2Explaining Proliferation K Street is the SIG ghetto – 7,000 officesThere is much division of ideas in this country and this is how they all have a voiceOur constitution allows for multiple points of access (3 branches of equal power)
3The Birth of Interest Groups Sons of Liberty, religious groups, antislavery groups, the Grange and NAACP are among the firstMore than half the interest groups that exist today were formed in the 60’s and 70’s. 4 factors: broad economic developments create new interests and redefine old one Government policy creates SIG’s veterans, farmers, unionsDuring times of grand movements: burned over district, 1960’s civil rights The more the government undertakes the more people are interested in influencing the gov.
4Kinds of Organizations Interest Group – organization that seeks to influence public policyThese organizations can be split into institutional and membership interests
5Institutional Interests Individuals or organizations representing other organizationsHired guns, professional law firms that represent huge broad “things” US Chamber of Commerce, National Association of the CountiesThey can represent – governments, foundations, universities, public transit etc…
6NACo (An example of a SIG) The National Association of Counties (NACO) was created in 1935 when county officials wanted to have a strong voice in the nation's capital. More than six decades later, NACO continues to ensure that the nation's 3067 counties are heard and understood in the White House and the halls of Congress. NACO's membership totals almost 2,000 counties, representing over 80 percent of the nation's population.NACO is a full-service organization that provides an extensive line of services including legislative, research, and technical as well as public affairs assistance to its members.The association:Acts as a liaison with other levels of governmentWorks to improve public understanding of countiesServes as a national advocate for counties and provides them with resources to help them find innovative methods to meet the challenges they faceIs involved in a number of special projects that deal with such issues as the environment, sustainable communities, volunteerism and intergenerational studies
7Membership InterestNAACP, Sierra Club, PTA, LWV, AARP, Rotary Club, American Legion, NRA, ACLUAs mentioned before, Americans are more apt to join a political organization than other countries but just because you are African American doesn’t mean that you re going to join the NAACP, they must have a special incentive
9Incentives to JoinSolidary Incentive – status, companionship, local chapters, support groups etc…Material incentive – money, benefits, services Farmers get discounts, AARP gets lower life insurance premiums, prescription drug benefits,Purposive incentive – the appeal of their stated goals (ideological people magnet)
10Public interest lobbygroup that works to benefit the nonmembers (The Nader Movement)When Nader made his money he started (PIRGS) – local groups aimed at helping the common good staffed by college volunteers
11One of the shining examples of the student movement is the student Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs). With the help of our organizers, this campus-based phenomenon that started in 1970 has grown broader and deeper on campuses throughout the country. Students in Oregon and Minnesota launched the first PIRGs. After the initial success in these two pioneering states, attorney and organizer Donald Ross and I wrote a book titled: Action for a Change: A Students Manual for Public Interest Organizing.
12The Influence of the Staff The staff of the group often dominates a SIG’s agenda, not the membershipAgain, staff members tend to be more ideologically centered and do not represent the majority of the membership
13Interest Groups and Social Movements Social movement – a widely shared demand for change in a certain amount of time,Purposive incentive SIGS get a good chunk of their membership at this time
14The Environmental Movement 1890’s, 1930’s and 1960’s major environmental movements – Sierra Club, Wilderness Society, National Wildlife Federation, and the Environment Defense Fund (very liberal) all spawned from this movement
15The Feminist Movement1920’s League of Women Voters, NOW, NARAL, NWPC (Liberal), NFRW (Conservative)
16The Union Movement1890’s to 1930 huge labor movements lead to strong labor unions, since the great depression labor unions have lost membership %, % Reasons?Economy has changed, views on labor unions have changed, but the unions won’t die. They have incentives to join that are still appealing AFL-CIO
17Funds for Interest Groups Membership groups have trouble raising money and have small office. (Dues) Institutional groups have no trouble raising money and have lavish offices.Foundation Grants Ford foundation, Rockefeller Family Fund, Scaife foundation give tons of money to SIGS in the forms of grantsFederal Grants and Contracts Federal grants go not to SIGS, but to the activities of SIGS that will benefit all.Direct Mail Target key groups and solicit them for funds (pg 230)
18The Problem of BiasSIGS reflect an upper class bias? Poor people do not join as often as well off, and SIGS representing professional and business are better financed than groups representing minorities consumers, and or handicapped (Table 9.3)In political conflict the resources at ones disposal can often tip the scales into you favor
19The Activities of Interest Groups In terms of size and wealth of SIG’s bigger is not always better. A quick guide to how SIG’s and PAC’s advance their cause
20InformationPoliticians are too busy to become experts on every issue. The SIG who’s lobbyist provides the best info in an organized, persuasive, and factual manner will win the day.Trust is key!Political cues – busy politicians will simply ask what SIG’s are for an issue and what SIG’s are against it.Ratings – many SIGs give a score card on legislators to rank how the vote on certain issues
21Public Support: Rise of the New Politics Old school - insider strategy – tight with a few key members of congress and exchange info and favors over diner or golf.New School – Outsider strategy – congress is more individualistic and each legislator in concerned with their public image, Fax machine, , internet are essential with disseminating information, creating polls, routing phone calls to congressional office, mail bombarding by a small yet passionate group, because lets face it most people don’t care. Public threats, scolding of officials, labeling This can go both ways however… NRA is not as powerful as it once was because of its image
22Money and the PAC’sCampaign finance reform laws of 1973 sharply restricted the amount tht any SIG could give to federal candidates, but it made it legal for corporations and labor unions to form as many PAC’s as they want.Since 1973 PAC’s have increased over 7 times!!!!!! This is good because it is more likely that no matter the issue there are multiple PACs making money available on all sides of every issueAlso PAC’s can give only small amounts so it is arguable that they really are a factor in “buying elections:”
23The “Revolving Door”Many politicians after leaving office often have cush jobs with companies and PAC’s is there secret deals going on, no one knows, too hard to prove. This could be a problem with PAC’s
24TroubleSIG’s and PAC’s don’t just use money and information to get their point across. Sit-ins, protests bombings and lynching have all been used as ways to gain attention to their cause.Politicians must deal with this as well.