Presentation on theme: "A prefix is a word part added to the beginning of a root word."— Presentation transcript:
A prefix is a word part added to the beginning of a root word.
A prefix changes the meaning of a word.
PrefixesMeaningexamples 1. Anti 2. Auto 3. Bi 4. Ex 5. Ex 6. Micro 7. Mis 8. Mono Against Of or by oneself Two, twice Former Out of Small Badly/wrongly One/single Anti-war, antisocial, antibiotic Autograph, auto-pilot, autobiography Bicycle, bi-monthly, biannual, bilingual Ex-wife, ex-student, ex-president Extract, exhale, excommunicate Micro-computer, microwave, microscopic Misunderstand, mistranslate, misinform Monotonous, monologue, monogamous
9. Multi 10. Over 11. Post 12. Pro 13.Pseudo 14. Re 15. Semi 16. Sub 17. under Many Too much After In favour of False Again or back Half Under Not enough 9. Multi-national, multi-purpose, multi- racial 10. Overdo, overtired, oversleep, overeat 11. Postwar, postgraduate, post- revolutionary 12. Pro-government, pro-revolutionary 13. Pseudo-scientific, pseudo-intellectual 14. Retype, reread, replace, rewind 15. Semicircular, semi-final, semi- detached 16. Subway, submarine, subdivision 17. Under-worked, underused, undercooked
COMMON PREFIXES 1. ante- 2. anti- 3. auto- 4. bene- 5. circum- 6. contra- 7. de- 8. dis- 9. dys- 10. ecto- 1. before 2. against 3. self 4. good 5. around 6. against 7.reverse,remove 8. apart 9. bad 10. outside 1. antebellum 2. antifreeze 3. automatic 4. benefit 5. circumscribe 6. contradict 7. defoliate 8. dislocate 9. dysfunctional 10. ectoparasite 1. before the war 2. liquid used to guard against freezing 3. self-acting or self- regulating 4. an act of kindness; a gift 5. to draw a line around; to encircle 6. to speak against 7. remove the leaves from a tree 8. to unlodge 9. not functioning 10. parasite living on the exterior of animals
11.endo- 12.ex- 13.equi- 14.extra- 15. hyper- 16. hypo- 17. in- 18. inter- 19. intra- 20. intro- 11.within 12. out 13. equal 14.beyond 15. over 16. under 17. in 18.between 19. within 20. in, into 11. endogamy 12. excavate 13. equidistant 14.extraterrestrial 15. hypertension 16. hypotension 17. interim 18. intervene 19. intramural 20. introspect 11. marriage within the tribe 12. to dig out 13. equal distance 14. beyond the earth 15. high blood pressure 16. low blood pressure 17. in between 18. come between 19. within bounds of a school 20. to look within, as one's own mind t
Prefixes that mean "no": a- de- dis-, in- non- un-, contra Prefix a-, an- de- dis-, dif-, di- in-, il-, ir-, im- non- un- contra-, counter- Meaning without, not reverse action, away not, apart not against Examples asexual, atypical, amoral, anarchy defrost, demystify, desensitize, deduct dissatisfied, disorganized inappropriate, invisible, illegal, impossible nonproductive, nonessential, nonsense unlikely, unnoticeable, unreliable contrary, contradict, counterproductive
PREFIXES THAT INDICATE "WHEN," "WHERE," Prefix 1. pre-, pro- 2. post- 3. ante- 4. inter- 5. intra- 6. trans- 7. sub- Meaning 1. before 2. after 3. before 4. between, among 5. within 6. across 7. under Examples 1.Predinner, preliminary, previous, prologue 2. postmeridian, postwar, postoperative, postpone 3. antemeridian, antecedent, antechamber 4.interstate, intercept, interfere 5.intramural, intrastate, intravenous 6.transcontinental, transparent, tran saction 7.submarine, submerge, subjugate
Exercises 1. Practice using words with negative prefixes. Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example. Not all the words you need are on the above Example: He’s very honest man. I don’t agree. I think he’s dishonest. 1. I’m sure she’s discreet. 2. I always find him very sensitive. 3. It’s a convincing argument. 4. That’s a very relevant point. 5. She’s always obedient.
6. He’s very efficient. 7. I always find her responsible. 8. He seems grateful for our help. 9. I’m sure she’s loyal to the firm. 10. He’s a tolerant person.
2. Which negative adjective fits each of the following definition? 1. ……………………………means not having a husband or wife. 2. …………………………..means impossible to eat. 3. …………………………..means unable to read or write. 4. …………………………..means not having a job. 5. …………………………..means not fair in giving judgement, not favoring one side 6. …………………………..means unable to be replaced
What is a SUFFIXE? A suffix is a word part added to the end of a root word.
A suffix also changes the meaning of a word.
Common Noun Suffixes ‘-er’ is used for the person who does an active, e.g. writer, worker, shopper, teacher. You can use ‘-er’ with a wide range of verbs to make them into “nouns”. Sometimes, the / er / suffix is written as ‘- or’ instead of ‘-er’. It is worth making a special list of these as you meet them, e.g. actor, operator, sailor, supervisor.
‘-er’ / ‘-or’ are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil-sharpener, bottle-opener, grater, projector. -er’ and ‘-ee’ can contrast with each other meaning ‘person who does something. ‘-er’ and ‘ person who receives or experiences the action’ (-ee), e.g. employer/employee, Sender/addressee, payee (e.g. of a cheque). ‘-(t)ion / l ( )n / is used to make nouns from verbs. Complication, pollution, reduction, alteration, donation, admission
‘-st’ [person] and ‘-ism’ [activity or ideology]: used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes the profession (compare with ‘-er/-or’ Profession above) e.g. Marxism, Buddhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist. ‘-ist’ is also often used for people who play musician instruments, e.g. pianist, violinist, cellist. ‘-ness’ is used to make nouns from adjectives. Note what happens to adjectives that end in ‘-y’: e.g. Goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, sadness, weakness.
B. Adjective Suffix ‘able/-ible’ with verbs, means ‘can be done’. e.g. - drinkable, washable, readable, recognizable, countable, forgivable - edible (can be eaten), flexible (can be bent)
C. Verbs ‘-ise’ (or –ize) makes from adjectives, e.g. modernize, commercialize, industrialize. ‘en’ makes from adjectives e.g; widen, darken, whiten, etc.
D. Other suffixes that can help you recognize the word class -ment : (nouns) excitement, enjoyment, replacement -ity : (nouns) flexibility, productivity, scarcity -hood : ( abstract nouns especially family terms) childhood, motherhood -ship : (abstract nouns especially status ) friendship, partnership, membership -ive : ( adjectives) passive, productive, active -al : (adjectives) brutal, legal, (nouns) refusal, arrival -ous : (adjectives) delicious, outrageous, furious -ful : (adjectives) forgetful, hopeful, useful -less : ( adjectives) useless, harmless, cloudless -ify : (verbs) beautify, purify, terrify
Exercises 1. The ‘-er’ or ‘-or and ‘-ist suffixes. Use the suffixes to give the names of the following. Example: A person who plays jazz on the piano. A jazz pianist. 1. The thing that wipes rain of your car windscreen 2. A person who plays classical violin. 3. A person who takes professional photographs. (N.B. pronunciation) 4. A person who acts in amateur theatre. 5. The person to whom a cheque is made out. 6. A machine for washing dishes. 7. A person who donates their kidneys upon their death. 8. The person to whom a letter is addressed
Do these words mean a thing, a person, or both? 1. a cooker 2. a typewriter 3. a ticket-holder 4. a record player 5. a cleaner 6. a smoker 7. a drinker