6COMMON PREFIXES 1. ante- 2. anti- 3. auto- 4. bene- 5. circum- 6. contra-7. de-8. dis-9. dys-10. ecto-1. before2. against3. self4. good5. around6. against7.reverse,remove8. apart9. bad10. outside1. antebellum2. antifreeze3. automatic4. benefit5. circumscribe6. contradict7. defoliate8. dislocate9. dysfunctional10. ectoparasite1. before the war2. liquid used to guard against freezing3. self-acting or self- regulating4. an act of kindness; a gift5. to draw a line around; to encircle6. to speak against7. remove the leaves from a tree8. to unlodge9. not functioning10. parasite living on the exterior of animals
711.endo-12.ex-13.equi-14.extra-15. hyper-16. hypo-17. in-18. inter-19. intra-20. intro-11.within12. out13. equal14.beyond15. over16. under17. in18.between19. within20. in, into11. endogamy12. excavate13. equidistant14.extraterrestrial15. hypertension16. hypotension17. interim18. intervene19. intramural20. introspect11. marriage within the tribe12. to dig out13. equal distance14. beyond the earth15. high blood pressure16. low blood pressure17. in between18. come between19. within bounds of a school20. to look within, as one's own mindt
10Example: He’s very honest man. I don’t agree. I think he’s dishonest. Exercises 1. Practice using words with negative prefixes. Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example. Not all the words you need are on the aboveExample: He’s very honest man. I don’t agree. I think he’s dishonest.1. I’m sure she’s discreet.2. I always find him very sensitive.3. It’s a convincing argument.4. That’s a very relevant point.5. She’s always obedient.
116. He’s very efficient.7. I always find her responsible.8. He seems grateful for our help.9. I’m sure she’s loyal to the firm.10. He’s a tolerant person.
122. Which negative adjective fits each of the following definition? 1. ……………………………means not having a husband or wife.2. …………………………..means impossible to eat.3. …………………………..means unable to read or write.4. …………………………..means not having a job.5. …………………………..means not fair in giving judgement, not favoring one side6. …………………………..means unable to be replaced
13A suffix is a word part added to the end of a root word. What is a SUFFIXE?A suffix is a word part added to the end of a root word.
15Common Noun Suffixes‘-er’ is used for the person who does an active, e.g. writer, worker, shopper, teacher. You can use ‘-er’ with a wide range of verbs to make them into “nouns”.Sometimes, the / er / suffix is written as ‘-or’ instead of ‘-er’ . It is worth making a special list of these as you meet them, e.g. actor, operator, sailor, supervisor.
16‘-er’ / ‘-or’ are also used for things which do a particular job, e. g ‘-er’ / ‘-or’ are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil-sharpener, bottle-opener, grater, projector.-er’ and ‘-ee’ can contrast with each other meaning ‘person who does something.‘-er’ and ‘ person who receives or experiences the action’ (-ee), e.g. employer/employee,Sender/addressee, payee (e.g. of a cheque).‘-(t)ion / l ( )n / is used to make nouns from verbs.Complication, pollution, reduction, alteration, donation, admission
17‘-st’ [person] and ‘-ism’ [activity or ideology]: used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes the profession (compare with ‘-er/-or’ Profession above)e.g. Marxism, Buddhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist.‘-ist’ is also often used for people who play musician instruments, e.g. pianist, violinist, cellist.‘-ness’ is used to make nouns from adjectives. Note what happens to adjectives that end in ‘-y’:e.g. Goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, sadness, weakness.
18B. Adjective Suffix ‘able/-ible’ with verbs, means ‘can be done’. e.g drinkable, washable, readable, recognizable, countable, forgivable- edible (can be eaten), flexible (can be bent)
19C. Verbs‘-ise’ (or –ize) makes from adjectives, e.g. modernize, commercialize, industrialize.‘en’ makes from adjectivese.g; widen, darken, whiten, etc.
20D. Other suffixes that can help you recognize the word class -ment : (nouns) excitement, enjoyment, replacement-ity : (nouns) flexibility, productivity, scarcity-hood : ( abstract nouns especially family terms) childhood,motherhood-ship : (abstract nouns especially status ) friendship,partnership, membership-ive : ( adjectives) passive, productive, active-al : (adjectives) brutal, legal, (nouns) refusal, arrival-ous : (adjectives) delicious, outrageous, furious-ful : (adjectives) forgetful, hopeful, useful-less : ( adjectives) useless, harmless, cloudless-ify : (verbs) beautify, purify, terrify
21Exercises 1. The ‘-er’ or ‘-or and ‘-ist suffixes Exercises 1. The ‘-er’ or ‘-or and ‘-ist suffixes. Use the suffixes to give the names of the following.Example: A person who plays jazz on the piano. A jazz pianist. 1. The thing that wipes rain of your car windscreen 2. A person who plays classical violin. 3. A person who takes professional photographs. (N.B. pronunciation) 4. A person who acts in amateur theatre. 5. The person to whom a cheque is made out. 6. A machine for washing dishes. 7. A person who donates their kidneys upon their death. 8. The person to whom a letter is addressed
22Do these words mean a thing, a person, or both? 1. a cooker2. a typewriter3. a ticket-holder4. a record player5. a cleaner6. a smoker7. a drinker