Presentation on theme: "Service delivery and citizen security in Bogota (1995-2003). Gerard Martin Georgetown University Colombia Program (USAID funded)"— Presentation transcript:
Service delivery and citizen security in Bogota ( ). Gerard Martin Georgetown University Colombia Program (USAID funded)
What made rapid and profound change possible? Paul Bromberg: “When you work hard, you will get results”. Hard work can still lead to policy failure; how did they proceed to overcome obstacles and implement radical reforms?
On crisis and Sputniks 1) No Olympics (no Sputniks) 2) Post local governance crisis: 3) (Post)-violence crisis: city perceived by all as in urgent need of change 4) Demo: 6% ( ) versus 2,5% ( ) 5) Age: yrs = 34% in early 1980s, versus 28% in 2000s Since 2004 Av 3 yrsAv 2 yrsAv 1 yr2 yrs3 yrs4 yrs
City Development plans Coherent, integral (N) Precise goals and objectives (N) Ambitious – city wide (N) Hammered down and mainstreamed (N) Constant benchmark (N) Institutional engineering: administrative and legal reforms: Plan Maestro Seguridad, Codigo de Policia; Sub-Sec Seguridad, POT etc. (N) New vocabulary RESULT: leadership > credibility
Thematic areas and objectives of the three administrations (Bogotá, ) “FORMAR CIUDAD” (Mockus 1: ) “POR LA BOGOTÁ QUE QUEREMOS” (Peñalosa: ) “PARA VIVIR TODOS DEL MISMO LADO” (Mockus 2: ) Thematic AreasPlan Objectives (I) Citizen cultura- Citizen cultura (values) - Egalitarian model of the city - Citizen culture (rules) (II) Security and co- existence - Security and co- existence (III) Public space-Environment -Public space -City at a human scale -“Demarginalization” - Environment (IV) Social progress- Social progress- Social interaction-Social justice -Education -Family and children (V) Urban planning and productivity - Urban productivity-Urban planning and services -Mobility (transportation) - Productivity (VI) Legitimacy and institutional effectiveness - Institutional legitimacy -Institutional efficiency - Admirable public management Source: Gerard Martin y Miguel Ceballos, Bogota: Anotomia de una transformacion, 2004.
Institutional and management reform to improve services Enlightened technocratic elites. Professional bureaucracy: redefining functions + responsabilities Example: Sub-Sec Citizen Security; Consejo de Seguridad; Consejo ampliado de Seguridad; Consejos locales de seguridad
Transparent allocation of resources Ley 80 taken seriously E.g. Fondo de Seguridad y Vigilancia General restructuring of contracting Goals, rules, requirements and evaluation methods widely published RESULT: direct impact on quality of service; public works prove that money is well spend: improved credibility / no corruption charges
Citizenship and legitimacy Public officer as educator (M) Public space = citizenship (M) + inclusion/equity (P) Norms, values, rules = producing civic society + SC RESULT: reformulation of social contract
Actors: NGO free model? Habs Calle1,0001,5001,3001,5001,838 Indigentes6001,4001,2001,2781,527 Pandilleros5001,9331,7003,468 Madres jóv hab c Ex callejeros Proyecto Empleo TOTAL1,7503,5295,5165,5778,252 1) Strengthening of Centros IDIPRON 2) ZONAS SEGURAS PROGRAM of Chamber of Commerce
Demand driven quality services Less mini-police stations, but better build, on more strategic locations and user friendly Additional in service training for police officers RESULT: credibility with clients + agency
Community driven dimension -Frentes de Seguridad Local -Community controlled parks -Community Policing Increased offer of services: increases choice RESULT: people know who is responsible.
Shorter routes + stronger oversight E.g.: (i) introduction of Consejos Locales de Seguridad + Local Security Plans + Consejo Distrital Ampliado Easy to scale up Robust checks and balances RESULT: voice + perception of voice
Continous M&E Strengthening knowledge and oversight: Crime Observatory -SUIVD Parks Observatory Other observatories: integrated transportation (movilidad) RESULT: city administration knows city > leadership; shared knowledge > credibility increased
Innovative forms of information City TV + Canal Bogota Communication strategies M + P talking etc “Bogota como vamos” + public accountability Publications RESULT: voice / change in political incentives
Ex-post Bogota model + language part of political agendas Mayors for president Other cities are following Renewed belief in public institutions Improved image of public good + public office Practical turn in academia
Can it be repeated? Bogota: -Mayor Garzon Other cities: -Manizales, Pereira, Monteria… But: -Superficial copy cat does not work -Beyond charisma: professional bureaucracy, deep leadership, integrated long and short circuits of poor oriented service delivery