CHAPTER 12, SECTION 1 - NOTES 1. Europe is a large peninsula with many peninsulas - most countries located no more than 300 miles from ocean. A. Norway/Sweden - Scandinavian peninsula. Bordered by Norwegian Sea, N. Sea, and Baltic Sea
12-1 3. Mountains and Uplands A. Alps - France, Italy Germany, Switzerland, Austria, &northern Balkan Peninsula. (1) Cuts Italy off from Europe B. Pyrenees - cuts Iberian peninsula from other European countries. C. Apennines - divides Italian Peninsula between E. and W.
12-1 E. Uplands - low mts. With mesas/high plateaus (e.g. Kjolen, Scottish highlands, low mt. areas of Brittany in France, and the central plateau of Spain (Meseta), central Germany. 1/6 of France in uplands (Massif Central) 4. Major Rivers Danube and Rhine A. Rhine flows for 820 miles from interior to N. Sea
12-1 B. Danube flows 1, 771 miles through Europe to Black Sea. Borders 9 countries. 5. Northern European Plain very fertile. A. A huge curve across parts of France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and Poland. (1) Drawback - historical avenue of approach for invading armies.
12-1 6. Resources A. Europe has abundant supplies of coal and iron ore (steel production). (1) Ruhr Valley (Germany), Alsace-Lorraine (France), and Parts of U.K. benefit from these minerals and also have essential transportation B. Oil/natural gas in North Sea (U.K., Netherlands, Denmark, Norway share).
Chapter 12-2 Notes 1. Marine west coast climate in much of Europe from N. Spain, most of France, Germany, W. Poland, British Isles & coastal areas of Scandinavia. A. North Atlantic Drift - current of warm water flows past Europe’s west coast.
12-2 B. Prevailing westerly - blow W. to E. carrying warm air from North Atlantic Drift. (1) Carry moisture and winds far inland due to lack of large Mts. (2) Mixed forests of this region have long disappeared.
12-2 2. Sweden, Finland and eastern parts of Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and all of Romania have humid continental climates. A. Cold, snowy winters and warm/hot summers B. Usually has adequate rainfall C. Remaining forests are mostly coniferous.
12-2 3. Mediterranean climate - from southern Spain and France & through Italy to Greece and segments of the Balkan Peninsula. A. Summers usually hot/dry/much sun B. Winters are moderate/wet C. Mt. Ranges block cold N. winds from reaching area
12-2 D. Mediterranean coast of France usually gets a cold, dry wind called a mistral. E. Many Mediterranean nations receive a hot, steady south wind called a sirocco which blows from N. Africa. (1) Some of these winds carry moisture - other dust from desert
12-2 F. Vegetation consists of many evergreen shrubs and short trees. G. Tourism a major industry
12-2 4. Northern part of Scandinavia has a band of tundra climate. A. Permafrost B. No trees grow. Only mosses and lichens C. Winter nights long - summer days long D. In areas N. of Arctic Circle (1) Some winter days sun never rises (2) Some summer days when sun never sets
12-2 5. Sub arctic climate is found south of tundra climate A. Very cold harsh winters, cool summers B. Not much growth - stunted trees C. Agriculture limited to southern Scandinavia
Chapter 12-3 Geography 1. Holland also called Netherlands (also Venice of the west) A. Reclaimed land from sea (approx. 40% was under sea) B. Polder - name for land reclaimed from sea C. Sea works are dikes or earthen platforms (called terpens) (1) Terpens provide shelter during floods/high tides D. Windmills first used to drain land
12-2 2. Zuider Zee - An arm of N. Sea transformed into fresh water lake. A. Dikes built across entrance to Zuider Zee. Eventually became fresh water lake. (1) Hundreds of sq. miles of farmland reclaimed from area surrounding lake via several large plodders
12-3 3. Venice made up of approx. 120 islands and part of mainland. A. Two of largest islands are San Marco and Rialto. (1) Grand canal flows between them B. Has more than 150 canals C. Almost everything moves via water
12-3 4. City of Venice began with people escaping invaders into islands in lagoon. A. Eventually becomes a major port at the N. end of Adriatic Sea B. Wooden pilings were pounded into the ground to support structures. (1 ) Many forests in N. Italy/Slovenia were leveled (2) Venice is gradually sinking due to weight of buildings and also rising sea levels and the pumping of groundwater.
12-3 C. Present threat to Venice (1) Water pollution (2) Erosion - allowing more seawater into the lagoon (3) Floods (e.g. 1966 flood) (4) Algae as a result of Agricultural runoff. Decay of algae uses up oxygen - fish die, which not only attracts insects but makes city smell like a boys locker room.
12-3 5. Deforestation has been taking place in Europe since ancient times. A. Fuel, building materials, charcoal for blast furnaces B. Today, coal, oil, nuke power used extensively C. Acid rain (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide combine with water/oxygen) is a major problem in Europe.
12-3 (1) Damages building/statutes and kills trees (2) Affects ¼ of European forests (3) Winds carry acid rain