Presentation on theme: "The vast area of Sudan and complex diversity indicate that federalism is the most suitable system of governance. In Sudan there is a unique cultural, ethnic,"— Presentation transcript:
The vast area of Sudan and complex diversity indicate that federalism is the most suitable system of governance. In Sudan there is a unique cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity. Implementation of the federal system allowed for the resolution of historical conflicts – on top of these problems is the conflict of Southern Sudan. Within the federal system the states are given financial autonomy and active participation in the decision making process on the national level Federalism and Conflict Prevention Management and resolution Mechanisms
Evolution of Federalism Implementation -Settlement of disputes -Achievement of peace & stability Within the concept that Federalism is a process of continuous dialogue and negotiations to settle disputes and struggles according to the Interim National Constitution 2005(CPA), it is evident that the chronic problem of Southern Sudan was solved. Besides there are other achievements in this respect namely.
1. Abuja 1. Abuja Peace Agreement – settlement of disputes with main rebel groups. 2. The 2. The Agreement of Eastern Sudan the conflict was resolved finally. 3. Cairo 3. Cairo Agreement the political agreement between the National Pact led by the Democratic Union and the government of Sudan. 4. Development 4. Development projects and services were delivered and implemented in regional areas where peace and stability were secured especially in most of Greater Darfur areas. 5. The 5. The Doha forum is a mechanism for dialogue and negotiations with Darfur rebel groups. A comprehensive agreement is on its way to be signed with these groups
Unbalanced Unbalanced development was an outstanding feature in most regions of Sudan. This This was a direct result of regional conflicts in Darfur, Eastern states and Nuba Mountains. The The policy of the government was to bridge the gap between the center and the states by reprogramming and distributing development projects. Settlements Settlements and control of regional and ethnic disputes was advantageous to restore balanced development. Ethnic Conflicts and Balanced Development in Sudan
Federalism & the Administration of Conflict in Sudan To achieve its objective as a pragmatic mechanism for settlement of disputes the federal system should put into consideration (3) main dimensions. 1. Active political participation and power sharing. 2. Effective delivery of services and equal opportunities for all. 3. Equality and Justice in revenue sharing and balanced development.
The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) according for its philosophy of decentralization put into consideration the dimensions of diversity. It set general directives and established institutions and commissions to solve issues of fairness and equality. Self government to the south. Power sharing. Revenue sharing between various levels of government. Consensus democracy. Targeting of development and promotion of services at all levels.
Settlement of Disputes Under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) Political Participation and Power sharing Axis: 1\ self rule to the south (CPA) granted self rule to the South for an interim period of (6) years followed by a referendum for self determination. a. To a. To empower Southerners to preserve their cultural and political identity. b. To b. To be given a chance to adopt their own constitution in full independence as to the relation between the state and religion. c. To c. To use their own language within the South. d. The d. The CPA granted all states both in the South and the North the right to initiate and adopt their own constitutions.
Effectiveness of Services Delivery The The fruits of federalism are evident in building confidence between the people and their government through active participation in formulating decisions that affect their daily life. To To achieve this objective behind services delivery necessitated building a hierarchy of lower level bodies to allow for decisions concerning services to the be initiated by the people themselves. sum up, it can be said that federalism laid down strong indications to services delivery in the direction of the prosperity for all citizens.
Justice in Revenue Sharing Towards Balanced Development The The Comprehensive Peace Agreement sets clear directives of revenue sharing between different levels of government to safeguard transparency and fairness in the allocation of funds and balanced development to different levels of government as follows: a. Exclusive a. Exclusive revenues for the national government. b. Exclusive b. Exclusive revenues for the government of Southern Sudan. c. Revenues c. Revenues for the states.
Revenue Sharing requires mechanisms of justice to secure the targeted balance through constitutional commissions such as: Revenue Sharing requires mechanisms of justice to secure the targeted balance through constitutional commissions such as: a. National a. National Revenue Fund Commission. b. Fiscal b. Fiscal and Financial Allocation and Monitoring Commission. These institutions are established to secure transparency and justice between different levels.
Consensus Democracy Lack of mechanisms that allow for the satisfaction of regional aspirations within the political system give the regions the feeling of being excluded and that policies are imposed upon them by the mechanism of majority (winner takes all). Social equality will be jeopardized if it does not take into consideration the interests of minorities. This will question (the legitimacy of the state) in a state of culture and ethnic diversity.
The The political practice after the implementation of the (CPA) brought out a mentality of respect to other opinions through dialogue and consensus before taking decisions through mechanical majority. (Winner (Winner does not take all. every body wins something).