Presentation on theme: "The Americas and the United States"— Presentation transcript:
1The Americas and the United States THE OVERALL CLASSIFICATION OF THIS BRIEF IS: UNCLASSIFIEDThe Americas and the United StatesPresented to:CGOC Conference2 May 2011I will be presenting an introduction to and overview of the United States Southern Command.This briefing is unclassified.Brig Gen Steve SheproDirector, Policy, Plans & Strategy (J5)Fueling the EnterpriseThis is an informational briefing and the content is continuously changing. The charts are designed for discussion at time of presentation, not as stand-alone representation of official USSOUTHCOM policies or positions.
2Context in a Global Culture Technology has enabled this global identity. And it also gives everyone at least a perceived “voice” in the political process. This is the exception I alluded to earlier, we’ll talk more about it later.
3…And Tomorrow’s Global Culture Technology has enabled this global identity. And it also gives everyone at least a perceived “voice” in the political process. This is the exception I alluded to earlier, we’ll talk more about it later.
4The Americas: A Diverse Region Area of Responsibility1/6th of earth’s surface (7.2m sq. mi. of land)31 countries15 Dependencies & Areas of Special SovereigntyDemographics475 million people200+ million Portuguese speakers40+ million indigenous populationsEconomics8 of 17 U.S. FTAs with AOR nations~36% of U.S. trade is with the hemisphere8.3% with AOR nations~54% of energy imports come from this hemisphere~20% from AOR nationsCultural TiesU.S. 5th largest Spanish speaking nationEstimated U.S. will be 1/4 Hispanic origin by 2050JAMAICAThe Americas, a home we share, is a strategically vital, culturally rich, and widely diverse and vibrant region.We share a common commitment to democracy, freedom, justice and respect for human rights.The USSOUTHCOM Area of Responsibility is depicted by the blue line on the map, and it outlines a very diverse region of the world.The AOR boundary runs just south of Mexico; this requires close coordination with NORTHCOM, as MEX is country of mutual interestStanding Command Arrangement Agreement with NORTHCOM addresses items that cross boundaries between the 2 commands, such as:Command relationship of JIATF-South forcesMass migrationThe size is approximately 1/6 of the earth’s surface, or 15.6 million square miles.There are 7.2m sq. mi. of land, or about twice as much as the U.S., which is about 3.5m sq. miThe AOR contains 31 countries, and 15 Dependencies and Areas of Special SovereigntyThere are a total of about 475 million people, which makes it about 54% more populous than the United Stats at 308 million in 2010There are about 200 million Spanish speakers, and 200 million Portuguese speakersThe other primary languages are English (7M), Creole (9M), several Indigenous languages (>40M)Latin America, the Caribbean, and the U.S. share common interests and security concerns.
5Economic Linkages Growing Trade Approx 8.3% of U.S. trade is with Latin America / Caribbean (approx. $217 billion in 2009)Approx. 54% of U.S. oil imports come from this hemisphere (~20% from AOR countries)Panama Canal ExpansionApprox. $36B in remittances from U.S. to Latin America / Caribbean in 2009The US is also linked with the region through economics.40% of U.S. trade stays in the Americas, including Mexico and Canada. That is more than goes to Europe or goes to Asia.8.3% of U.S. trade is with Latin America / Caribbean, which was approx. $217 billion in 2009The U.S. has Free Trade Agreements with 17 nations; 8 of those nations are in Latin America, and 2 more agreements are pending (Colombia & Panama)Over half of our oil is imported from the hemisphere, including Canada and Mexico, and ~20% comes from AOR, primarily Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil – nearly as much as is imported from the Persian GulfPanama Canal (from Panama Canal Authority,2/3 ships transiting Canal are going to/from US ports / 7 of top 10 users of the canal are in this hemisphereExpansion, scheduled to be completed by 2014 is expected to almost double canal capacity to about 600 million tons per yearExpansion will have a ripple effect on the US, as shippers from Asia have a method to get large ships to the east coast without having to unload on the west coast and transport by rail, truck, or airRemittances: $50 billion from U.S. to LAC in 2009 (including Mexico); ~36B to AOR countries(Remittance data
6Percentage of Population Demographic LinkagesPercentage of PopulationHispanic or LatinoPopulation shift: 10 largest US citiesSmithJohnsonWilliamsBrownJonesMillerDavisGarcíaRodríguezWilsonMartínezAndersonTaylorThomasHernández>40%35 to 39.9%30 to 34.5%25 to 29.9%12.5 to 24.9%5 to 12.4%.7 to 4.9%The U.S. has been historically linked to the many nations of the region in many ways beyond physical proximity, even though the relationship has not always been on good terms. Over time, however, the links between the U.S. and the region have evolved, and in many ways, grown stronger than ever.The map on this slide demonstrates two things.First, the purple shading shows the areas of the U.S. with highest percentages of Latino or Hispanic populations, based on 2006 U.S. Census data.Additionally, the black circles on the map show the 10 largest US cities in As you can see, they are primarily concentrated in the northeast.The yellow circles show the 10 largest US cities in 2006.By that year, all of those cities were located in areas with large Hispanic populations, and the majority of them are in the southwestern states.Some other data to keep in mind:In 2010, there were 50.5 million Hispanics in the United States, composing 16 percent of the total population (see Table 1).Between 2000 and 2010, the Hispanic population grew by 43 percent—rising from 35.3 million in 2000, when this group made up 13 percent of the total population.The Hispanic population increased by 15.2 million between 2000 and 2010, accounting for over half of the 27.3 million increase in the total population of the United States.By 2050, it’s expected that the US will be 25% Hispanic.The US is also the fifth largest Spanish-speaking country in the world (#2 if counting non-documented)Estimates are US will be largest US-speaking country by 2050 (surpassing 123 million)As shown on the right side of the slide, 4 of the top 15 surnames, (and 10 of top 50) are Hispanic, according to 2000 U.S. census dataImportance: Many Latins – especially youth – maintain strong ties to the country of their family’s roots, and may continue to carry that identity rather than assimilating into the “melting pot” as previous generations of immigrants did.Political agenda = immigration(Remittances)Population shift: Ten Largest U.S. cities
7A Decade of Progress Optimistic Trends A decade of progress… 3.4% Avg GDP Growth82% Increase of trade with U. S.28% Decrease in unemployment10.9% Decrease in poverty42.7% Increase in College Enrollment26.3% Decrease in illiteracyOver 60% of regional population supports democracyOver the last 10 years or so, the region has demonstrated a number of positive trends:Economic Growth Rate: 3.4 % Avg GDP Growth ( )U. S. Trade: 82% Increase ( ) – this is the greatest rate of increase for any region save Africa over that time period; [compared to 72% for Asia (driven largely by China), 51% for the European Union, 221% for Africa, and 64% for the world]Decrease in Poverty by 10.9% ( )College Enrollment: 42.7% Increase ( )Decrease in illiteracy of 26.3%In a recent poll, more than 60% of the regional population expressed support for democratic forms of government; however, support for democracy tends to decrease in areas that are plagued by crime and violence.
8Challenging Conditions PovertyChallenging ConditionsUnequal wealth distributionUnemploymentSocial class exclusionImpunityWeak GovernmentPorous BordersCorruptionHowever, despite progress, challenges remain. While these challenges listed are related to economic development, it is important we understand the environment in which we are operating.Although poverty has decreased, in 2009, ~33% of Latin Americans lived under the poverty line—less than $2 per day, while ~13% lived in extreme poverty—less than $1 per day. This equates to 183 million poor, and 74 million living in indigence. The map on the left shows the poverty rates throughout the region.(ECLAC-2010)Corruption, in both the public and private sectors, saps economic initiatives. The map on the right is the 2010 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, demonstrating the perception of corruption among many AOR countries is high.Inequality- Latin America / Caribbean is the most unequal sub-region. There is wealth, but it is distributed poorly. In many countries, there is a small wealthy class and a large lower class, with little to no middle class, and little chance for upward mobility.Less-capable governments are unable to provide internal security, secure their borders, or provide justice, allowing criminals and criminal organizations to act with impunity.Not all AOR countries are afflicted with staggering poverty and corruption. However, these challenges are wide-spread enough to present serious regional security concerns.Legend:% of population below poverty line0-2020-4040-6060+No informationLegend7-106-6.95-5.94-4.93-3.92-2.90-1.9Only Chile and Barbados rate above 7.0 on CPI 2010 IndexOverall poverty rate for the region is 33.0%Source: ECLAC; CIA World Fact BookSource: Transparency International CPI 2010Transnational challenges require cooperative action with and among nations.
9Security Concerns Illicit trafficking Transnational Criminal OrganizationsNatural disastersViolent Extremist OrganizationsNarco-terrorismCrime / urban gangsAlternatively governed spacesMass migrationThe type of threats we collectively face in this region are not traditional military or conventional threats, and thrive in environments with challenging conditions such as poverty, unemployment, and social class exclusion.As U.S. Secretary of Defense Gates has said, “crime, terrorism, natural disasters, economic turmoil, ethnic fissures and disease can be just as destabilizing as traditional military threats. We need to fuse old concepts of security with new concepts of how security, stability and development go hand in hand.”In the region, Illicit traffickers and transnational criminals are taking advantage of security challenges to further their illegal activities.Transnational violent extremist organizations primarily use the region to raise funds for operations elsewhere in the world, but have conducted attacks in the region in the past.Narco-terrorists, such as the FARC, continue to evolve their tactics to pose new challenges from decade to decade, and have begun using the drug trade to fuel their insurgency.As many as 100,000 gang members operate throughout the region, In many cases, they appear to have no rules, and have little regard for human life.In some cases, these criminal organizations are providing services that governments are unable to, effectively creating alternatively governed spaces within national borders.And SOUTHCOM also continues to monitor conditions that may lead to incidents of mass migration, primarily from Haiti or CubaWith none of the listed challenges, does the DOD have the lead in responding to these threats.Additionally, none of the challenges recognize national sovereignty or stop at a nation‘s border.None can be overcome by any one nation alone—they require transnational solutions.They cannot be overcome by the military alone—they require a ―whole of society approach—integrating interagency, non-governmental organizations and the private sector.USSOUTHCOM focuses our efforts on two key challenges to regional security: the inevitability of natural disasters and the relentless threat posed by TCOs.
10Political Pendulum 1998 2011 1958 1978 Dictatorships This chart shows five decades of expanding democracy.Much of the region has had periods of civilian rule alternated with military dictatorships.In some countries authoritarian rule was the norm until the 1980sBy the late 1990s, almost all countries in the region had some form of democratically elected government.However, new democracies are still fragile and vulnerable to erosion by populists and authoritarian coups.Many argue these two conditions I discussed earlier – poverty and income inequality – helped produce the growth of Neo-populist governments in Venezuela and the ALBA countries.While democracy is thriving in most of the region, some countries engage in undemocratic tendencies.For example, in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua, leaders pushed through constitutional reforms allowing them to extend their terms in officeIn Venezuela, the President holds decree powers exceeding the other branches of governmentIn Haiti: The transition of political power remains problematic; we are closely watching recent events to see how they handle political turnoverGuatemala, the President and his wife are pushing the edges of the letter of the law, to the detriment of the spirit in which the law was writtenDictatorshipsFragile democraciesDemocracies
11Increased External Activity Strengthening diplomatic, economic, military tiesExpanding markets and ensuring access to natural resourcesIncreased weapons sales and trainingGoal is to be viewed as reliable and be the partner of choiceStrategy has diplomatic, economic, socio- cultural, and military elementsSeeks closer ties with Latin American governmentsSeeks to impede US and European international sanctionsUsing arms sales and energy agreements to gain political influenceEconomic relationships concentrated on energyAims to bolster interest in its space programUS is not the only “product” in the regionOthers actors from “outside the Western Hemisphere” are also engaging in the regionThe 3 primary external influences we monitor are China, Iran, and RussiaChina’s interest in the region is logical and primarily driven by economic considerations; the region offers access to vast natural resources.trade with Latin America increased 73% from $12.1B to $102BChina is now Brazil’s #1 trade partnerIran’s interest is mostly political and diplomatic. It has built 11 new embassies in the region in recent years, and has growing relationships with Venezuela and Bolivia.Iran’s engagement goals are to avoid international isolation and attempt to reduce U.S. diplomatic influence, as well as secure friendly voices – and votes – within the United Nations.Russia’s interests are also primarily economic. Russia views the region as a new market for arms sales, and an area for developing energy trade.In some cases, these arms sales can be positive—such as the sale of 12 helicopters to Peru to increase Peruvian CIT capabilities. But in other cases, these sales have the potential to undermine regional stability, such as the large number of automatic weapons sold to Venezuela, and the potential they could reach the hands of organizations like the FARC in Colombia.
12Our History 1903 – 1917 Panama Canal Zone 1917 – Panama Canal Department1941 – Caribbean Defense Command1947 – Caribbean CommandU.S. Southern CommandPanama Canal Treaties SignedMove to MiamiMove to new HQOur initial history focused on providing security for the construction of the Panama Canal. Over the years, we changed size, shape, and mission, to reflect the realities of world events. As you can see, our name changed throughout the years, ultimately settling on Southern Command to show our focus on Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. For much of this history, we were based in Panama.1903, U.S. Marines first arrived in the Panama Canal Zone to protect the railroad connecting the two coasts.1917, Panama Canal Department activated as a geographic command of the U.S. ArmyBeginning in 1941, for the WWII period, what was to become USSOUTHCOM was established as the Caribbean Defense Command, with a war-time defense mission1947, Caribbean Command created as part of the 1947 reorganization of the military, creating the DoD and regional/geographical commands.1963, Name change to reflect true geographical responsibilities of the command1997, Headquarters transferred to Miami2010- Moved into purpose-built Miami HQ Complex
13Unified Command System PresidentService SecretariesSecretary of DefenseChairman JCSFunctional ResponsibilitiesU.S. Southern Command was established as a unified command in 1963.We are one of six geographic COCOMs which reports to the Commander-in-Chief via the Secretary of Defense, and receives advice from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.Service Chiefs, charged with the manning, training, and equipping of their services.These Service Chiefs are force providers to the COCOMs.Functional COCOMs support the geographic COCOMs as they execute operations within their AOR.Geographic ResponsibilitiesService ChiefsSOCOMJFCOMPACOMAFRICOMEUCOMARMYNAVYTRANSCOMSTRATCOMCENTCOMMARINESNORTHCOMSOUTHCOMAIR FORCE
14Our Vision, Mission, and Objectives Vision: We are a joint & interagency organization supporting US national security interests, and with our partners, improving security, stability & prosperity in the Americas.Mission: We are ready to conduct joint & combined full- spectrum military operations & support whole-of-government efforts to enhance regional security & cooperation.Strategic ObjectivesDefend the United StatesFoster Regional SecurityBe an Enduring PartnerThe US Southern Command remains prepared to defend the U.S. and project U.S. power within our Area of Responsibility; however, there currently is little likelihood of state-on-state violence in the region. The main threats are non-traditional, as I’ve discussed, and to counter them, we partner with other U.S. government agencies, our partner nations, and non-governmental organizations.The Commander has identified 3 strategic objectives for the Command:OBJECTIVESFirst, to Defend the United Statesthrough a layered defense: forward, by cooperating with and building partner nation capacity; then, by maintaining U.S. warfighting capability.Second, to Foster Regional Security-by conducting military-to-military engagement with our partners. This enhances collaborative defense, ultimately assisting with the first objective; improves the security environment, leading to stability and prosperity; and promotes respect for human rights and the rule of lawThird, to Be an Enduring Partner-We want to be the Partner of Choice for those military-to-military engagements, as well as whole-of-government solutions to the region’s challengesEnsuring the forward defense of the United States
15Joint Interagency Task Force South Joint Task Force Guantánamo Command OrganizationAFSOUTHAir Forces SouthTucson, ArizonaArmy SouthSan Antonio, TexasSpecial OperationsCommand SouthHomestead, FloridaNaval Forces SouthMayport, FloridaMarine Forces SouthMiami, FloridaSecurityCooperationOffices (24)USSouthern CommandARSOUTHNAVSOUTHAir Forces SouthTucson, ArizonaJoint Interagency Task Force SouthKey West, FloridaMARFORSOUTHSOCSOUTHArmy SouthSan Antonio, TexasJIATF-SJoint Task Force GuantánamoNaval Station, CubaNaval Forces SouthMayport, FloridaJTF-GTMOComalapaJoint Task Force BravoSoto Cano, HondurasMarine Forces SouthMiami, FloridaHere’s how we are organized today to carry out our mission.We have roughly 5,000-6,000 total personnel assigned and dispersed throughout our many locations and subordinate organizations.Our headquarters here in Miami, and our “component” commands from each of the military services and special operations command spread out across the southern United States.Additionally, there are 24 Security Cooperation Offices throughout the AOR to conduct security cooperation and engagement activities.Cooperative Security Locations in El Salvador and Aruba/Curacao.Cooperative Security Locations are not bases… they are locations we can operate out of, in restrictive agreements, which we can use for Counter-Narcotics monitoringThe purple boxes on the right represent the Joint Task Forces which are unique to USSOUTHCOM.Joint Interagency Task-Force SouthThe Key West, Fla.-based Joint Interagency Task Force-South is the SOUTHCOM organization that integrates and synchronizes interagency counter drug operations, and is responsible for the detection and monitoring of suspect air and maritime drug activity in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern Pacific.JIATF-South also collects, processes, and disseminates counter drug information for interagency and partner nation operations.JOA spans USSOUTHCOM and USNORTHCOM AORs, as well as EUCOM and PACOM – important element to bridge the seam between the 2 COCOMs regarding illicit traffickingJTF-GTMOResponsible for the safe, humane, legal, and transparent care of detainees in support of the GWOT.JTF-BLong standing Joint Task Force in Soto Cano, HondurasLargest unit forward positioned within the AORConsists primarily of helicopters, medical personnelHas HA/DR, PR, CIT, and NEO roleComalapaJTF-BCuracaoSpecial OperationsCommand SouthHomestead, FloridaCooperative Security Locations
16USSOUTHCOM Headquarters Senior Enlisted LeaderSgtMaj EspinalCombatant CommanderGeneral FraserCivilian Deputy to the Commander & Foreign Policy AdvisorAmbassador TrivelliMilitary Deputy CommanderLTG KeenChief of StaffJ1Manpower & PersonnelJ2Intelligence, Surveillance & ReconJ3OperationsJ4LogisticsJ5Strategy, Plans & PolicyJ6Comm. System DominanceJ7Theater Security Cooperation EngagementJ8Resources & AssessmentsJ9PartneringServicesInteragency PartnersArmySince January 2010, the headquarters is organized as traditional J-CodeWe include elements that allow us to support whole-of-government solutions to the diverse challenges we face, such as having a Civilian Deputy to the Commander, in addition to our Military Deputy Commander.Because partnerships of all types are the key to success, here at our headquarters, we have U.S. military expertise from all the services, multinational representation, and multiple representatives from various other Federal Agencies. These representatives are integrated at all levels across our staff, not segregated into a separate part of the organization.We also have strategic partnerships with academic institutions. For many of these institutions listed, USSOUTHCOM helps fund and facilitate the attendance of military and inter-institutional students from throughout our region.We also have growing relationships with civilian academic institutions, to include fellowships, co-sponsored conferences, and daily exchange of ideas and information.Another type of partnering that has benefitted us enormously is our public-private cooperation with businesses and non-governmental organizations in the regionThese partnerships allow us to leverage resources and expertise of specialized communities that are in short supply in DoD;They help us respond more quickly and effectively during a disaster (as witnessed in Haiti);And they bring together different perspectives and capacities to address security and stability issues in Latin America & the CaribbeanWith them, we can create Communities of Interest and Communities of Action, composed of stakeholders that have a mutual interest in one of our problem sets.Marine CorpsNavyAir ForceCoast GuardLiaison OfficersHomeland SecurityStateCommerceDefenseBrazilCanadaChileColombiaPeruUruguayPartner Academic InstitutionsJusticeUSAIDEnergyTreasuryWestern Hemisphere Institute for Security CooperationCenter for Hemispheric Defense StudiesNaval Small Craft Instruction & Technical Training SchoolSchool of International Graduate StudiesInter-American Defense CollegeInter-American Air Forces AcademyIntelligence Agencies
17Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief Peacekeeping Operations Our Focus AreasCounter Illicit TraffickingHumanitarian Assistance / Disaster ReliefThe strategic objectives I described earlier place a high demand on current resources. In order to prioritize our efforts and expenditures, we have identified these areas to better inform our planning, programming, and budgeting decisions.First, Counter Illicit Trafficking. Illicit Trafficking is a significant security challenge throughout the AOR, as it brings together money, power, and the ability to breach national bordersSecond, Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief. The capability to respond rapidly to a disaster requires contingency planning at the strategic and operational levels, and must take palace between the USSOUTHCOM, other USG agencies, and the international community.And third, Peace Keeping Operations. There is tremendous commitment throughout the region with respect to PKO. We continue to seek opportunities to expand the impact our respective armed forces have globally in terms of peacekeeping.Peacekeeping Operations
18The Network of Illicit Trafficking Drug & human trafficking, weapons smuggling & money laundering:At least $394 billion a year global industryUK: #1 per capita consumerUS: Largest Consumer€Increasing Demand$ArmsECU, JUL 2010$ArmsCocaine ProductionCOL, FEB 2011Brazil: #2 Global ConsumerLooking first at illicit trafficking, this map gives a simplified overview of world-wide trafficking, focusing on Cocaine flow within the region.By some estimates, world-wide illicit trafficking is a $300-$400B annual enterprise.The charts on the bottom of the slide show suspected track activity for 2010; air traffic is on the left, and maritime on the right. These demonstrate the increased use of Central American countries as a transit route, in addition to the traditional Caribbean routes. Additionally, this map shows the increasing use of southern and eastern routes to supply growing demand in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.TCOs, illicit trafficking, and violence are evolving challenges:Criminal organizations engage in the illicit trafficking of drugs, arms, money, and people through porous borders throughout the regionTCOs construct flexible, resilient networks – bounce back after setbacks (arrests / deaths of leadership)Operate through the air, sea, and overlandCompounding the challenge, TCOs are innovative and adaptive. They have begun constructing self-propelled fully-submersible vessels to transport illicit goods between South America and Central America or Mexico, which are extremely difficult to detect, monitor, and interdict.Other things to consider:Major markets tend to be major consumers, such as the U.S. and Brazil as the #1 and #2 cocaine consumers, and the UK as the #1 per capita consumerLess capable states are often used for transit between source and consumption. These states are often plagued by other factors, such as difficult borders to secure, the presence of gangs, and other high crime rates.Illicit trafficking routes exploit areas, such as North Africa and the Middle East, that are also exploited by Islamic Violent Extremist organizations. The potential nexus between illicit trafficking, transnational terrorism, and WMD could pose a potential threat to the U.S. and partners.2010 Air Activity2010 Maritime ActivityIllicit trafficking: Potential nexus for transnational terrorism& the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
19Disrupt normal illicit trafficking vectors to increase vulnerability Drug Trafficking in the AORDesired Effect:Disrupt normal illicit trafficking vectors to increase vulnerabilityFlexible, resilient networksInnovative and adaptiveRegional ImpactsSkyrocketing homicideIncreased crimeIncreased security spendingReduced foreign investmentPrivate security growthUse of military for domestic securityHNDGTMIn 2009, almost 2/3s of the estimated 909 MT of global cocaine (almost 600MT) departed South America for US markets; 32%, (~ 290 MT) for Europe; 5%, (~ 45 MT) to Canada and AsiaColombia remains the leading cocaine producer at 42%, and most cocaine in the US comes from ColombiaThe most common vessel remains go-fasts, which account for 31% of all drug smuggling events, but traffickers also rely on commercial vessels and low profile vessels such as submersiblesApproximately 90% of all cocaine flow to the US passed through the Mexico/Central America corridor – the bubbles on this map show the areas where cocaine made its first stop after leaving South America – Honduras (favored destination of light aircraft), Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama (over land from Colombia)Venezuela has become a major port of debarkation for Colombian cocaine headed to the U.S., as well as cocaine headed to European and other marketsUSSOUTHCOM has limited ability to influence trafficking along the land corridor; our goal is to push the trafficking out to international waters where we can detect & monitor, and law enforcement agencies or partner nations can interdictNear Term Impact:The evolution of TCOs is correlated with a dramatic rise in violence in recent years.Skyrocketing homicide rates in partner nationsIncreasing crime (kidnapping, theft, extortion, money laundering)Increased spending on internal security operationsReduced foreign investment in partner nationsLong Term Impact:Reduced participation in democratic processesPrivatized security rivals state security apparatus / vigilantismPANProportional rep. of 1st stop for cocaine traffic(Honduras ~ 38%)CRIAir VectorMaritime VectorGround Vector
20Counter Illicit Trafficking UNCLASSIFIEDCounter Illicit TraffickingBuild Partner Capacity / Intelligence / Detection & MonitoringTrain, equip, provide base support, and build infrastructure in support of law enforcement agenciesProvide Partner Nations (PN) capabilities to:Respond independently to internal illicit trafficking threats or in concert with other PN’sSupport regional US counter-illicit trafficking goals and objectives as an operational element of Joint Interagency Task Force – South (JIATF-S)Partner Nation Capability Program Areas:Ground Reaction Interdiction & ApprehensionMaritime InterdictionRiverine InterdictionAerial Domain AwarenessIntelligenceBuild Partner Capacity3-prong approach to CIT: BPC, Intelligence, Detection & MonitoringIntelligence: Provide collection assets through Global Force Management Allocation, contracting (i.e. Colombia)BPC:Respond independently to internal illicit trafficking threats or in concert with other PN’sSupport regional US counter-illicit trafficking goals and objectives as an operational element of (JIATF-S)PN Maritime Interdiction CapabilityMaritime Interdiction PlanMaritime Patrol Aircraft support to JIATF-SSouthern Border Security InitiativePN Ground Reaction Interdiction and Apprehension CapabilityRegional Helicopter Training Center (RHTC) for Spanish speaking studentsSustain Colombia as a regional allyPN Riverine Interdiction CapabilityInfrastructureLAV BattalionPN Aerial Domain Awareness CapabilitySovereign SkiesDetection & Monitoring: JIATF-S,Detection and Monitoring
21Trends in Homicide Rates per 100,000 Illicit Trafficking Portends ViolenceTrends in Homicide Rates per 100,0002007—major shift in illicit trafficking routes90% of all cocaine destined for the U.S. now passes through Central America: 59,085 homicides in Guatemala, Honduras, El SalvadorSources: National Civilian Police Figures & government institutions (various)Population( = 10 million)Homicides( = 1 thousand)TCOs are not only innovative—they are extremely violentOf the countries with the highest murder rates in the world—almost all of them all lie along the key cocaine trafficking routesTCOs (particularly Mexican ones) are aggressively transnational—seeking new markets, new routes, and new bases of operations2007—major shift in trafficking routes to CENTAM—MEX and COL success in CIT/pressuring TCOsResult—CENTAM (and Northern Triangle in particular)—now the most violent region in the world outside of active war zonesWhile violence in MEX captures most of the media’s attention—CENTAM is much worseSince DEC 2006—when PRES Calderon declared war on drug cartels in MEX—34,550 people have died in drug-related violence in MEXDuring the same time period in CENTAM—59,085 homicides in the Northern TriangleMEX population much larger—CENTAM murder rates are reaching epidemic—civil war proportionsConsequences—security threatsCorrode CENTAM states from withinWeakened states—could allow safe haven or expanded base of operations for TCOs in the region—cross border sanctuary, undermine MEX effortsDramatically impede CN operationsGravest threat posed by TCOsIllicit trafficking networks employed by TCOs could be used for other means—smuggling of terrorists into U.S.Mexico123,000,00035,000CentralAmerica41,000,00067,000
22International Actions Combating Violence in CENTAMBelizeArmy, Coast Guard patrols with policeGuatemalaState of Siege in Alta Verapaz (Dec 10 – Feb 11)Soldiers posted on busesHondurasArmy patrols with policeSecurity and Justice ReformNicaraguaAnti-Gang reformsEl SalvadorArmy patrols w/policeGoods for Guns ProgramPanamaRegional anti-drug centerYouth violence programsCosta RicaNational Plan to control violenceUSG ActionsCentral American Regional Security Initiative—CARSIThe Central America Citizen Security PartnershipBuild partner nation capacity to counter illicit traffic and TCOsAnti-gang initiativesBorder securityInternational ActionsSICA Regional Security PlanSupport from IDB, World Bank, and UNUNDP initiatives (small arms control, violence reduction)World Bank’s Small Grant Program for Violence Prevention (SGPVP)Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG)Combating Violence in CENTAMCENTAM nations are recognizing this threatCENTAM—taking steps to address this issueMilitary patrolling with policeStronger anti-gang policies/juvenile development programsInstitutional reformsUSG—supporting CENTAMCARSI and Central America Citizen Security PartnershipSICA—Regional Security Strategy, support from IADB, United Nations, and World BankGuatemala—CICIG—UN backed Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala
23Recent Natural Disasters A question of “when,” not “if”…Nov 08 – Costa Rica/Panama – FloodsNov 08 – Haiti – School CollapseNov 08 – Colombia – Volcano/FloodsDec 08 – Uruguay – Forest FiresJan 09 – Costa Rica – EarthquakeMay 09 – Honduras – EarthquakeNov 09 – El Salvador – FloodsJan 10 – Haiti – EarthquakeFeb 10 – Chile – EarthquakeMay 10 – Guatemala – Volcano /FloodsNov 10 – Haiti – Hurricane TomasThis list represents some recent natural disasters in the AOR, and demonstrates the variety of disasters we may have to face.
24Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief $45.6M in disaster preparedness and humanitarian assistance in FY10Disaster PreparednessHumanitarian Assistance Program (HAP) & DOD Excess Property ProgramBuild & stock Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) and Disaster Relief Warehouses (DRWs)Train PN medical first respondersBuild or renovate schools, community shelters, warehouses, clinics, hospitals, wellsCreate disease surveillance programsDisaster Relief, 2010January, Haiti earthquakeFebruary, Chile earthquakeMay - June, TS Agatha & volcanoes in GuatemalaSeptember, Hurricane Tomas in HaitiTurning now to the next focus area, HA/DR, before disaster strikes, our Humanitarian Assistance Program and DOD Excess Property Program allow us to build and stock Disaster Relief Warehouses, build Emergency Operations Centers, train emergency medical personnel, and renovate schools, community centers, clinics and hospitals, to improve the countries’ disaster response capabilities.Additionally, we help create disease surveillance programs, to identify and contain outbreaks and emerging diseasesAnd when disaster does strike, USSOUTHCOM may be asked to respond, as we were several times in 2010 to support whole-of-government efforts, a few of which are shown on this slide.In January, we deployed over 20,000 troops, 23 ships, and numerous aircraft to support relief operations following the devastating earthquake in Haiti.Shortly after, in February, we provided a smaller contingent of troops and equipment following another severe earthquake in Chile.A few months later, when TS Agatha caused widespread flooding and mudslides in Guatemala, USSOUTHCOM again deployed personnel, ships, and aircraft to provide relief supplies and to conduct infrastructure assessments.
25Peacekeeping Operations Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) provides funds to train & equip PN PKO units9 current GPOI partner nations, 3 nations in process of becoming partnersSeveral GPOI partners have deployed or will deploy GPOI-funded troops on PKO missionsUN Deployments14 AOR countriesContributing nearly 8,000 personnel to UNPKO missions worldwideTroops, police, military expertsTurning to Peacekeeping Operations, the Final Focus Area:USSOUTHCOM supports the Global Peace Operations Initiative, or GPOI. This Presidential initiative is run by the State Department, and is intended to increase the capacity of countries to deploy in support of international peace and stabilization operations. Countries receive equipment and funding assistance, and USSOUTHCOM provides PKO training opportunities, including Partnership of the Americas, and PKO-Americas.Partnership of the Americas POA is an annual Marine Forces-South company-level exercise that focuses on enhancing interoperability between U.S. and partner-nation Marines in the areas of amphibious operations, non-combatant evacuation operations (NEO), peacekeeping and disaster relief.Peacekeeping Operations – Americas (PKO-Americas) PKO Americas is a multi-national Command Post Exercise designed to improve participating partner nations’ and US capabilities to act as a multinational peacekeeping force in support of UN peacekeeping operations.And to look at some of the successes that the countries of the region have had with supporting peacekeeping operations, you can see that 14 AOR countries currently contribute nearly 8,000 personnel to UN PKO missions worldwide, including troops, police, and military expertsThe Commanding General officer in charge of MINUSTAH in Haiti has been provided by Brazil since 2004, and 14 countries from the region are providing a lion’s share of the effort in that country[DO NOT BRIEF] 9 current GPOI partner nations (DOM, GTM, SLV, HND, NIC, BLZ, PER, PRY, URY), 3 nations (COL, CHL, ECU) invited to join, funding allocated, awaiting PN signature of agreement under Section 505 of Foreign Assistance Act, GPOI funding has been used to send instructors from 3 non-GPOI partner nations (ARG, BRA, CHL) to teach at GPOI-partner training centers to leverage their experience in helping less-experienced partner nations.
26Theater Security Cooperation Activities - FY11 Combined Education61 eventsCombinedExercises59 eventsCombinedExperimentation4 eventsCombinedTraining104 eventsCounter/Non-Proliferation0 eventsCounternarcoticsAssistance196 eventsDefense and Military Contacts668 eventsDef Support to Public Diplomacy0 eventsInfrastructure Support Projects1 eventsHumanitarian Assistance83 eventsInformation Sharing61 EventsInt’l Armaments Cooperation0 eventsFMS: Foreign Military SalesFMF: Foreign Military FinanceIMET: Intl Military Education and TrainingCTFP: Combating Terrorism Fellowship ProgramSo, how do we go about achieving our strategic objectives?Our primary tool for accomplishing our mission is conducting Theater Security Cooperation Activities to Build Partner Nation Capacity.This slide shows all of the different types of activities, with the number of each planned for FY11.As you can see, our primary emphasis is on activities such as Subject Matter Expert Exchanges, Counternarcotics and Humanitarian Assistance, Combined Training and Exercises, and Information Exchanges.As part of our TSC activities, we share information on challenges to security and stability in the region, including illicit trafficking and natural disasters. One example is our CNIES system, or Cooperative Nation Information Exchange Service – a computer system that allows us to coordinate counterdrug operations with our partners.Support Tools to achieveStrategic ObjectivesOther Programs (CTFP)365 eventsSecurity AssistanceFMS, FMF, IMET12 eventsUSSOUTHCOM is committed to building and sustaining enduring relationships
27Air Force Engagement in our AOR Humanitarian AssistanceOperation UNIFIED RESPONSE Haiti2200 Airmen, 5 Expeditionary Units, 6 Communications PackagesCombinedTrainingNEW HORIZONS16 MEDRETES and DENTRETES103,309 patients treatedCombinedExercises PANAMAXPioneered approval process to allow PNs into AF NetworkCounternarcoticsAssistance:Surveillance ArchitectureEducationSubject Matter Expert Exchanges International Affairs Specialist Program: RAS/PAS Language Training ProgramsSecurity Cooperation & AssistanceCooperation Teams (CT-1)AFSAT IIAFA &PMEAWC , ASSC, ALP
28USAF - Building Partner Capacity AT-6USFairchild North American Hughes Curtis Douglas Vaught Northrop Grumman Beechcraft Boeing195019802010BPC—multi-axis problemState’s recognition of the problem & willingness to participateVarying degrees of capabilities & scale of capacity to absorbLimitations on US engagement (Human Rights; DSCA process for FMF/FMS)Example: US capability to address states’ true requirements—for example, the Light Attack/Attack and Reconnaissance platforms1950s-early 1970s—U.S. aerospace industry offered numerous aircraft to meet this role.Presently—we are now down to just a few—in reality, down to one—the AT-6.During the same timeframe—our allies and enemies also offered many types of aircraft to meet this role.Smaller PNs—role of Light Aircraft capabilities for Smaller PNsTraining with Light Mobility Aircraft, Light ISR, and Light Attack appears to represent an avenue that ‘makes sense’ for many of the smaller Air Forces in the region.Need to think our way through what this meansPC-21AT-29ForeignPC-9KA-1Russia (MiG), China (CAIC), Brazil (Embraer), Switzerland (Pilatus), Czech (Let), Germany (MBB), France (Specat), England (Bae), Yugo (Soko)
29Closing Thought“As we move to the future, we are committed to building focused, collaborative approaches that will enable all of us – USSOUTHCOM, our interagency colleagues and partners alike, – to work together to address the challenges we collectively face.”-- General Douglas FraserCommander, United States Southern CommandSir, to leave you with a parting thought from General Fraser, it’s that the transnational challenges we face in this region cannot be solved by one person, one organization, or even one country. The require collaborative solutions across whole-of-governments and international partners in the region.Thank you. This concludes the Command Brief, pending any questions you have.
31Theater Security Cooperation Dom Rep MOD visitCHDS SeminarCOLMIL J2 visitMEDCAP - GuyanaJanuaryFebruaryMarchCN Assistance – Honduras (operations center, pier improvement)Mini-MEDRETEHondurasMini-MEDRETEBelizeBTH CARIBTradewinds - CaribHSV SWIFTSupport Tools to achieveStrategic ObjectivesUSS GUNSTON HALL SMEEPKO AmericasNH HaitiBTH CENTAMGuatemala / Belize GO/FO discussionsAviation Maint. SMEE - ParaguayWHINSEC SME Conf.Brazil Sr. Analyst visitDisaster Preparedness SMEE - NicaraguaPR SMEE - GuatemalaTotal Events January – March 2011Defense / Military Contacts: 86 EventsCombined / Multinational Education: 20 EventsCombined / Multinational Training: 13 EventsCombined / Multinational Exercises: 10 EventsCounternarcotics Assistance: 7 EventsInformation Sharing: 6 EventsCombined / Multinational Experimentation: 2 EventsHumanitarian Assistance: 2 EventsOur primary tool for achieving our strategic objectives is conducting Theater Security Cooperation Activities that we use to Build Partner Nation Capacity.This slide shows all of the different types of activities, with the number of each conducted during the first three months of this calendar year.Top Events Conducted & HighlightsEducation: International Military Education and Training, or IMET, is a key component of our engagement strategy to develop long term relations with our partner nations. The program concentrates on providing professional military education and management courses to international military students.Exercises: We provide other types of training, particularly with our robust exercise program.Information Sharing: We also share information on challenges to security and stability in the region, including illicit trafficking and natural disasters. One example is our CNIES system, or Cooperative Nation Information Exchange Service – a computer system that allows us to coordinate counterdrug operations with our partners.USSOUTHCOM is committed to building and sustaining enduring relationships
32Exercise Program Categories Foreign MilitaryInteractionOperationalHumanitarian andCivic AssistanceJoint and Combined exercises also help us prepare to achieve our strategic objectives. The three types of exercises USSOUTHCOM conducts are Operational, Foreign Military Interaction, and Humanitarian Civic Assistance.Operational exercises are designed to train the SOUTHCOM Staff to execute their wartime battle staff responsibilities. Examples include Ellipse Echo (counterterrorism) and Integrated Advance (mass migration). PANAMAX, a large, multi-national exercise based on a defense of the Panama Canal scenario, is an example of an exercise used for operational training as well as foreign military interaction.Foreign Military Interaction exercises are regionally focused to enhance the capabilities of our partner nations in functions that are appropriate to their principal security threats. These help build professional forces and interoperability with the US. For example, we’ve recently completed a very successful Tradewinds 2011 exercise, during which U.S. Sailors and Marines conducted a variety of types of training with partner nations in the Caribbean, to include Belize. Currently on-going is FA HUM 11, built around the scenario of an earthquake in TTO.Next I’ll talk a little more in-depth on Humanitarian Civic Assistance (HCA) exercises.PANAMAXINTEGRATED ADVANCEELLIPSE ECHOPANAMAXUNITAS Atlantic/PacificFA HUMANITARIAS TRADEWINDSPKO AMERICASFUERZAS COMANDOBTH CARIBEBTH CENTAMNew HorizonsMEDRETE
33Humanitarian and Civic Assistance FY 10 – 76 MEDRETES/MEDCAPSPatients Treated: 276,827Animals Treated: 15,102Surgeries: 1,017Medical Readiness Training / Exercises (MEDRETES), Engineering, Civil Affairs:“Activities to promote the specific operational readiness skills of US Forces”Improves joint training readiness of United States military Engineer, Combat Support, Combat Service Support , and Medical unitsProvides tangible benefit to host nation: engineer construction, rudimentary road construction/repair, water wells, medical outreachCaribbean (31)Dom Rep (BTH) 7GuyanaTrinidad Tobago 3Suriname (NH)Haiti (NH)Central America (36)BelizeEl Salvador (BTH) 4GuatemalaHondurasPanamaNicaraguaCosta RicaAndean Ridge (16)ColombiaEcuadorPeruHCA exercises are a tool that allows us to prepare for disasters is our Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Exercise program. Our HCA exercises, including New Horizons, Beyond the Horizons, and Medical Readiness Training / Exercises, allow us to achieve 3 goals:Train our units and personnel on engineering, civil affairs, and medical tasks;Leave a tangible benefit for the host country, such as renovated schools, new water wells, or repaired roads;And demonstrate good-will on behalf of the U.S. to the countries in the region.The map on the left of the slide shows HCA exercises planned for FY11. As you can see, there are multiple exercises scheduled throughout Central and South America, and the Caribbean.SOUTHERN CONE (6)Paraguay 6MEDRETEsBeyond The Horizons (BTH)New Horizons (NH)
34Partner Nation Training (1 of 2) Chile Air ForceExample of Aircraft In InventoryF-16 MLUCASA 212F-5E Tigre IIISuper TucanoUH-60Boeing 707 CONDORBoeing 767KC-135
35Partner Nation Training Colombia Air ForceA-29 Super TucanoExample of Aircraft In InventoryA-27 TucanoAC-47 GunshipOV-10 BroncoA-37 DragonflyUH-60 BlackhawkMirage VKFIR C7
36Partner Nation Training Guatemala Air ForceExample of Aircraft In InventoryENAER T-35 PillanIAI Arava Pilatus PC-7 Security Assistance and Training for Smaller PNsSecurity assistance programs we offer the region is robust—and often unrealistic for smaller PNsWe possess an intuitive understanding of our peers and near-peers in the regionA training program that is appropriate for Chile may not be appropriate—or even realistic—for GuatemalaBPC—recurring issue/challenge for USAFCessna A-37 DragonflyFokker F-27Bell 212 Twin Huey
37Partner Nation Training Costa Rica Ministry of Public SecurityExample of Aircraft In InventoryPiper PA-31 NavajoPiper PA-31T Cheyenne Cessna T210N Centurion Role of Light Aircraft capabilitiesEquipping and training with Light Mobility Aircraft, Light ISR, and Light Attack appears to represent an avenue that ‘makes sense’ for many of the smaller Air Forces in the region.Need to think our way through what this meansMy perspective.Capacity building -- a force for the asymmetric fight:Requires airframes, manning, training, funding, employment, logistics support, long term O&SDevelop the overhead required to support operations: if build for asymmetric fight, important for USAF and becomes attractive for partnersAlready built structure for MC-12; I think AF should do same with Light Attack and Light Mobility AircraftNeed to re-evaluate support capacity for partners: small fleet management is difficult and hard to fit in our “large fleet” management systemOur Goal: through structured engagement and capacity building, USAF can help make AFs more relevant and beneficial force for all our PNs.Piper PA-34 SenecaCessna 206 StationairMcDonnell Douglas MD.500E
38USAF BPC -- Recurring IW Mission WW II - KoreaVietnamProxy WarsDesert Storm / Allied ForceOEF/OIF & ForwardInsurgencies & RevoltsInsurgencies & RevoltsUSSR DissolvesInsurgencies & Revolts“Long War”IW Strategic Setting?Terrorism ascendencyState Insolvencies1950198020101992 FID doctrinal zenithUSAF IW CommitmentJFK mission pushIW airpower ad hocF-22 / F-35 hi-conventionalHCOIN wings deactivated“Never again”Reluctant participationAF Investment, Mission Expertise & Capable Platforms Flat Lining at LowAirLand focusThe Story: Since fixed wing and rotary aviation entered the military equation, there has been a requirement for specialized capabilities—engagement with non-traditional and/or non-linear forces.By whatever name you want to call it—unconventional warfare; special operations; low intensity conflict; counter insurgency; military operations other than war; foreign internal defense, etc—distinct preparation, training and equipment is necessary.IA has been around since war itself—USAF has been resistant to fully embracing this mission setToday, this resistance has the additional negative impact of not only reducing the capability we have to build partners—could opening the door for losing influence around the globe.From WWII, through Proxy Wars in CENTAM through Operations Desert Storm, Allied Force, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom—constant cycle of combat requirement ultimately overpowering organizational disinterestLight attack/recon in irregular warfare advocacy in 1942 is akin to that for 2012Cycle of reluctant acquiescence & subsequent discard of mission setParallel ebb & flow between Air Force intellectual thought—largely from schools such as this (Air War College), and the Air University writ large—mirrors that of expertise and capability (systems, aircraft, etc) that have been available.Requirement is not going away—and argument is easily made that it will be our predominant threat for the next decade or soAir Power—essential element to an overall strategy in the IW context—for us or our partners.Absence of training, exercising and developing that element relegates it to be either conceived by non-Airmen, which is unlikely to be the most effective, or ignored altogether which ensures perpetuating the cycle of re-learning.Island campaigners & myriad aircraftLResidual Airmen & systems:WWII & Korea into VietnamVietnam into ProxiesLargely non-Mil operators & aircraft fleets retiringPrimarily Flight Training MissionRetired experts & hi-end conventional systemsExpertise & CapabilityAddress & Discard…Perpetual CycleInhibits Innovation, Prohibits Opportunity & Compels Re-Learning
39IW – Critical Capabilities Essential Elements of a Responsive, Effective Air ArmRoleMissionAircraft CandidatesLight ISRSupports all aspects of IW mission;counter insurgency; internal defense; building partnership capacityMC-12Light LiftGov’t access to all areas of state; resupply of special forces/regular forces; logistics for humanitarian relief, etc.Cessna CaravanRotary LiftAirlift of emergency security / disaster response forces; emergency evacuation; medical evacuation; transportUH-1 Huey IILight AttackLight precision attack; armed reconnaissance; training; manned ISRAT-6Capacity building—a force for the asymmetric fight:Requires airframes, manning, training, funding, employment, logistics support, long term O&SDevelop the overhead required to support op: if build for asymmetric fight, important for USAF and becomes attractive for partnersAlready built structure for MC-12I think AF should do same with Light Attack and Light Mobility AircraftNeed to re-evaluate support capacity for partners: small fleet management is difficult and hard to fit in our “large fleet” management systemEssential Elements of a Responsive, Effective Air ArmLight ISR—supports all aspects IW missionCounter insurgency, internal defense & BPCLight Lift—gov’t access to all areas of state; resupply of special forces/regular forces; logistics for HA/DRRotary Lift—airlift of emergency security, DR forces, emergency evacuation, medical evacuation/transportLight Attack—armed recce, training, manned ISR & light precision attack
40Regional “Initiatives” DoS and DoD recognize that the threats to citizen safety are interrelated and need a comprehensive approachGreater emphasis on Building Partnerships and taking advantage of regional expertise and leadershipObjectivesStrengthen and integrate security from the U.S. Southwest border to Colombia, including the littoral waters of the CaribbeanProduce a safer, more secure hemisphereCriminal organizations no longer can destabilize governments or threaten security and public safetyPrevent the entry and spread of illicit drugs, arms, violence, and transnational threatsUSSOUTHCOM supports the USG’s Strategy for the Americas, which is founded on 4 pillars:Strengthen Democracy, Develop Economic Prosperity, Improve Citizen Safety, and Create a Secure Energy FutureThe objective is a community of democratic nations with shared political and economic values that work together to secure the region against terrorism and illegal drugs.USSOUTHCOM’s primary role is to support the Initiatives that address the issue of Citizen Safety: CARSI, CBSI, CSDI, and with NORTHCOM, Merida.We do this by building and strengthening the security capabilities of our partner nations, with new equipment, advanced education and training, and increased information sharing.This chart shows the Citizen Safety initiatives on a map of the region.Merida in purpleCentral America Regional Security Initiative in GreenCaribbean Basin Security Initiative in YellowAnd Colombia Strategic Development Initiative in PinkWorking with the nations in the region, we build partner capacity to provide safety to their citizens and secure their borders.The goal is to strengthen security from the South West Border of the United States, through Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to Colombia, so that governments are not threatened by transnational criminal organizations, and the flow of illicit goods and transnational threats is reduced.“Initiatives” are independent and vary in pace, scope, and complexity, as well as the degree of US involvement and US support; each initiative requires an individual strategy
41U.S. Southern Command Our Profile Over 1,200 military and civilian personnelIntegrated, interagency headquartersNew Complex -- commitment to Miami and region630,425-square-foot building supports 2,800 workersConference Center of the Americas allows multiple conferencesConnections to the South Florida CommunityGateway to Latin America; vibrant international communityLocal businesses and organizations invite USSOUTHCOM personnel to 50+ events a yearDoD activities contribute $3.6 billion annually to Florida economyMilitary families attend schools; volunteer in organizations; foster vibrant communitiesUSSOUTHCOM sponsors Joint Civilian Orientation Conference, Community Business and Civic Leaders Awareness Program