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AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER Chapter 22. END OF ISOLATION Imperialism = building an empire by founding colonies and conquering nations Isolationism = avoiding.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER Chapter 22. END OF ISOLATION Imperialism = building an empire by founding colonies and conquering nations Isolationism = avoiding."— Presentation transcript:


2 END OF ISOLATION Imperialism = building an empire by founding colonies and conquering nations Isolationism = avoiding involvement in the affairs of other countries By the late 1800s, many Americans believed the U.S. needed to expand to keep our economy strong and a strong Navy to protect our interests Imperialism grew between 1870s and 1914 because nations wanted to find sources of raw materials to help industrial growth

3 SEWARDS FOLLY Secretary of State William H. Seward purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million in 1867 Many Americans called this Sewards Folly (mistake) because they thought Alaska was nothing but a frozen wasteland with no resources Alaska did indeed become a source of fur, timber, minerals, gold, and eventually oil

4 HAWAII 1875 – treaty allowed American sugar planters to ship sugar to the U.S. from Hawaii without paying a tax (duty-free) Many American sugar planters became rich in Hawaii Bayonet Constitution (1887) – planters forced Hawaiian king to sign a constitution at gunpoint; this gave more power to the planter-controlled parliament In 1891, Queen Liliuokalani proposed a new constitution to return power to the monarchy 1893 – Marines removed Queen Liliuokalani from power 1898 – U.S. annexes Hawaii as a territory

5 JAPAN Japan was isolationist in the mid-1800s The U.S. wanted to open Japans trade markets in the mid-1800s because we wanted to be ahead of the Europeans in securing trade agreements with Japan President Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in 1853 to attempt a peaceful alliance – it didnt work Perry returned in 1854 with warships to persuade them to open trade with the U.S – both countries signed a trade agreement

6 CHINA Spheres of Influence = areas of economic and political control set up in China by Russia, Germany, Britain, and France; allowed these countries to control resources in specific areas of China Open Door Policy = Secretary of State, John Hay, wanted European powers to allow them equal access to Chinas millions of consumers Boxer Rebellion (1900) = Chinese society of Boxers wanted foreigners out of their country so they massacred 300 foreigners and Christian Chinese; U.S. and European military forces defeated the Boxer rebellion

7 YELLOW JOURNALISM At first, the American press concealed (hid) the conflict between Spain and Cuba so readers sensibilities (feelings, emotions) werent hurt Yellow Journalism = to attract readers, controversial (exaggerated) stories are printed to lead to high profits Americans felt ready to take action outside of their borders since the U.S. was growing and becoming more powerful All this contributed to our entry into the Spanish-American War

8 CAUSES OF THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR The de Lôme letter - Spanish minister to the U.S. made fun of President McKinley Sinking of the USS Maine – our battleship was sunk in February 1898 in Havana Harbor, Cuba; no one knows exactly how it was sunk, but the American press blamed Spain McKinley inspired Americans by telling them to Remember the Maine!; he also asked Congress for $50 million to prepare for war Cubans were rebelling against Spanish rule Congress issued a resolution in April 1898 declaring Cuba independent; this angered Spain Teller Amendment = U.S. has no interest in controlling Cuba; Spain still declared war on us

9 WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES *Note – this was part of the Spanish-American War Filipinos, like Cubans, rebelled against Spanish rule American Commodore Dewey sailed into Manila Bay, Philippines in May 1898 and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Fleet In August 1898, American troops supported Filipino rebel leader, Emilio Aguinaldo Aguinaldos forces and Americans took control of Manila

10 WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN U.S. soldiers faced many challenges such as yellow fever, other diseases, lack of weapons and ammunition, improper clothing Rough Riders – Colonel Theodore Roosevelts (future President) soldiers who became national heroes after capturing Santiago, San Juan Hill, and Kettle Hill, Cuba The Rough Riders were volunteers from all walks of life; they were Native Americans, African-Americans, college athletes, cowboys, miners, and ranchers July 1898 – U.S. invades Puerto Rico and defeats Spanish forces August 12, 1898 – Spain signed a cease-fire agreement; U.S. wins war

11 UNITED STATES GAINS TERRITORIES Anti-Imperialist League – group that opposed the creations of an American colonial empire; the group failed Cuba became independent Spain gave the U.S. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines for $20 million Platt Amendment – gave U.S. the power to intervene in Cuban affairs and prevented Cubans from making treaties

12 PANAMA CANAL President Theodore Roosevelt had U.S. troops help Panama fight for its independence from Colombia He encouraged a local uprising against the Colombian government; Panama became independent after a revolt In 1803, Panama grants the U.S. the ability to build the canal in $10 million 1904 – construction of the Panama Canal begins There were many obstacles, such as the spread of yellow fever and malaria and the use of dangerous equipment and explosives August 15, 1914 – Panama Canal is officially opened

13 BENEFITS OF THE PANAMA CANAL Easier transportation Connected Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Gave us more power and influence in Latin America Better trading and military bases The East Coast of the U.S. benefited the most

14 ROOSEVELT COROLLARY President Roosevelt was a strong leader with an aggressive foreign policy Roosevelt Corollary (December 1904) = an extension of the Monroe Doctrine that warned U.S.-influenced nations that we would get involved if they did not repay their loans Famous Roosevelt quote – Speak softly and carry a big stick; this meant the U.S. promoted peace but would use the military to protect its interests

15 DOLLAR DIPLOMACY President William Howard Taft also acted to protect U.S. interests in Latin America He used dollar diplomacy which meant influencing governments through economic, not military, intervention He believed in using business rather than force

16 MEXICAN REVOLUTION In 1910, many Mexicans revolted against the harsh rule of the dictator Porfirio Diaz More than 120,000 Mexicans immigrated to the U.S. between 1905 and 1915 to avoid political persecution Francisco Pancho Villa was a rebel leader who killed 17 Americans in New Mexico In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and 15,000 soldiers to Mexico in a effort to catch Pancho Villa Pershing failed to capture him and withdrew his troops A new constitution began to bring order in Mexico in 1917

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