Presentation on theme: "Environmental impacts in the evaluation of transport projects Per-Olov Johansson Stockholm School of Economics and CERE."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental impacts in the evaluation of transport projects Per-Olov Johansson Stockholm School of Economics and CERE
Outline. Value of preventing a fatality. Life cycle analysis. Permit markets. Energy taxes. Diesel-electric vs. electric locomotive. Road transportation. Air transportation. Ecological system services. How to model? Resource Equivalency Analysis. 2
3 Value of preventing a fatality. Improved quality Risk reduction. Emissions Risk change. US EPA: $6.9 million (€5.4 million). Spain: €3.8, €2.8-8.3. COBACHO TORNEL, Mª Belén; LOPEZ NICOLAS, Ángel and RAMOS PARRENO, José María. Mortality cost of smoking in Spain. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2010, vol.84, n.3, pp. 271-280 Jorge Eduardo Martínez and Ildefonso Méndez Martínez. What can we know about the Value of a Statiscal Life in Spain using. Hacienda Pública Española/Revista de Economía Pública. 2009, vol.191, n.3, pp. 73-93.
4 Emissions during construction period. Construction of Swedish infrastructure: 16% of total emissions of greenhouse gases. (4% due to heating and running of buildings.) Life cycle analysis!
6 Energy taxes. Diesel-electric vs. electric locomotive. Road transportation. Air transportation. Optimal tax correctly reflecting damage. Include as cost. Non-optimal tax. Deduct and add €-estimate of damage. EcoSenseLE, a web-based tool for estimating external costs.
7 In order to compensate for infringement it was decided on a number of measures designed to give the bird life at least as good conditions as before the railroad was built. The measures consist, inter alia, of the construction and restoration of wetlands, creation of new nature reserves and production of coarse grains. Resource Equivalency Analysis? New railway in northern Sweden.