Presentation on theme: "TRADITIONAL FOLK MEDICINE IN ANATOLIA Ministry of Health General Directorate of Health Services Department of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative."— Presentation transcript:
TRADITIONAL FOLK MEDICINE IN ANATOLIA Ministry of Health General Directorate of Health Services Department of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine
S-2/41 The traditional folk medicine has a history of thousands years. This tradition existed before Islam, has continued to live then. Therefore, nowadays, old-traditional healing practices continued to be applied, contains marks of faith and beliefs of past. This tradition executed by shamans and kams, in the ancient religion and tradition, is maintained by religion men, big wives, folk healers and ocaks (that is a kind of folk healer) in Islam and culture around. HISTORY
S-3/41 Healing experiences of traditional medicine occurred by transferring from a generation to generation are a product of accumulated knowledge. This handed down knowledge of tradition is still being used by traditional folk healers in various parts of Turkey. Due to this prevalence of traditional medicine so many different names have appeared to be given to folk healers in course of time in Anatolia. HISTORY
S-4/41 Folk healers have so many treatment practices based on the faiths, beliefs and experiences that these all have occurred by being gained from different cultures. At this point, folk remedies appear. Folk remedies as well as in traditional medicine have a deep-rooted history based on accumulated knowledge of the past. Folk pharmaceutical products resembled traditional medicine practices derive their drugs from plants and animals with traditional practices. HISTORY
S-5/41 “SHAMANS” AS FOLK HEALER OF OLD TURKISH CULTURE Shamanism is a belief system that has existed in the various primitive regions of the world and in central Asia for centuries. Shamans are at once doctors, priests, social workers and mystics. They have been called madmen or madwomen, were frequently persecuted throughout history.
S-6/41 Turks have had a lot of shamans while were in Central Asia. The technique used most commonly by shamans was fire. It is believed that fire is cleansing and purifies from evil spirits. It is believed that fire has a mystical heat. Shamans, at the same time, have also an important role owing to govern the birth, marriage and death ceremonies. “SHAMANS” AS FOLK HEALER OF OLD TURKISH CULTURE
S-7/41 FOLK HEALERS KNOWN AS OCAK It is argued that folk healers called as Ocaks are remains of shamans in Anatolia. They have the power to treat the diseases with extraordinary ways. They are also called as “urasa”. There are many different Ocaks struggled with various diseases in Anatolia. For example, the ocak of jaundice, the ocak of erysipelas, the ocak of malaria, the ocak of mumps, the ocak of herpes, the ocak of tonsillitis, the ocak of infertility and more of them still exist today.
S-8/41 Ocak folk healers use mainly magical practices and these practices are mostly implemented within family by parents who have unusual powers. It is believed that this power has passed from parents to children. There are also some ocak folk healers benefiting from plants in the treatment of diseases. FOLK HEALERS KNOWN AS OCAK
S-9/41 But this transition ritual is not just within the family or is not an obligation for ocaks. Ocak folk healers can give their ability to anyone who is seen as talented in this area. As it can be understood from the transition practices, there are two type transition rituals in tradition. In the first one the role of heredity is high. But in the second one, the role of education is high. FOLK HEALERS KNOWN AS OCAK
S-10/41 These treatment methods are still used by folk healers in Turkish folk culture. People, who are usually from rural areas of country, continue to prefer traditional treatment methods. FOLK HEALERS KNOWN AS OCAK
S-11/41 When talked about Anatolia, “Lokman Healer” came to the front rather than Shamans. Lokman Healer who is an Islamic type has become the ancestor of contemporary folk healers from the first period passed to Islam until now. Lokman Healer is the most popular traditional folk healer of Anatolia folk culture. EXAMPLES FROM TRADITIONAL MEDICINE PRACTICES IN TURKEY
S-12/41 Lokman Healer, who is one of the healers of the traditional folk medicine, not only has been engaged with biological diseases, but also has implemented the healing practices against the sorcery and the evil eye. In case of biological disease is used drugs made from herbs. Herbalists (Aktar in Turkish) are persons sold and made those drugs. “Aktar” is a name given for who sell the herbal and animal products used in drug making. “Aktar”s are descendants of Lokman Healer in the traditional folk medicine. EXAMPLES FROM TRADITIONAL MEDICINE PRACTICES IN TURKEY
S-13/41 Traditional folk healers use many methods to heal the diseases and physical defects. Within these methods, there are a lot of techniques such as treatment by using the spiritual power, treatment with evacuation of blood from the body, treatment by sitting in a sacred place, treatment by injuring the body, treatment with pray, treatment by using the plant- based drugs, treatment by using the animal-based drugs and treatment by using the mineral-based drugs. EXAMPLES FROM TRADITIONAL MEDICINE PRACTICES IN TURKEY
S-14/41 This method in Turkish is known as “irvasa”. In this method, there is desire to benefit from the spiritual power of a person or object. It is not directly related to the body. It is one of the types of treatment with intent to influence the patients. In old Turkish tradition wolf, snake and eagle are powerful creatures feared among people. And so parts of their body are regarded as sacred and powerful. TREATMENT BY USING THE SPIRITUAL POWER
S-15/41 For example, it has been even made drugs from snake poison. Skull and bones of wolves, wolf teeth, snake skins, eagle claw are elements with mystic powerful in this tradition. This is done by tossing something (sacred elements) over one’s head or shoulders into space. TREATMENT BY USING THE SPIRITUAL POWER
S-16/41 TREATMENT BY SHEDDING THE BLOOD FROM BODY This method called “parpilama” mainly in the Turkish is also known as ‘parpilama’, ‘parpilma’, ‘parpulama’, and ‘parpulma’ in different parts of Turkey. In this practice, it is aimed the treatment of patient by removing the contaminated blood from the patient’s body. It is believed in the traditional folk culture that every human body collects the contaminated blood in the head or back area. The deposit of this blood is drained from skin cut with a scalpel or razor. And thus body can been cleaned from harmful factors.
S-17/41 TREATMENT BY SITTING IN A SACRED PLACE Places navigated during the life of a saint regarded as sacred places. There are a lot of places occurring in this way in different parts of Turkey. Rocks, trees, fountains and some of the tombs are from these sacred places. Patients go to these sacred places and expect to get rid of diseases.
S-18/41 TREATMENT BY SITTING IN A SACRED PLACE People also go to these places to make a wish.For example, infertile women and men, women who want a son, persons who want to be rich in future, students who want to pass an important examination. All these people expect the realization of the wishes.
S-19/41 TREATMENT BY USING THE MINERAL-BASED DRUGS In addition to these practices, minerals can also be used as a treatment. Many minerals such as mercury, silver, gold, copper, water were used by folk healer to heal the patients in the traditional folk medicine. Gold and Gold Powder are used in treatment of heel thorn. Lime is used to treat hemorrhoid in humans,for tick & flea in animals. Salt is used in treatment of wounded and injured people.
S-20/41 TREATMENT BY USING THE ANIMAL-BASED DRUGS Some animal-based drugs had been used in treatment of some diseases some are currently being used. They are: Ayran (or buttermilk) is used to treat food poisoning. Honey is used in treatment of anorexia, peptic ulcer, infertility, irregular menstruation, hemorrhoid. Dog milk is used in treatment of cataract. Rabbit skin is used to treat malaria.
S-21/41 TREATMENT BY USING THE ANIMAL-BASED DRUGS It is well-known that the leech has a wide variety of usage in treatment of diseases. It is also claimed that the leech can absorb contaminated blood of up to 10 times the weight of itself. This method is still widely used in Turkey. Fish therapy: This type of fish found in Sivas county and known as “healing fish”. This type of healing fishes had been recorded as “Garra rufa” in Latin by the European Biologist Heckel in 1843 for the first time.They are currently being used in treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.
S-22/41 TREATMENT BY USING THE PLANT-BASED DRUGS Anatolia is very rich in plant species and we can not list all the healing types here. While many of them had been widely used before conventional medicine had taken place, later the interest in using them as healer had decreased in time. But, the interest in natural and herbal treatments has increased in Turkey as well as the rest of the world. The studies on plants and herbs in Anatolia are still going on.
S-23/41 TREATMENT BY USING THE PLANT-BASED DRUGS When talked about some herbal treatments special to Anatolia: Thorn apple (Crataegus azarolus) is used in treatment of jaundice. Anise (Pimpinella anisum) is used in treatment of gastritis, hemorrhoids. Juniper (Juniperus) is used in treatment of mangy (in humans) and heart disease.
S-24/41 TREATMENT BY USING THE PLANT-BASED DRUGS When talked about some herbal treatments special to Anatolia: Barleycorn (Hordeum vulgare) is used in treatment of diarrhea, hemorrhoids, diabetes, insect bites, obesity, wart (verrü) and sciatica. Couch grass (Chiedent, Agropyron repens) is used in treatment of kidney diseases. Mulberry tree (Morus murier) is used in treatment of tooth ache.
S-25/41 TREATMENT BY USING HEALING WATER Water is healing, cleansing and purifying. Therefore water has been used by folk healers. It is known that there are many healing water resources all around Anatolia. Some of them are drinkable, some others are used as bath water. Kidney disease, stomach pain, nausea, muscle and skeloton disease is mainly tried to be healed by this method.
S-26/41 TREATMENT BY USING HEALING WATER Also sound of water is listened by patients because it is believed that there is cure in the sound of water. Mental patients, schizophrenics are usually treated in this way. We can also come across method of chemotherapy applying with the sound of water in the past.
S-27/41 TREATMENT WITH EVACUATION OF BLOOD FROM THE BODY (CUPPING) Cupping therapy is an ancient alternative medicine in which a local suction is created on the skin; practitioners believe this mobilizes blood flow in order to promote healing. Suction is created using heat (fire) or nowadays using mechanical devices (hand or electrical pumps). Wet cupping is known as Hijamah in Anatolia.
S-28/41 TREATMENT WITH EVACUATION OF BLOOD FROM THE BODY (CUPPING) While the history of wet cupping may date back thousands of years, the first documented uses are found in the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Muhammad approved of the Hijama (cupping) treatment. A number of hadith support its recommendation and use by Muhammad. As a result, the practice of cupping therapy has survived in Muslim countries. Today, wet cupping is a popular remedy practiced in many parts of the world.
S-29/41 TREATMENT WITH PRAY After the adoption of Islam by the people of Anatolia, many psychological illnesses were treated by the prays. Different methods of praying for healing has come upto present. One of those methods is to get the sick person drink prayerful water. Another one is carrying amulet. Touch healing is also a method while praying.
S-30/41 TREATMENT AGAINST EVIL EYE Evil eye (nazar in Turkish) is a very common folk belief which extends to ancient times. The people of Anatolia associates the health and business problems with evil eye. Therefore they practises many methods to get rid of the evil eye effect. The most used one is a kind of amulet called “nazarlık” which is made of materials from blue stone,plants, animals or minerals.
S-31/41 OTHER THERAPIES Fever: People drink sage to reduce the fever. Fever also drops down when applied vinegar on the skin. Head aches: Cheesecloth or head scarf is wrapped around the head and squeezed by inserted wooden spoon. Abdominal pain: People get extra virgin olive oil and black pepper mixed and apply the mixture on chest and back. Then they wrap the body with cloth. Heated brick is also used to treat abdominal pain.
S-32/41 OTHER THERAPIES Sore, cut and abscess: People wraps egg membrane on the lesion. Linseed is also applied on the skin. Pine resin and cinnamon mixture is also used to treat the lesion. Varicella zoster: Either taken to the Ocaklı or sesame oil is applied. Warts: People pray on same number of wheat and barley seeds as much as the number of warts. Or jelly of fig tree is applied on the warts.
S-33/41 MUSIC THERAPY The importance of music providing a considerable alternative medical option for the modern medicine and its healing power were known by the Anatolian Seljuks and the Ottomans centuries ago. The importance given to music can be realized by its usage as a treatment method in medical institutions. The art of medicine was attached importance in Seljuk period, and it is written in medical books that the method of treatment with sports as well as music was also employed in these institutions.
S-34/41 MUSIC THERAPY Anatolia folks expended and practiced the studies on the effects of music in darüssifas, old Turkish hospitals, had their own music bands. In those institutions, where treatment was free, there were service classes such as doctors, surgeons, pharmacists, service group, nurses, imams(prayer leader), singers and sazendes (musicians).
S-35/41 MUSIC THERAPY The scientific bases regarding the therapeutic nature of music particularly in psychological disorders in Islamic world were first put forward by Kindi (801-865), Er-Razi (854-932), Farabi (870-950) and İbni Sina (980-1037), and they were practiced by Anatolian Seljuk and Ottoman physicians in hospitals and improved until the 18th century. Er-Razi recommends keeping melancholic patients busy, and doing this with music and making them listen to singers with beautiful voice.
S-36/41 MUSIC THERAPY Farabi explained the psychological effects of Turkish music tunes according to the time of the day as some shown below: tune Hüseyni: effective in the morning tune Rast: effective when the sun is two-spear-round tune Buselik: effective in mid-morning tune Ussak: effective at noon tune Hejaz: effective in the afternoon tune Iraqi: effective in late afternoon tune Esfahan: effective at dusk tune Neva: effective in the evening
S-37/41 MUSIC THERAPY Farabi also specified the effects of Turkish music tunes on illnesses as some shown below: tune Esfahan: illumination, boosting intelligence, refreshing memories tune Rast: eclampsia and paralysis tune Zirevkent: backache and arthralgia tune Rehavi: headache tune Neva: gynaecological diseases tune Zengule: heart dieases tune Hejaz: dysuria tune Buselik: shoulder and low back pain tune Ussak: heart, stomach diseases, dysuria and malaria tune Irak: meningitis and neurological diseases
S-38/41 MUSIC THERAPY İbni Sina regarded music as one of the four mathematical sciences together with geometry, arithmetic and astronomy. İbni Sina stated in his written work (book) called Kitabül-Sifa that music was one of the best ways of treatment to boost the mental and spiritual powers of the patients and to encourage them to fight against the disease.
S-39/41 MUSIC THERAPY Music-therapy activities, as training and practises, are still being carried out by TÜMATA Group in Turkey and abroad as well.
S-40/41 WORKS AND BOOKS Some famous medical works and books in the Anatolian History: Ahmedî : Tervihu'l-Ervah, Müntehab-i Sifa Haci Pasa : Kitabu'l-Feride, Kitabu's-Saade ve'l-Ikbal, Kitabu't-Ta'lim, Sifau'l Eskam ve Devau'l-Âlâm, Müntehab-i Sifa Şeyhî : Kenzu'l-Menafi Mü'min b. Mukbil : Kitabu't-Tib, Miftahu'n-Nur ve Hazainu's-Surûr Aksemseddin : Kitabu't-Tib, Maddetu'l-Hayat Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu : Cerrahiye-i Ilhaniye, Mücerrebnâme Bedr-i Dilsad : Kehhalnâme, Kemalnâme, Muhtasaru't-Tib Ibn-i Serif : Yadigâr-i Ibn-i Serif
S-41/41 Some famous medical works and books in the Anatolian History: Sükrullah Sirvanî : Ilyasiye fi't-Tib Kaysunîzâde Mehmed : Tıb Mecmuasi Halimî Lütfullah Efendi : Kasimiyye Hekimsah Mehmed Kazvinî : Asbabu Sitteti'z-Zaruriyye, Mucez Serhi, Ahi Çelebi : Risâle-i Hassatu'l-Kilye ve'l-Mesâne, Mucez Tercümesi Atufî: Hifzu'l-Ebdân, Ravzu'l-Insan fî Tedabir-i Sihhati'l-Ebdân Nidaî : Baytarnâme : Manzume-i Tib, Menafi'n-Nâs, Tababet-i Beseriye Takiyüddin Sirazî : Enisu'l-Etibba fi't-Tib Mehmed Efendi : Menbau'l-Hayat