement and missile sites 1958 – Soviets became aware of such flights Eisenhower wanted flights discontinued but Dulles persuaded one last flight
Free Template from www.brainybetty.com 20 U-2 Incident: 1960 Francis Gary Powers took this last flight Four hours later he was shot down by Soviets He was sentenced to 10 years in prison At first Eisenhower denied the spying but the Soviets had evidence Krushchev wanted apology and flights to stop –Eisenhower promised flights to stop but no apology Their meeting was cancelled and this started the 1960’s with tension
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