2 ObjectivesTerminal Objectives1. COMPREHEND Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) terms, abbreviations and symbols for underwater ordnance identification.
3 ObjectivesEnabling Objectives1. RECOGNIZE terms, abbreviations and symbols for underwater ordnance identification.2. DESCRIBE to the detail required to comprehend category for live and practice ordnance: Underwater Mines,Torpedoes, Depth Charges, Underwater Sound Signaling Devices, Marine Pyrotechnics.3. DESCRIBE ordnance to the detail required to comprehend its group.4. DESCRIBE the basic safety precautions for miscellaneous underwater explosive devices: Underwater Sound Signaling Devices, Marine Pyrotechnics.5. DESCRIBE the basic safety precautions for drill and practice ordnance.6. DESCRIBE the general safety precautions for explosive ordnance to the detail required to comprehend its application to the following: Category of ordnance, group of ordnance.
5 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesGeneral Information: An underwater mine is an explosive device, which is placed in position to be exploded by a ship-like target and causes worthwhile damage under its intended conditions of firing. They range in explosive weight from 1lb to 3000lbs.When detonated they use the Boyle’s Law effect to sink the target.
7 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesIn terms of availability, variety, cost-effectiveness, ease of deployment, and potential impact on joint expeditionary warfare, mines are perhaps the most attractive weapons available to any country determined to prevent U.S. naval forces from achieving sea control and power projection ashore. Because today’s expeditionary forces still have limited capabilities to deal with mines, they constitute a genuine asymmetric threat in the littorals. The number of countries with mines, mining assets, mine manufacturing capabilities, and the intention to export mines has grown dramatically in the last decade. In addition, the types, sophistication, and lethality of the mines available on the world market are rapidly increasing.
8 Underwater Mines There are seven types of underwater mines
9 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesMoored Mines: Are buoyant mines, primarily contact fired, but influence mines are currently deployed. External shapes are hemispheres or elongated hemispheres, and usually made of steel. Moored mines are connected by a cable to an anchor.Mk-16 Moored MineKey ID features: Moored mines have anchors with mooring EYES, ARMS or SPINDLES.
11 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesBottom Mines: As the name states, Bottom Mines are mines that remain on the bottom. Most bottom mines are long cylinders with arming devices on the side.Mk-56 Bottom MineKey ID features: NO mooring eyes, arms, or spindles and transverse fuzing.
12 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesMine case construction: The case contains the explosive charge and all components to ARM, DETECT TARGETS, COUNT SHIPS, and SCUTTLE, STERILIZE, or FIRE the mine. Most mines contain a self-destruct device.
13 Underwater Mines There are three arming devices: Clock Starters ExtendersArming Devices
14 Key ID feature: is a small raised lip and a piston. Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesClock starters: Hydrostatically operated device which either starts a clock running or opens and closes circuits to ELECTRICALLY arm the mine. It will be closest item to the electronics package. Soluble washers are used as a mechanical delay. They dissolve in the water allowing hydrostatic pressure to push in on the piston.Key ID feature: is a small raised lip and a piston.
17 Key ID features: is a large raised lip. Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesExtenders: Same as with the clock starters, hydrostatic pressure pushes on a piston to EXPLOSIVELY arm the mine.Key ID features: is a large raised lip.
20 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesArming Device: A Device that incorporates both a clock starter and extender mechanism into one unit.
21 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesFiring: Mines can be fired by either direct contact with the target or by sensing various signatures.We will discuss five different firing methods:ContactPressureMagneticSeismicAcoustic
22 Underwater Mines Contact: Three different types. Impact-inertia: Utilizes internal firing devices. No external firing features. Easily confused with buoys.
23 Underwater Mines Contact Horn: Two types. Chemical: Chemical horns are made of a soft metallic materials (lead). They contain electrolyte vials which when broken allow electrolyte to run between the plates providing electricity to the detonator.Switch: Not much different than a tilt rod.
25 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesGalvanic: Saltwater is the electrolyte, the steel hull of the ship is one electrode, and the other is a cable or mine case. When the ship makes contact, it produces a electric charge and fires the mine.
26 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesInfluence fired mines: Magnetic - Fired from the magnetic signature of a ship or submarine. Current mines uses a combination of Magnetic and Acoustic signatures.Key ID features: will be a smooth or concave tail cover.
27 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesAcoustic: Fires from an acoustic signature of a ship or sub. Fires primarily by looking for the intensity and duration of the noise. A straight acoustic fired mine is the most hazardous, hence; (1&3 rule applies)Key ID features: a smooth rubber diaphragm on the tail cover.
28 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesPressure: Fires from a variation of pressures from the ship. Never used alone, must incorporate another firing system.(Mag-Press, Acoustic-Press)Key ID features: Rippled rubber diaphragm.
29 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesSeismic: Fires from acoustic signature and vibrations from the target. Seismic Influence Mechanisms are closely related to the Acoustic Influence Mechanism. They respond to low frequency sounds of acoustic energy which travels through the ocean seabed rather than through the water. A geophone is used to sense shaking or vibration through the mine case.
30 Underwater Mines Safety Precautions for Moored and Bottom mines: HE (High Explosive)FRAG (Fragmentation)EMR (Electromagnetic Resonance)STATICINFLUENCE
31 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesDestructor: General Information: They are used on land or water, all services use this system. They utilize MK 80 series GPLD bombs. The fuzing is a modified M904 fuze. It’s a aircraft laid mine that starts the arming process upon aircraft release.Firing: When the magnetic level reaches a certain level, or it senses vibration, it fires the bomb.
32 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesKey ID features: The letters DST are stamped on the arming and firing devices. Gold anodized plug in the charging well, gold anodized base plate, green anodized nose fuze. The bomb may have a white reflective strip midway around the body.Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, EMR, STATIC, MAGNETIC, SEISMIC
33 Underwater MinesUnderwater MinesLimpet: Limpet mines are small swimmer placed mines that are attached to ships or other objects by magnets, epoxy, nails, studs, suction cups, or rope. Will usually have a flat surface on one side to mate to the target. Fuzing for limpet mines contain one or more time delay fuze. They are always considered as having an anti-withdrawal or anti-lift device. Limpet mines are designed to disable ships rather than sink them.They are placed on rudders, shafts, props, etc.Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, ANTI-WITHDRAW
34 TorpedoesTorpedoesTorpedoes: Torpedoes are defined as underwater guided missiles. Torpedoes sections include:Nose: Often contains theguidance equipment.Warhead/Exercise: Contains the HE, exploder or flares for exercise versions.Midbody sections: Contains the fuel or batteries.Propulsion sections: Houses the engines.After body sections: Contains the steering gears and provides mounting for the propellers.
35 TorpedoesTorpedoesTorpedoes are cylindrical in shape (cigar shape).Torpedoes will vary in diameter (normally 21 inches) and length. Propellers will normally positive ID that it is a torpedo.Torpedoes are grouped as Anti-Ship or Anti-Sub.
38 TorpedoesTorpedoesFuzing: Exploders are utilized as fuzes. They are fired from direct contact or influence through magnetic, optical, or acoustic systems. Must consider a torpedo armed if it has experienced water travel.Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, EMR, STATIC, INFLUENCE
39 Depth ChargesDepth ChargesDepth Charges: They fall into two groups, Anti-Swimmer or Anti-Submarine They are normally cylindrical in shape, but can be teardrop in shape to increase the sink rate. Fuzing is either installed on the nose or tail covers.They sink then detonate at some point, either by hydrostatic pressure, contact, time delay, or upon registering the proper acoustic or magnetic signature.
40 Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, EMR, STATIC, INFLUENCE Depth ChargesDepth ChargesAnti-Swimmer: Designed for use against underwater swimmers. They are small and can shaped made out of metal or plastic. They can use either hydrostatic or electrically armed and fired fuzing or can be time delayed.Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, EMR, STATIC, INFLUENCE
41 Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, EMR, STATIC, INFLUENCE Depth ChargesDepth ChargesAnti-Submarine: Cylindrical or elongated in shape and may have stabilization fins, normally large in size. Principal fuzing utilized is contact, hydrostatic pressure, acoustic or magnetic. Fuzing will be on the end, verses bottom mines that are transverse.Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, EMR, STATIC, INFLUENCE
44 Miscellaneous Underwater Devices Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, C/S Two groups of miscellaneous underwater devices:Underwater Signal Devices: Small explosive devices (normally 1-8 lbs.), launched at sea for the purpose of communicating or ocean graphic survey. General small, fixed fin, cylindrical in shape. Normally they function by the use of a cocked firing pin.Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, C/S
45 Miscellaneous Underwater Devices Marine Markers: Small explosive and or pyrotechnic device, launched at sea for the purpose of checking wind draft, marking surface location, or emergency signaling. Usually silver or gold anodized or painted white. General cylindrical in shape, may contain red phosphorus, ignited by seawater battery that starts a pyrotechnic candle. Stay up wind when burning markers, the smoke is toxic!Safety Precautions: HE, FRAG, WP, FIRE
46 Drill and Exercise Ordnance Drill and Exercise Ordnance: Practice, training and drill ordnance exists for nearly all services. They may or may not contain any hazardous components.Safety Precautions: Stay clear of expelling charges!! The smoke is toxic!