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The Americas and the United States

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1 The Americas and the United States
THE OVERALL CLASSIFICATION OF THIS BRIEF IS: UNCLASSIFIED The Americas and the United States Presented to: CGOC Conference 2 May 2011 I will be presenting an introduction to and overview of the United States Southern Command. This briefing is unclassified. Brig Gen Steve Shepro Director, Policy, Plans & Strategy (J5) Fueling the Enterprise This is an informational briefing and the content is continuously changing. The charts are designed for discussion at time of presentation, not as stand-alone representation of official USSOUTHCOM policies or positions.

2 Context in a Global Culture
Technology has enabled this global identity. And it also gives everyone at least a perceived “voice” in the political process. This is the exception I alluded to earlier, we’ll talk more about it later.

3 …And Tomorrow’s Global Culture
Technology has enabled this global identity. And it also gives everyone at least a perceived “voice” in the political process. This is the exception I alluded to earlier, we’ll talk more about it later.

4 The Americas: A Diverse Region
Area of Responsibility 1/6th of earth’s surface (7.2m sq. mi. of land) 31 countries 15 Dependencies & Areas of Special Sovereignty Demographics 475 million people 200+ million Portuguese speakers 40+ million indigenous populations Economics 8 of 17 U.S. FTAs with AOR nations ~36% of U.S. trade is with the hemisphere 8.3% with AOR nations ~54% of energy imports come from this hemisphere ~20% from AOR nations Cultural Ties U.S. 5th largest Spanish speaking nation Estimated U.S. will be 1/4 Hispanic origin by 2050 JAMAICA The Americas, a home we share, is a strategically vital, culturally rich, and widely diverse and vibrant region. We share a common commitment to democracy, freedom, justice and respect for human rights. The USSOUTHCOM Area of Responsibility is depicted by the blue line on the map, and it outlines a very diverse region of the world. The AOR boundary runs just south of Mexico; this requires close coordination with NORTHCOM, as MEX is country of mutual interest Standing Command Arrangement Agreement with NORTHCOM addresses items that cross boundaries between the 2 commands, such as: Command relationship of JIATF-South forces Mass migration The size is approximately 1/6 of the earth’s surface, or 15.6 million square miles. There are 7.2m sq. mi. of land, or about twice as much as the U.S., which is about 3.5m sq. mi The AOR contains 31 countries, and 15 Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty There are a total of about 475 million people, which makes it about 54% more populous than the United Stats at 308 million in 2010 There are about 200 million Spanish speakers, and 200 million Portuguese speakers The other primary languages are English (7M), Creole (9M), several Indigenous languages (>40M) Latin America, the Caribbean, and the U.S. share common interests and security concerns.

5 Economic Linkages Growing Trade
Approx 8.3% of U.S. trade is with Latin America / Caribbean (approx. $217 billion in 2009) Approx. 54% of U.S. oil imports come from this hemisphere (~20% from AOR countries) Panama Canal Expansion Approx. $36B in remittances from U.S. to Latin America / Caribbean in 2009 The US is also linked with the region through economics. 40% of U.S. trade stays in the Americas, including Mexico and Canada. That is more than goes to Europe or goes to Asia. 8.3% of U.S. trade is with Latin America / Caribbean, which was approx. $217 billion in 2009 The U.S. has Free Trade Agreements with 17 nations; 8 of those nations are in Latin America, and 2 more agreements are pending (Colombia & Panama) Over half of our oil is imported from the hemisphere, including Canada and Mexico, and ~20% comes from AOR, primarily Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil – nearly as much as is imported from the Persian Gulf Panama Canal (from Panama Canal Authority, 2/3 ships transiting Canal are going to/from US ports / 7 of top 10 users of the canal are in this hemisphere Expansion, scheduled to be completed by 2014 is expected to almost double canal capacity to about 600 million tons per year Expansion will have a ripple effect on the US, as shippers from Asia have a method to get large ships to the east coast without having to unload on the west coast and transport by rail, truck, or air Remittances: $50 billion from U.S. to LAC in 2009 (including Mexico); ~36B to AOR countries (Remittance data

6 Percentage of Population
Demographic Linkages Percentage of Population Hispanic or Latino Population shift: 10 largest US cities Smith Johnson Williams Brown Jones Miller Davis García Rodríguez Wilson Martínez Anderson Taylor Thomas Hernández >40% 35 to 39.9% 30 to 34.5% 25 to 29.9% 12.5 to 24.9% 5 to 12.4% .7 to 4.9% The U.S. has been historically linked to the many nations of the region in many ways beyond physical proximity, even though the relationship has not always been on good terms. Over time, however, the links between the U.S. and the region have evolved, and in many ways, grown stronger than ever. The map on this slide demonstrates two things. First, the purple shading shows the areas of the U.S. with highest percentages of Latino or Hispanic populations, based on 2006 U.S. Census data. Additionally, the black circles on the map show the 10 largest US cities in As you can see, they are primarily concentrated in the northeast. The yellow circles show the 10 largest US cities in 2006. By that year, all of those cities were located in areas with large Hispanic populations, and the majority of them are in the southwestern states. Some other data to keep in mind: In 2010, there were 50.5 million Hispanics in the United States, composing 16 percent of the total population (see Table 1). Between 2000 and 2010, the Hispanic population grew by 43 percent—rising from 35.3 million in 2000, when this group made up 13 percent of the total population. The Hispanic population increased by 15.2 million between 2000 and 2010, accounting for over half of the 27.3 million increase in the total population of the United States. By 2050, it’s expected that the US will be 25% Hispanic. The US is also the fifth largest Spanish-speaking country in the world (#2 if counting non-documented) Estimates are US will be largest US-speaking country by 2050 (surpassing 123 million) As shown on the right side of the slide, 4 of the top 15 surnames, (and 10 of top 50) are Hispanic, according to 2000 U.S. census data Importance: Many Latins – especially youth – maintain strong ties to the country of their family’s roots, and may continue to carry that identity rather than assimilating into the “melting pot” as previous generations of immigrants did. Political agenda = immigration (Remittances) Population shift: Ten Largest U.S. cities

7 A Decade of Progress Optimistic Trends A decade of progress…
3.4% Avg GDP Growth 82% Increase of trade with U. S. 28% Decrease in unemployment 10.9% Decrease in poverty 42.7% Increase in College Enrollment 26.3% Decrease in illiteracy Over 60% of regional population supports democracy Over the last 10 years or so, the region has demonstrated a number of positive trends: Economic Growth Rate: 3.4 % Avg GDP Growth ( ) U. S. Trade: 82% Increase ( ) – this is the greatest rate of increase for any region save Africa over that time period; [compared to 72% for Asia (driven largely by China), 51% for the European Union, 221% for Africa, and 64% for the world] Decrease in Poverty by 10.9% ( ) College Enrollment: 42.7% Increase ( ) Decrease in illiteracy of 26.3% In a recent poll, more than 60% of the regional population expressed support for democratic forms of government; however, support for democracy tends to decrease in areas that are plagued by crime and violence.

8 Challenging Conditions
Poverty Challenging Conditions Unequal wealth distribution Unemployment Social class exclusion Impunity Weak Government Porous Borders Corruption However, despite progress, challenges remain. While these challenges listed are related to economic development, it is important we understand the environment in which we are operating. Although poverty has decreased, in 2009, ~33% of Latin Americans lived under the poverty line—less than $2 per day, while ~13% lived in extreme poverty—less than $1 per day. This equates to 183 million poor, and 74 million living in indigence. The map on the left shows the poverty rates throughout the region.(ECLAC-2010) Corruption, in both the public and private sectors, saps economic initiatives. The map on the right is the 2010 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, demonstrating the perception of corruption among many AOR countries is high. Inequality- Latin America / Caribbean is the most unequal sub-region. There is wealth, but it is distributed poorly. In many countries, there is a small wealthy class and a large lower class, with little to no middle class, and little chance for upward mobility. Less-capable governments are unable to provide internal security, secure their borders, or provide justice, allowing criminals and criminal organizations to act with impunity. Not all AOR countries are afflicted with staggering poverty and corruption. However, these challenges are wide-spread enough to present serious regional security concerns. Legend: % of population below poverty line 0-20 20-40 40-60 60+ No information Legend 7-10 6-6.9 5-5.9 4-4.9 3-3.9 2-2.9 0-1.9 Only Chile and Barbados rate above 7.0 on CPI 2010 Index Overall poverty rate for the region is 33.0% Source: ECLAC; CIA World Fact Book Source: Transparency International CPI 2010 Transnational challenges require cooperative action with and among nations.

9 Security Concerns Illicit trafficking
Transnational Criminal Organizations Natural disasters Violent Extremist Organizations Narco-terrorism Crime / urban gangs Alternatively governed spaces Mass migration The type of threats we collectively face in this region are not traditional military or conventional threats, and thrive in environments with challenging conditions such as poverty, unemployment, and social class exclusion. As U.S. Secretary of Defense Gates has said, “crime, terrorism, natural disasters, economic turmoil, ethnic fissures and disease can be just as destabilizing as traditional military threats. We need to fuse old concepts of security with new concepts of how security, stability and development go hand in hand.” In the region, Illicit traffickers and transnational criminals are taking advantage of security challenges to further their illegal activities. Transnational violent extremist organizations primarily use the region to raise funds for operations elsewhere in the world, but have conducted attacks in the region in the past. Narco-terrorists, such as the FARC, continue to evolve their tactics to pose new challenges from decade to decade, and have begun using the drug trade to fuel their insurgency. As many as 100,000 gang members operate throughout the region, In many cases, they appear to have no rules, and have little regard for human life. In some cases, these criminal organizations are providing services that governments are unable to, effectively creating alternatively governed spaces within national borders. And SOUTHCOM also continues to monitor conditions that may lead to incidents of mass migration, primarily from Haiti or Cuba With none of the listed challenges, does the DOD have the lead in responding to these threats. Additionally, none of the challenges recognize national sovereignty or stop at a nation‘s border. None can be overcome by any one nation alone—they require transnational solutions. They cannot be overcome by the military alone—they require a ―whole of society approach—integrating interagency, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. USSOUTHCOM focuses our efforts on two key challenges to regional security: the inevitability of natural disasters and the relentless threat posed by TCOs.

10 Political Pendulum 1998 2011 1958 1978 Dictatorships
This chart shows five decades of expanding democracy. Much of the region has had periods of civilian rule alternated with military dictatorships. In some countries authoritarian rule was the norm until the 1980s By the late 1990s, almost all countries in the region had some form of democratically elected government. However, new democracies are still fragile and vulnerable to erosion by populists and authoritarian coups. Many argue these two conditions I discussed earlier – poverty and income inequality – helped produce the growth of Neo-populist governments in Venezuela and the ALBA countries. While democracy is thriving in most of the region, some countries engage in undemocratic tendencies. For example, in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua, leaders pushed through constitutional reforms allowing them to extend their terms in office In Venezuela, the President holds decree powers exceeding the other branches of government In Haiti: The transition of political power remains problematic; we are closely watching recent events to see how they handle political turnover Guatemala, the President and his wife are pushing the edges of the letter of the law, to the detriment of the spirit in which the law was written Dictatorships Fragile democracies Democracies

11 Increased External Activity
Strengthening diplomatic, economic, military ties Expanding markets and ensuring access to natural resources Increased weapons sales and training Goal is to be viewed as reliable and be the partner of choice Strategy has diplomatic, economic, socio- cultural, and military elements Seeks closer ties with Latin American governments Seeks to impede US and European international sanctions Using arms sales and energy agreements to gain political influence Economic relationships concentrated on energy Aims to bolster interest in its space program US is not the only “product” in the region Others actors from “outside the Western Hemisphere” are also engaging in the region The 3 primary external influences we monitor are China, Iran, and Russia China’s interest in the region is logical and primarily driven by economic considerations; the region offers access to vast natural resources. trade with Latin America increased 73% from $12.1B to $102B China is now Brazil’s #1 trade partner Iran’s interest is mostly political and diplomatic. It has built 11 new embassies in the region in recent years, and has growing relationships with Venezuela and Bolivia. Iran’s engagement goals are to avoid international isolation and attempt to reduce U.S. diplomatic influence, as well as secure friendly voices – and votes – within the United Nations. Russia’s interests are also primarily economic. Russia views the region as a new market for arms sales, and an area for developing energy trade. In some cases, these arms sales can be positive—such as the sale of 12 helicopters to Peru to increase Peruvian CIT capabilities. But in other cases, these sales have the potential to undermine regional stability, such as the large number of automatic weapons sold to Venezuela, and the potential they could reach the hands of organizations like the FARC in Colombia.

12 Our History 1903 – 1917 Panama Canal Zone
1917 – Panama Canal Department 1941 – Caribbean Defense Command 1947 – Caribbean Command U.S. Southern Command Panama Canal Treaties Signed Move to Miami Move to new HQ Our initial history focused on providing security for the construction of the Panama Canal. Over the years, we changed size, shape, and mission, to reflect the realities of world events. As you can see, our name changed throughout the years, ultimately settling on Southern Command to show our focus on Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. For much of this history, we were based in Panama. 1903, U.S. Marines first arrived in the Panama Canal Zone to protect the railroad connecting the two coasts. 1917, Panama Canal Department activated as a geographic command of the U.S. Army Beginning in 1941, for the WWII period, what was to become USSOUTHCOM was established as the Caribbean Defense Command, with a war-time defense mission 1947, Caribbean Command created as part of the 1947 reorganization of the military, creating the DoD and regional/geographical commands. 1963, Name change to reflect true geographical responsibilities of the command 1997, Headquarters transferred to Miami 2010- Moved into purpose-built Miami HQ Complex

13 Unified Command System
President Service Secretaries Secretary of Defense Chairman JCS Functional Responsibilities U.S. Southern Command was established as a unified command in 1963. We are one of six geographic COCOMs which reports to the Commander-in-Chief via the Secretary of Defense, and receives advice from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Service Chiefs, charged with the manning, training, and equipping of their services. These Service Chiefs are force providers to the COCOMs. Functional COCOMs support the geographic COCOMs as they execute operations within their AOR. Geographic Responsibilities Service Chiefs SOCOM JFCOM PACOM AFRICOM EUCOM ARMY NAVY TRANSCOM STRATCOM CENTCOM MARINES NORTHCOM SOUTHCOM AIR FORCE

14 Our Vision, Mission, and Objectives
Vision: We are a joint & interagency organization supporting US national security interests, and with our partners, improving security, stability & prosperity in the Americas. Mission: We are ready to conduct joint & combined full- spectrum military operations & support whole-of-government efforts to enhance regional security & cooperation. Strategic Objectives Defend the United States Foster Regional Security Be an Enduring Partner The US Southern Command remains prepared to defend the U.S. and project U.S. power within our Area of Responsibility; however, there currently is little likelihood of state-on-state violence in the region. The main threats are non-traditional, as I’ve discussed, and to counter them, we partner with other U.S. government agencies, our partner nations, and non-governmental organizations. The Commander has identified 3 strategic objectives for the Command: OBJECTIVES First, to Defend the United States through a layered defense: forward, by cooperating with and building partner nation capacity; then, by maintaining U.S. warfighting capability. Second, to Foster Regional Security -by conducting military-to-military engagement with our partners. This enhances collaborative defense, ultimately assisting with the first objective; improves the security environment, leading to stability and prosperity; and promotes respect for human rights and the rule of law Third, to Be an Enduring Partner -We want to be the Partner of Choice for those military-to-military engagements, as well as whole-of-government solutions to the region’s challenges Ensuring the forward defense of the United States

15 Joint Interagency Task Force South Joint Task Force Guantánamo
Command Organization AFSOUTH Air Forces South Tucson, Arizona Army South San Antonio, Texas Special Operations Command South Homestead, Florida Naval Forces South Mayport, Florida Marine Forces South Miami, Florida Security Cooperation Offices (24) US Southern Command ARSOUTH NAVSOUTH Air Forces South Tucson, Arizona Joint Interagency Task Force South Key West, Florida MARFORSOUTH SOCSOUTH Army South San Antonio, Texas JIATF-S Joint Task Force Guantánamo Naval Station, Cuba Naval Forces South Mayport, Florida JTF-GTMO Comalapa Joint Task Force Bravo Soto Cano, Honduras Marine Forces South Miami, Florida Here’s how we are organized today to carry out our mission. We have roughly 5,000-6,000 total personnel assigned and dispersed throughout our many locations and subordinate organizations. Our headquarters here in Miami, and our “component” commands from each of the military services and special operations command spread out across the southern United States. Additionally, there are 24 Security Cooperation Offices throughout the AOR to conduct security cooperation and engagement activities. Cooperative Security Locations in El Salvador and Aruba/Curacao. Cooperative Security Locations are not bases… they are locations we can operate out of, in restrictive agreements, which we can use for Counter-Narcotics monitoring The purple boxes on the right represent the Joint Task Forces which are unique to USSOUTHCOM. Joint Interagency Task-Force South The Key West, Fla.-based Joint Interagency Task Force-South is the SOUTHCOM organization that integrates and synchronizes interagency counter drug operations, and is responsible for the detection and monitoring of suspect air and maritime drug activity in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern Pacific. JIATF-South also collects, processes, and disseminates counter drug information for interagency and partner nation operations. JOA spans USSOUTHCOM and USNORTHCOM AORs, as well as EUCOM and PACOM – important element to bridge the seam between the 2 COCOMs regarding illicit trafficking JTF-GTMO Responsible for the safe, humane, legal, and transparent care of detainees in support of the GWOT. JTF-B Long standing Joint Task Force in Soto Cano, Honduras Largest unit forward positioned within the AOR Consists primarily of helicopters, medical personnel Has HA/DR, PR, CIT, and NEO role Comalapa JTF-B Curacao Special Operations Command South Homestead, Florida Cooperative Security Locations

16 USSOUTHCOM Headquarters
Senior Enlisted Leader SgtMaj Espinal Combatant Commander General Fraser Civilian Deputy to the Commander & Foreign Policy Advisor Ambassador Trivelli Military Deputy Commander LTG Keen Chief of Staff J1 Manpower & Personnel J2 Intelligence, Surveillance & Recon J3 Operations J4 Logistics J5 Strategy, Plans & Policy J6 Comm. System Dominance J7 Theater Security Cooperation Engagement J8 Resources & Assessments J9 Partnering Services Interagency Partners Army Since January 2010, the headquarters is organized as traditional J-Code We include elements that allow us to support whole-of-government solutions to the diverse challenges we face, such as having a Civilian Deputy to the Commander, in addition to our Military Deputy Commander. Because partnerships of all types are the key to success, here at our headquarters, we have U.S. military expertise from all the services, multinational representation, and multiple representatives from various other Federal Agencies. These representatives are integrated at all levels across our staff, not segregated into a separate part of the organization. We also have strategic partnerships with academic institutions. For many of these institutions listed, USSOUTHCOM helps fund and facilitate the attendance of military and inter-institutional students from throughout our region. We also have growing relationships with civilian academic institutions, to include fellowships, co-sponsored conferences, and daily exchange of ideas and information. Another type of partnering that has benefitted us enormously is our public-private cooperation with businesses and non-governmental organizations in the region These partnerships allow us to leverage resources and expertise of specialized communities that are in short supply in DoD; They help us respond more quickly and effectively during a disaster (as witnessed in Haiti); And they bring together different perspectives and capacities to address security and stability issues in Latin America & the Caribbean With them, we can create Communities of Interest and Communities of Action, composed of stakeholders that have a mutual interest in one of our problem sets. Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard Liaison Officers Homeland Security State Commerce Defense Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Peru Uruguay Partner Academic Institutions Justice USAID Energy Treasury Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies Naval Small Craft Instruction & Technical Training School School of International Graduate Studies Inter-American Defense College Inter-American Air Forces Academy Intelligence Agencies

17 Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief Peacekeeping Operations
Our Focus Areas Counter Illicit Trafficking Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief The strategic objectives I described earlier place a high demand on current resources. In order to prioritize our efforts and expenditures, we have identified these areas to better inform our planning, programming, and budgeting decisions. First, Counter Illicit Trafficking. Illicit Trafficking is a significant security challenge throughout the AOR, as it brings together money, power, and the ability to breach national borders Second, Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief. The capability to respond rapidly to a disaster requires contingency planning at the strategic and operational levels, and must take palace between the USSOUTHCOM, other USG agencies, and the international community. And third, Peace Keeping Operations. There is tremendous commitment throughout the region with respect to PKO. We continue to seek opportunities to expand the impact our respective armed forces have globally in terms of peacekeeping. Peacekeeping Operations

18 The Network of Illicit Trafficking
Drug & human trafficking, weapons smuggling & money laundering: At least $394 billion a year global industry UK: #1 per capita consumer US: Largest Consumer Increasing Demand $ Arms ECU, JUL 2010 $ Arms Cocaine Production COL, FEB 2011 Brazil: #2 Global Consumer Looking first at illicit trafficking, this map gives a simplified overview of world-wide trafficking, focusing on Cocaine flow within the region. By some estimates, world-wide illicit trafficking is a $300-$400B annual enterprise. The charts on the bottom of the slide show suspected track activity for 2010; air traffic is on the left, and maritime on the right. These demonstrate the increased use of Central American countries as a transit route, in addition to the traditional Caribbean routes. Additionally, this map shows the increasing use of southern and eastern routes to supply growing demand in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. TCOs, illicit trafficking, and violence are evolving challenges: Criminal organizations engage in the illicit trafficking of drugs, arms, money, and people through porous borders throughout the region TCOs construct flexible, resilient networks – bounce back after setbacks (arrests / deaths of leadership) Operate through the air, sea, and overland Compounding the challenge, TCOs are innovative and adaptive. They have begun constructing self-propelled fully-submersible vessels to transport illicit goods between South America and Central America or Mexico, which are extremely difficult to detect, monitor, and interdict. Other things to consider: Major markets tend to be major consumers, such as the U.S. and Brazil as the #1 and #2 cocaine consumers, and the UK as the #1 per capita consumer Less capable states are often used for transit between source and consumption. These states are often plagued by other factors, such as difficult borders to secure, the presence of gangs, and other high crime rates. Illicit trafficking routes exploit areas, such as North Africa and the Middle East, that are also exploited by Islamic Violent Extremist organizations. The potential nexus between illicit trafficking, transnational terrorism, and WMD could pose a potential threat to the U.S. and partners. 2010 Air Activity 2010 Maritime Activity Illicit trafficking: Potential nexus for transnational terrorism & the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

19 Disrupt normal illicit trafficking vectors to increase vulnerability
Drug Trafficking in the AOR Desired Effect: Disrupt normal illicit trafficking vectors to increase vulnerability Flexible, resilient networks Innovative and adaptive Regional Impacts Skyrocketing homicide Increased crime Increased security spending Reduced foreign investment Private security growth Use of military for domestic security HND GTM In 2009, almost 2/3s of the estimated 909 MT of global cocaine (almost 600MT) departed South America for US markets; 32%, (~ 290 MT) for Europe; 5%, (~ 45 MT) to Canada and Asia Colombia remains the leading cocaine producer at 42%, and most cocaine in the US comes from Colombia The most common vessel remains go-fasts, which account for 31% of all drug smuggling events, but traffickers also rely on commercial vessels and low profile vessels such as submersibles Approximately 90% of all cocaine flow to the US passed through the Mexico/Central America corridor – the bubbles on this map show the areas where cocaine made its first stop after leaving South America – Honduras (favored destination of light aircraft), Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama (over land from Colombia) Venezuela has become a major port of debarkation for Colombian cocaine headed to the U.S., as well as cocaine headed to European and other markets USSOUTHCOM has limited ability to influence trafficking along the land corridor; our goal is to push the trafficking out to international waters where we can detect & monitor, and law enforcement agencies or partner nations can interdict Near Term Impact: The evolution of TCOs is correlated with a dramatic rise in violence in recent years. Skyrocketing homicide rates in partner nations Increasing crime (kidnapping, theft, extortion, money laundering) Increased spending on internal security operations Reduced foreign investment in partner nations Long Term Impact: Reduced participation in democratic processes Privatized security rivals state security apparatus / vigilantism PAN Proportional rep. of 1st stop for cocaine traffic (Honduras ~ 38%) CRI Air Vector Maritime Vector Ground Vector

20 Counter Illicit Trafficking
UNCLASSIFIED Counter Illicit Trafficking Build Partner Capacity / Intelligence / Detection & Monitoring Train, equip, provide base support, and build infrastructure in support of law enforcement agencies Provide Partner Nations (PN) capabilities to: Respond independently to internal illicit trafficking threats or in concert with other PN’s Support regional US counter-illicit trafficking goals and objectives as an operational element of Joint Interagency Task Force – South (JIATF-S) Partner Nation Capability Program Areas: Ground Reaction Interdiction & Apprehension Maritime Interdiction Riverine Interdiction Aerial Domain Awareness Intelligence Build Partner Capacity 3-prong approach to CIT: BPC, Intelligence, Detection & Monitoring Intelligence: Provide collection assets through Global Force Management Allocation, contracting (i.e. Colombia) BPC: Respond independently to internal illicit trafficking threats or in concert with other PN’s Support regional US counter-illicit trafficking goals and objectives as an operational element of (JIATF-S) PN Maritime Interdiction Capability Maritime Interdiction Plan Maritime Patrol Aircraft support to JIATF-S Southern Border Security Initiative PN Ground Reaction Interdiction and Apprehension Capability Regional Helicopter Training Center (RHTC) for Spanish speaking students Sustain Colombia as a regional ally PN Riverine Interdiction Capability Infrastructure LAV Battalion PN Aerial Domain Awareness Capability Sovereign Skies Detection & Monitoring: JIATF-S, Detection and Monitoring

21 Trends in Homicide Rates per 100,000
Illicit Trafficking Portends Violence Trends in Homicide Rates per 100,000 2007—major shift in illicit trafficking routes 90% of all cocaine destined for the U.S. now passes through Central America : 59,085 homicides in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador Sources: National Civilian Police Figures & government institutions (various) Population ( = 10 million) Homicides ( = 1 thousand) TCOs are not only innovative—they are extremely violent Of the countries with the highest murder rates in the world—almost all of them all lie along the key cocaine trafficking routes TCOs (particularly Mexican ones) are aggressively transnational—seeking new markets, new routes, and new bases of operations 2007—major shift in trafficking routes to CENTAM—MEX and COL success in CIT/pressuring TCOs Result—CENTAM (and Northern Triangle in particular)—now the most violent region in the world outside of active war zones While violence in MEX captures most of the media’s attention—CENTAM is much worse Since DEC 2006—when PRES Calderon declared war on drug cartels in MEX—34,550 people have died in drug-related violence in MEX During the same time period in CENTAM—59,085 homicides in the Northern Triangle MEX population much larger—CENTAM murder rates are reaching epidemic—civil war proportions Consequences—security threats Corrode CENTAM states from within Weakened states—could allow safe haven or expanded base of operations for TCOs in the region—cross border sanctuary, undermine MEX efforts Dramatically impede CN operations Gravest threat posed by TCOs Illicit trafficking networks employed by TCOs could be used for other means—smuggling of terrorists into U.S. Mexico 123,000,000 35,000 Central America 41,000,000 67,000

22 International Actions
Combating Violence in CENTAM Belize Army, Coast Guard patrols with police Guatemala State of Siege in Alta Verapaz (Dec 10 – Feb 11) Soldiers posted on buses Honduras Army patrols with police Security and Justice Reform Nicaragua Anti-Gang reforms El Salvador Army patrols w/police Goods for Guns Program Panama Regional anti-drug center Youth violence programs Costa Rica National Plan to control violence USG Actions Central American Regional Security Initiative—CARSI The Central America Citizen Security Partnership Build partner nation capacity to counter illicit traffic and TCOs Anti-gang initiatives Border security International Actions SICA Regional Security Plan Support from IDB, World Bank, and UN UNDP initiatives (small arms control, violence reduction) World Bank’s Small Grant Program for Violence Prevention (SGPVP) Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) Combating Violence in CENTAM CENTAM nations are recognizing this threat CENTAM—taking steps to address this issue Military patrolling with police Stronger anti-gang policies/juvenile development programs Institutional reforms USG—supporting CENTAM CARSI and Central America Citizen Security Partnership SICA—Regional Security Strategy, support from IADB, United Nations, and World Bank Guatemala—CICIG—UN backed Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala

23 Recent Natural Disasters
A question of “when,” not “if”… Nov 08 – Costa Rica/Panama – Floods Nov 08 – Haiti – School Collapse Nov 08 – Colombia – Volcano/Floods Dec 08 – Uruguay – Forest Fires Jan 09 – Costa Rica – Earthquake May 09 – Honduras – Earthquake Nov 09 – El Salvador – Floods Jan 10 – Haiti – Earthquake Feb 10 – Chile – Earthquake May 10 – Guatemala – Volcano /Floods Nov 10 – Haiti – Hurricane Tomas This list represents some recent natural disasters in the AOR, and demonstrates the variety of disasters we may have to face.

24 Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief
$45.6M in disaster preparedness and humanitarian assistance in FY10 Disaster Preparedness Humanitarian Assistance Program (HAP) & DOD Excess Property Program Build & stock Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) and Disaster Relief Warehouses (DRWs) Train PN medical first responders Build or renovate schools, community shelters, warehouses, clinics, hospitals, wells Create disease surveillance programs Disaster Relief, 2010 January, Haiti earthquake February, Chile earthquake May - June, TS Agatha & volcanoes in Guatemala September, Hurricane Tomas in Haiti Turning now to the next focus area, HA/DR, before disaster strikes, our Humanitarian Assistance Program and DOD Excess Property Program allow us to build and stock Disaster Relief Warehouses, build Emergency Operations Centers, train emergency medical personnel, and renovate schools, community centers, clinics and hospitals, to improve the countries’ disaster response capabilities. Additionally, we help create disease surveillance programs, to identify and contain outbreaks and emerging diseases And when disaster does strike, USSOUTHCOM may be asked to respond, as we were several times in 2010 to support whole-of-government efforts, a few of which are shown on this slide. In January, we deployed over 20,000 troops, 23 ships, and numerous aircraft to support relief operations following the devastating earthquake in Haiti. Shortly after, in February, we provided a smaller contingent of troops and equipment following another severe earthquake in Chile. A few months later, when TS Agatha caused widespread flooding and mudslides in Guatemala, USSOUTHCOM again deployed personnel, ships, and aircraft to provide relief supplies and to conduct infrastructure assessments.

25 Peacekeeping Operations
Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) provides funds to train & equip PN PKO units 9 current GPOI partner nations, 3 nations in process of becoming partners Several GPOI partners have deployed or will deploy GPOI-funded troops on PKO missions UN Deployments 14 AOR countries Contributing nearly 8,000 personnel to UNPKO missions worldwide Troops, police, military experts Turning to Peacekeeping Operations, the Final Focus Area: USSOUTHCOM supports the Global Peace Operations Initiative, or GPOI. This Presidential initiative is run by the State Department, and is intended to increase the capacity of countries to deploy in support of international peace and stabilization operations. Countries receive equipment and funding assistance, and USSOUTHCOM provides PKO training opportunities, including Partnership of the Americas, and PKO-Americas. Partnership of the Americas POA is an annual Marine Forces-South company-level exercise that focuses on enhancing interoperability between U.S. and partner-nation Marines in the areas of amphibious operations, non-combatant evacuation operations (NEO), peacekeeping and disaster relief. Peacekeeping Operations – Americas (PKO-Americas) PKO Americas is a multi-national Command Post Exercise designed to improve participating partner nations’ and US capabilities to act as a multinational peacekeeping force in support of UN peacekeeping operations. And to look at some of the successes that the countries of the region have had with supporting peacekeeping operations, you can see that 14 AOR countries currently contribute nearly 8,000 personnel to UN PKO missions worldwide, including troops, police, and military experts The Commanding General officer in charge of MINUSTAH in Haiti has been provided by Brazil since 2004, and 14 countries from the region are providing a lion’s share of the effort in that country [DO NOT BRIEF] 9 current GPOI partner nations (DOM, GTM, SLV, HND, NIC, BLZ, PER, PRY, URY), 3 nations (COL, CHL, ECU) invited to join, funding allocated, awaiting PN signature of agreement under Section 505 of Foreign Assistance Act, GPOI funding has been used to send instructors from 3 non-GPOI partner nations (ARG, BRA, CHL) to teach at GPOI-partner training centers to leverage their experience in helping less-experienced partner nations.

26 Theater Security Cooperation Activities - FY11
Combined Education 61 events Combined Exercises 59 events Combined Experimentation 4 events Combined Training 104 events Counter/Non-Proliferation 0 events Counternarcotics Assistance 196 events Defense and Military Contacts 668 events Def Support to Public Diplomacy 0 events Infrastructure Support Projects 1 events Humanitarian Assistance 83 events Information Sharing 61 Events Int’l Armaments Cooperation 0 events FMS: Foreign Military Sales FMF: Foreign Military Finance IMET: Intl Military Education and Training CTFP: Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program So, how do we go about achieving our strategic objectives? Our primary tool for accomplishing our mission is conducting Theater Security Cooperation Activities to Build Partner Nation Capacity. This slide shows all of the different types of activities, with the number of each planned for FY11. As you can see, our primary emphasis is on activities such as Subject Matter Expert Exchanges, Counternarcotics and Humanitarian Assistance, Combined Training and Exercises, and Information Exchanges. As part of our TSC activities, we share information on challenges to security and stability in the region, including illicit trafficking and natural disasters. One example is our CNIES system, or Cooperative Nation Information Exchange Service – a computer system that allows us to coordinate counterdrug operations with our partners. Support Tools to achieve Strategic Objectives Other Programs (CTFP) 365 events Security Assistance FMS, FMF, IMET 12 events USSOUTHCOM is committed to building and sustaining enduring relationships

27 Air Force Engagement in our AOR
Humanitarian Assistance Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE Haiti 2200 Airmen, 5 Expeditionary Units, 6 Communications Packages Combined Training NEW HORIZONS 16 MEDRETES and DENTRETES 103,309 patients treated Combined Exercises PANAMAX Pioneered approval process to allow PNs into AF Network Counternarcotics Assistance: Surveillance Architecture Education Subject Matter Expert Exchanges International Affairs Specialist Program: RAS/PAS Language Training Programs Security Cooperation & Assistance Cooperation Teams (CT-1) AFSAT IIAFA &PME AWC , ASSC, ALP

28 USAF - Building Partner Capacity
AT-6 US Fairchild North American Hughes Curtis Douglas Vaught Northrop Grumman Beechcraft Boeing 1950 1980 2010 BPC—multi-axis problem State’s recognition of the problem & willingness to participate Varying degrees of capabilities & scale of capacity to absorb Limitations on US engagement (Human Rights; DSCA process for FMF/FMS) Example: US capability to address states’ true requirements—for example, the Light Attack/Attack and Reconnaissance platforms 1950s-early 1970s—U.S. aerospace industry offered numerous aircraft to meet this role. Presently—we are now down to just a few—in reality, down to one—the AT-6. During the same timeframe—our allies and enemies also offered many types of aircraft to meet this role. Smaller PNs—role of Light Aircraft capabilities for Smaller PNs Training with Light Mobility Aircraft, Light ISR, and Light Attack appears to represent an avenue that ‘makes sense’ for many of the smaller Air Forces in the region. Need to think our way through what this means PC-21 AT-29 Foreign PC-9 KA-1 Russia (MiG), China (CAIC), Brazil (Embraer), Switzerland (Pilatus), Czech (Let), Germany (MBB), France (Specat), England (Bae), Yugo (Soko)

29 Closing Thought “As we move to the future, we are committed to building focused, collaborative approaches that will enable all of us – USSOUTHCOM, our interagency colleagues and partners alike, – to work together to address the challenges we collectively face.” -- General Douglas Fraser Commander, United States Southern Command Sir, to leave you with a parting thought from General Fraser, it’s that the transnational challenges we face in this region cannot be solved by one person, one organization, or even one country. The require collaborative solutions across whole-of-governments and international partners in the region. Thank you. This concludes the Command Brief, pending any questions you have.

30 Fueling the Enterprise

31 Theater Security Cooperation
Dom Rep MOD visit CHDS Seminar COLMIL J2 visit MEDCAP - Guyana January February March CN Assistance – Honduras (operations center, pier improvement) Mini-MEDRETE Honduras Mini-MEDRETE Belize BTH CARIB Tradewinds - Carib HSV SWIFT Support Tools to achieve Strategic Objectives USS GUNSTON HALL SMEE PKO Americas NH Haiti BTH CENTAM Guatemala / Belize GO/FO discussions Aviation Maint. SMEE - Paraguay WHINSEC SME Conf. Brazil Sr. Analyst visit Disaster Preparedness SMEE - Nicaragua PR SMEE - Guatemala Total Events January – March 2011 Defense / Military Contacts: 86 Events Combined / Multinational Education: 20 Events Combined / Multinational Training: 13 Events Combined / Multinational Exercises: 10 Events Counternarcotics Assistance: 7 Events Information Sharing: 6 Events Combined / Multinational Experimentation: 2 Events Humanitarian Assistance: 2 Events Our primary tool for achieving our strategic objectives is conducting Theater Security Cooperation Activities that we use to Build Partner Nation Capacity. This slide shows all of the different types of activities, with the number of each conducted during the first three months of this calendar year. Top Events Conducted & Highlights Education: International Military Education and Training, or IMET, is a key component of our engagement strategy to develop long term relations with our partner nations. The program concentrates on providing professional military education and management courses to international military students. Exercises: We provide other types of training, particularly with our robust exercise program. Information Sharing: We also share information on challenges to security and stability in the region, including illicit trafficking and natural disasters. One example is our CNIES system, or Cooperative Nation Information Exchange Service – a computer system that allows us to coordinate counterdrug operations with our partners. USSOUTHCOM is committed to building and sustaining enduring relationships

32 Exercise Program Categories
Foreign Military Interaction Operational Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Joint and Combined exercises also help us prepare to achieve our strategic objectives. The three types of exercises USSOUTHCOM conducts are Operational, Foreign Military Interaction, and Humanitarian Civic Assistance. Operational exercises are designed to train the SOUTHCOM Staff to execute their wartime battle staff responsibilities. Examples include Ellipse Echo (counterterrorism) and Integrated Advance (mass migration). PANAMAX, a large, multi-national exercise based on a defense of the Panama Canal scenario, is an example of an exercise used for operational training as well as foreign military interaction. Foreign Military Interaction exercises are regionally focused to enhance the capabilities of our partner nations in functions that are appropriate to their principal security threats. These help build professional forces and interoperability with the US. For example, we’ve recently completed a very successful Tradewinds 2011 exercise, during which U.S. Sailors and Marines conducted a variety of types of training with partner nations in the Caribbean, to include Belize. Currently on-going is FA HUM 11, built around the scenario of an earthquake in TTO. Next I’ll talk a little more in-depth on Humanitarian Civic Assistance (HCA) exercises. PANAMAX INTEGRATED ADVANCE ELLIPSE ECHO PANAMAX UNITAS Atlantic/Pacific FA HUMANITARIAS TRADEWINDS PKO AMERICAS FUERZAS COMANDO BTH CARIBE BTH CENTAM New Horizons MEDRETE

33 Humanitarian and Civic Assistance
FY 10 – 76 MEDRETES/MEDCAPS Patients Treated: 276,827 Animals Treated: 15,102 Surgeries: 1,017 Medical Readiness Training / Exercises (MEDRETES), Engineering, Civil Affairs: “Activities to promote the specific operational readiness skills of US Forces” Improves joint training readiness of United States military Engineer, Combat Support, Combat Service Support , and Medical units Provides tangible benefit to host nation: engineer construction, rudimentary road construction/repair, water wells, medical outreach Caribbean (31) Dom Rep (BTH) 7 Guyana Trinidad Tobago 3 Suriname (NH) Haiti (NH) Central America (36) Belize El Salvador (BTH) 4 Guatemala Honduras Panama Nicaragua Costa Rica Andean Ridge (16) Colombia Ecuador Peru HCA exercises are a tool that allows us to prepare for disasters is our Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Exercise program. Our HCA exercises, including New Horizons, Beyond the Horizons, and Medical Readiness Training / Exercises, allow us to achieve 3 goals: Train our units and personnel on engineering, civil affairs, and medical tasks; Leave a tangible benefit for the host country, such as renovated schools, new water wells, or repaired roads; And demonstrate good-will on behalf of the U.S. to the countries in the region. The map on the left of the slide shows HCA exercises planned for FY11. As you can see, there are multiple exercises scheduled throughout Central and South America, and the Caribbean. SOUTHERN CONE (6) Paraguay 6 MEDRETEs Beyond The Horizons (BTH) New Horizons (NH)

34 Partner Nation Training (1 of 2)
Chile Air Force Example of Aircraft In Inventory F-16 MLU CASA 212 F-5E Tigre III Super Tucano UH-60 Boeing 707 CONDOR Boeing 767 KC-135

35 Partner Nation Training
Colombia Air Force A-29 Super Tucano Example of Aircraft In Inventory A-27 Tucano AC-47 Gunship OV-10 Bronco A-37 Dragonfly UH-60 Blackhawk Mirage V KFIR C7

36 Partner Nation Training
Guatemala Air Force Example of Aircraft In Inventory ENAER T-35 Pillan IAI Arava   Pilatus PC-7  Security Assistance and Training for Smaller PNs Security assistance programs we offer the region is robust—and often unrealistic for smaller PNs We possess an intuitive understanding of our peers and near-peers in the region A training program that is appropriate for Chile may not be appropriate—or even realistic—for Guatemala BPC—recurring issue/challenge for USAF Cessna A-37 Dragonfly Fokker F-27 Bell 212 Twin Huey   

37 Partner Nation Training
Costa Rica Ministry of Public Security Example of Aircraft In Inventory Piper PA-31 Navajo Piper PA-31T Cheyenne   Cessna T210N Centurion  Role of Light Aircraft capabilities Equipping and training with Light Mobility Aircraft, Light ISR, and Light Attack appears to represent an avenue that ‘makes sense’ for many of the smaller Air Forces in the region. Need to think our way through what this means My perspective. Capacity building -- a force for the asymmetric fight: Requires airframes, manning, training, funding, employment, logistics support, long term O&S Develop the overhead required to support operations: if build for asymmetric fight, important for USAF and becomes attractive for partners Already built structure for MC-12; I think AF should do same with Light Attack and Light Mobility Aircraft Need to re-evaluate support capacity for partners: small fleet management is difficult and hard to fit in our “large fleet” management system Our Goal: through structured engagement and capacity building, USAF can help make AFs more relevant and beneficial force for all our PNs. Piper PA-34 Seneca Cessna 206 Stationair McDonnell Douglas MD.500E   

38 USAF BPC -- Recurring IW Mission
WW II - Korea Vietnam Proxy Wars Desert Storm / Allied Force OEF/OIF & Forward Insurgencies & Revolts Insurgencies & Revolts USSR Dissolves Insurgencies & Revolts “Long War” IW Strategic Setting ? Terrorism ascendency State Insolvencies 1950 1980 2010 1992 FID doctrinal zenith USAF IW Commitment JFK mission push IW airpower ad hoc F-22 / F-35 hi-conventional H COIN wings deactivated “Never again” Reluctant participation AF Investment, Mission Expertise & Capable Platforms Flat Lining at Low AirLand focus The Story: Since fixed wing and rotary aviation entered the military equation, there has been a requirement for specialized capabilities—engagement with non-traditional and/or non-linear forces. By whatever name you want to call it—unconventional warfare; special operations; low intensity conflict; counter insurgency; military operations other than war; foreign internal defense, etc—distinct preparation, training and equipment is necessary. IA has been around since war itself—USAF has been resistant to fully embracing this mission set Today, this resistance has the additional negative impact of not only reducing the capability we have to build partners—could opening the door for losing influence around the globe. From WWII, through Proxy Wars in CENTAM through Operations Desert Storm, Allied Force, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom—constant cycle of combat requirement ultimately overpowering organizational disinterest Light attack/recon in irregular warfare advocacy in 1942 is akin to that for 2012 Cycle of reluctant acquiescence & subsequent discard of mission set Parallel ebb & flow between Air Force intellectual thought—largely from schools such as this (Air War College), and the Air University writ large—mirrors that of expertise and capability (systems, aircraft, etc) that have been available. Requirement is not going away—and argument is easily made that it will be our predominant threat for the next decade or so Air Power—essential element to an overall strategy in the IW context—for us or our partners. Absence of training, exercising and developing that element relegates it to be either conceived by non-Airmen, which is unlikely to be the most effective, or ignored altogether which ensures perpetuating the cycle of re-learning. Island campaigners & myriad aircraft L Residual Airmen & systems: WWII & Korea into Vietnam Vietnam into Proxies Largely non-Mil operators & aircraft fleets retiring Primarily Flight Training Mission Retired experts & hi-end conventional systems Expertise & Capability Address & Discard…Perpetual Cycle Inhibits Innovation, Prohibits Opportunity & Compels Re-Learning

39 IW – Critical Capabilities
Essential Elements of a Responsive, Effective Air Arm Role Mission Aircraft Candidates Light ISR Supports all aspects of IW mission; counter insurgency; internal defense; building partnership capacity MC-12 Light Lift Gov’t access to all areas of state; resupply of special forces/regular forces; logistics for humanitarian relief, etc. Cessna Caravan Rotary Lift Airlift of emergency security / disaster response forces; emergency evacuation; medical evacuation; transport UH-1 Huey II Light Attack Light precision attack; armed reconnaissance; training; manned ISR AT-6 Capacity building—a force for the asymmetric fight: Requires airframes, manning, training, funding, employment, logistics support, long term O&S Develop the overhead required to support op: if build for asymmetric fight, important for USAF and becomes attractive for partners Already built structure for MC-12 I think AF should do same with Light Attack and Light Mobility Aircraft Need to re-evaluate support capacity for partners: small fleet management is difficult and hard to fit in our “large fleet” management system Essential Elements of a Responsive, Effective Air Arm Light ISR—supports all aspects IW mission Counter insurgency, internal defense & BPC Light Lift—gov’t access to all areas of state; resupply of special forces/regular forces; logistics for HA/DR Rotary Lift—airlift of emergency security, DR forces, emergency evacuation, medical evacuation/transport Light Attack—armed recce, training, manned ISR & light precision attack

40 Regional “Initiatives”
DoS and DoD recognize that the threats to citizen safety are interrelated and need a comprehensive approach Greater emphasis on Building Partnerships and taking advantage of regional expertise and leadership Objectives Strengthen and integrate security from the U.S. Southwest border to Colombia, including the littoral waters of the Caribbean Produce a safer, more secure hemisphere Criminal organizations no longer can destabilize governments or threaten security and public safety Prevent the entry and spread of illicit drugs, arms, violence, and transnational threats USSOUTHCOM supports the USG’s Strategy for the Americas, which is founded on 4 pillars: Strengthen Democracy, Develop Economic Prosperity, Improve Citizen Safety, and Create a Secure Energy Future The objective is a community of democratic nations with shared political and economic values that work together to secure the region against terrorism and illegal drugs. USSOUTHCOM’s primary role is to support the Initiatives that address the issue of Citizen Safety: CARSI, CBSI, CSDI, and with NORTHCOM, Merida. We do this by building and strengthening the security capabilities of our partner nations, with new equipment, advanced education and training, and increased information sharing. This chart shows the Citizen Safety initiatives on a map of the region. Merida in purple Central America Regional Security Initiative in Green Caribbean Basin Security Initiative in Yellow And Colombia Strategic Development Initiative in Pink Working with the nations in the region, we build partner capacity to provide safety to their citizens and secure their borders. The goal is to strengthen security from the South West Border of the United States, through Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to Colombia, so that governments are not threatened by transnational criminal organizations, and the flow of illicit goods and transnational threats is reduced. “Initiatives” are independent and vary in pace, scope, and complexity, as well as the degree of US involvement and US support; each initiative requires an individual strategy

41 U.S. Southern Command Our Profile
Over 1,200 military and civilian personnel Integrated, interagency headquarters New Complex -- commitment to Miami and region 630,425-square-foot building supports 2,800 workers Conference Center of the Americas allows multiple conferences Connections to the South Florida Community Gateway to Latin America; vibrant international community Local businesses and organizations invite USSOUTHCOM personnel to 50+ events a year DoD activities contribute $3.6 billion annually to Florida economy Military families attend schools; volunteer in organizations; foster vibrant communities USSOUTHCOM sponsors Joint Civilian Orientation Conference, Community Business and Civic Leaders Awareness Program

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