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Lesson Study for Special Education Professionals

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1 Lesson Study for Special Education Professionals
Norman Kee Kiak Nam M.Ed, M.Tech, Dip.Edtech, Dip.Ed., B.C.S.E. Board Certified in Special Education Diplomate, American Academy of Special Education Professionals Lecturer Early Childhood and Special Needs Education Academic Group

2 Agenda Brief History What is Lesson Study Approach? Why Lesson Study?
The three levels of lesson study Potential challenges in implementation

3 Brief History Started in Japan in the late 19th Century where the Japanese were familiar only with the individualized instruction model. Classes were in temples and instruction individualized. In 1872, Meiji government explored Western scholarship on teaching. Source : Isoda, Stephens, Ohara & Miyakawa, 2007

4 Possibly, the science and technology of the west as well as advance weaponry could have been a motivation to initiate the change! My postulation : Possibly sent teachers overseas to learn western teaching practices/Invited western teachers to teach in Japan. But they are costly initiatives. In order to leverage the learning for everyone, the Japanese could have developed the lesson study approach to efficiently and effectively learn and disseminate the teaching methods.

5 Source : Isoda, Stephens, Ohara & Miyakawa, 2007

6 What is Lesson Study Approach
What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011) Select Research Lesson: Study Curriculum and Formulate Goals Consider gaps between long term goals and current reality Identify pressing issue in student learning Examine available literature on possible solutions or approaches Decide jointly on a research lesson

7 What is Lesson Study Approach
What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011) Plan Research Lesson Long term goals Anticipated student learning Data collection plan (How do you verify that learning is taking place?) Models of learning trajectory Rationale for chosen approach

8 What is Lesson Study Approach
What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps Cycle (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011) Conduct Research Lesson One team member conducts research lesson Others observe and collect data

9 What is Lesson Study Approach
What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps Cycle (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011) Reflect Formal lesson colloqium in which observers: Share data from lesson Use data to illuminate student learning, disciplinary content, lesson and unit design, and broader issues in teaching-learning Documentation of cycle, to consolidate and carry forward learnings, new questions into next cycle of lesson study

10 What is Lesson Study Approach?
Lesson Study is an approach to professional development in which teachers collaborate with one another to develop a lesson plan, teach and observe the lesson as well as to collect data on student learning, and also use their observations to refine their lesson (Stepanek et al., 2007). It is a process rather than a product – a means through which teachers continuously engage in learning more about best or effective pedagogical practices in order to improve the student learning outcomes.

11 Why Lesson Study? Brief Example of Processes
Sequence of lesson activities with timing Anticipated response(s) from students Teacher’s response and tacit knowledge of effective supporting strategies Dynamic assessment of learning strategies Learning Point(s) if any to be completed after lesson Introduction (5-10 min) I have two substances and they got mixed together. How can we separate them? I need help. (common salt with sand) Students may say: Put water. Salt and sand. Filtration. Why put water? What does water do? Perhaps, but how we separate them. How do you filter the two solids? Assess understanding of dissolution process for separation. Assess child’s registration of question and understanding of meaning of question. Assess child understanding of filtration and how it relates to current case. Need to setup learning stations/exhibits to direct and

12 Why Lesson Study? Benefit from Collective
Multiple Perspectives Perspectives from Experiences Research Lesson Perspectives from Research & Development Benefit from Collective Perspectives, Experience and Expertise of all Multiple Perspectives

13 Why Lesson Study in Special Education?
Each child with special needs is unique requiring Individualized Education Program (IEP) Tacit knowledge from experienced teachers on how best to work with child for effectiveness and efficiency Monitoring and maintenance of learning by all teachers for progress Multiple and transdisciplinary learning Four Need Areas that must be considered for reporting student’s present level of performance and individual needs (IDEA 2004) for IEP: Academic/Educational Achievement and Learning Characteristics Social Development Physical Development Management Needs Post-school activities include: Post-secondary education Vocational training Integrated competitive employment (including supported employment), Continuing and adult education Adult services Independent living or community participation 6 major functional skill areas Vocational Skills; Vocational Behavior; Independent Functioning; Leisure Skills; Functional Communication & Interpersonal Behavior (TTAP) 18/21 Child’s, Parent’s & Society’s Clock is Ticking

14 Why Lesson Study? (Lewis & Hurd, 2011)
Lesson study values teaching, teachers, and the professional teaching community Lesson study provides an important new learning structure – the research lesson Lesson study values the long-term learning and development of students Lesson study fosters teachers’ intrinsic motivation Lesson study builds a shared knowledge base

15 3 Levels of Lesson Study Focus on process of staff development of expertise in teaching the content. Captures teaching strategies, tacit knowledge and allows the dissemination of expertise in teaching the research lesson. Dynamic document which can improve and evolve with time. Key Enabler for Learning Organizations to capture corporate knowledge and expertise Encourages culture of collaboration and mutual sharpening of knowledge and skills (Chia & Kee, 2010, p. 4)

16 Need for Modified Lesson Study
Limited time and resources Existing lesson study approach has been used mainly for mainstream students but not for students with special needs. Dynamic assessment of learning strategies is deem necessary to accommodate each child’s uniqueness for effective remediation of learning.

17 Potential Challenges Staff guarding their professional knowledge to make themselves indispensable. Refusal to share knowledge or omission of critical information(paralipsis) so as to maintain lead over potential competitors. Comfortable with existing practices and do not see why they should bother to change. Politics. Power and Control (Knowledge is Power) Limited resources (time, financial, manpower, expertise, physical constraints) Fear of change Lack of competence Professional knowledge derived from courses/workshops/books paid by staff that organization may not want to finance or subsidize.

18 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995)
Establishing a sense of urgency Examining student’s and parent’s realities Identifying and discussing crisis, potential crisis, or major opportunities Forming a powerful guiding coalition Assembling a group with enough power to lead the change effort Encourage the group to work together as a team Source: “HBR’s 10 Must Reads On Change” (2011)

19 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995)
Creating a vision Creating a vision to help direct the change effort. Developing strategies for achieving that vision Staff Assessment (based on expediency of situation and available resources) : 1. Norm-referenced assessment (N) 2. Criterion-referenced assessment (C) Assessment decision based on a predetermined standard. Assessment decision based on the work of peers. A – 100 B – 89 C  Fixed Target (Declared - Objective)  Moving target (Quota - Subjective) 3. Combination (C  N)

20 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995)
Communicating the vision Using every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategies Teaching new behaviors by the example of the guiding coalition Empowering others to act on the vision Getting rid of obstacles to change Changing systems or structure that seriously undermine the vision Encouraging risk taking and nontraditional ideas, activities, and actions

21 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995)
Planning for and creating short-term wins Planning for visible performance improvements Creating those improvements Recognizing and rewarding employees involved in the improvements

22 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995)
Consolidating improvements and producing still more change Using increased credibility to change systems, structures, and policies that don’t fit the vision Hiring, promoting, and developing employees who can implement the vision Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes and change agents

23 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995)
Institutionalizing new approaches Articulating the connections between the new behaviors and corporate success Developing the means to ensure leadership development and succession

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