Presentation on theme: "Lesson Study for Special Education Professionals"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lesson Study for Special Education Professionals Norman Kee Kiak NamM.Ed, M.Tech, Dip.Edtech, Dip.Ed., B.C.S.E.Board Certified in Special EducationDiplomate, American Academy of Special Education ProfessionalsLecturerEarly Childhood and Special Needs Education Academic Group
2 Agenda Brief History What is Lesson Study Approach? Why Lesson Study? The three levels of lesson studyPotential challenges in implementation
3 Brief HistoryStarted in Japan in the late 19th Century where the Japanese were familiar only with the individualized instruction model.Classes were in temples and instruction individualized.In 1872, Meiji government explored Western scholarship on teaching.Source : Isoda, Stephens, Ohara & Miyakawa, 2007
4 Possibly, the science and technology of the west as well as advance weaponry could have been a motivation to initiate the change!My postulation : Possibly sent teachers overseas to learn western teaching practices/Invited western teachers to teach in Japan. But they are costly initiatives. In order to leverage the learning for everyone, the Japanese could have developed the lesson study approach to efficiently and effectively learn and disseminate the teaching methods.
6 What is Lesson Study Approach What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011)Select Research Lesson: Study Curriculum and Formulate GoalsConsider gaps between long term goals and current realityIdentify pressing issue in student learningExamine available literature on possible solutions or approachesDecide jointly on a research lesson
7 What is Lesson Study Approach What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011)Plan Research LessonLong term goalsAnticipated student learningData collection plan (How do you verify that learning is taking place?)Models of learning trajectoryRationale for chosen approach
8 What is Lesson Study Approach What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps Cycle (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011)Conduct Research LessonOne team member conducts research lessonOthers observe and collect data
9 What is Lesson Study Approach What is Lesson Study Approach? 4 Steps Cycle (Team Collaboration- Modified from Lewis & Hurd, 2011)ReflectFormal lesson colloqium in which observers:Share data from lessonUse data to illuminate student learning, disciplinary content, lesson and unit design, and broader issues in teaching-learningDocumentation of cycle, to consolidate and carry forward learnings, new questions into next cycle of lesson study
10 What is Lesson Study Approach? Lesson Study is an approach to professional development in which teachers collaborate with one another to develop a lesson plan, teach and observe the lesson as well as to collect data on student learning, and also use their observations to refine their lesson (Stepanek et al., 2007). It is a process rather than a product – a means through which teachers continuously engage in learning more about best or effective pedagogical practices in order to improve the student learning outcomes.
11 Why Lesson Study? Brief Example of Processes Sequence of lesson activities with timingAnticipated response(s) from studentsTeacher’s response and tacit knowledge of effective supporting strategiesDynamic assessment of learning strategiesLearning Point(s) if any to be completed after lessonIntroduction (5-10 min)I have two substances and they got mixed together. How can we separate them? I need help.(common salt with sand)Students may say:Put water.Salt and sand.Filtration.Why put water? What does water do?Perhaps, but how we separate them.How do you filter the two solids?Assess understanding of dissolution process for separation.Assess child’s registration of question and understanding of meaning of question.Assess child understanding of filtration and how it relates to current case.Need to setup learning stations/exhibits to direct and
12 Why Lesson Study? Benefit from Collective Multiple PerspectivesPerspectives from ExperiencesResearch LessonPerspectives from Research & DevelopmentBenefit from CollectivePerspectives, Experience and Expertise of allMultiple Perspectives
13 Why Lesson Study in Special Education? Each child with special needs is unique requiringIndividualized Education Program (IEP)Tacit knowledge from experienced teachers on how best to work with child for effectiveness and efficiencyMonitoring and maintenance of learning by all teachers for progressMultiple and transdisciplinary learningFour Need Areas that must be considered for reporting student’s present level of performance and individual needs (IDEA 2004) for IEP:Academic/Educational Achievement and Learning CharacteristicsSocial DevelopmentPhysical DevelopmentManagement NeedsPost-school activities include:Post-secondary educationVocational trainingIntegrated competitive employment (including supported employment),Continuing and adult educationAdult servicesIndependent living or community participation6 major functional skill areasVocational Skills; Vocational Behavior; Independent Functioning; Leisure Skills; Functional Communication & Interpersonal Behavior (TTAP)18/21Child’s, Parent’s & Society’s Clock is Ticking
14 Why Lesson Study? (Lewis & Hurd, 2011) Lesson study values teaching, teachers, and the professional teaching communityLesson study provides an important new learning structure – the research lessonLesson study values the long-term learning and development of studentsLesson study fosters teachers’ intrinsic motivationLesson study builds a shared knowledge base
15 3 Levels of Lesson StudyFocus on process of staff development of expertise in teaching the content.Captures teaching strategies, tacit knowledge and allows the dissemination of expertise in teaching the research lesson.Dynamic document which can improve and evolve with time.Key Enabler for Learning Organizations to capture corporate knowledge and expertiseEncourages culture of collaboration and mutual sharpening of knowledge and skills(Chia & Kee, 2010, p. 4)
16 Need for Modified Lesson Study Limited time and resourcesExisting lesson study approach has been used mainly for mainstream students but not for students with special needs.Dynamic assessment of learning strategies is deem necessary to accommodate each child’s uniqueness for effective remediation of learning.
17 Potential ChallengesStaff guarding their professional knowledge to make themselves indispensable.Refusal to share knowledge or omission of critical information(paralipsis) so as to maintain lead over potential competitors.Comfortable with existing practices and do not see why they should bother to change.Politics.Power and Control (Knowledge is Power)Limited resources (time, financial, manpower, expertise, physical constraints)Fear of changeLack of competenceProfessional knowledge derived from courses/workshops/books paid by staff that organization may not want to finance or subsidize.
18 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995) Establishing a sense of urgencyExamining student’s and parent’s realitiesIdentifying and discussing crisis, potential crisis, or major opportunitiesForming a powerful guiding coalitionAssembling a group with enough power to lead the change effortEncourage the group to work together as a teamSource: “HBR’s 10 Must Reads On Change” (2011)
19 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995) Creating a visionCreating a vision to help direct the change effort.Developing strategies for achieving that visionStaff Assessment (based on expediency of situation and available resources) :1. Norm-referenced assessment (N)2. Criterion-referenced assessment (C)Assessment decision based on a predetermined standard.Assessment decision based on the work of peers.A – 100B – 89C Fixed Target (Declared - Objective) Moving target (Quota - Subjective)3. Combination (C N)
20 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995) Communicating the visionUsing every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategiesTeaching new behaviors by the example of the guiding coalitionEmpowering others to act on the visionGetting rid of obstacles to changeChanging systems or structure that seriously undermine the visionEncouraging risk taking and nontraditional ideas, activities, and actions
21 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995) Planning for and creating short-term winsPlanning for visible performance improvementsCreating those improvementsRecognizing and rewarding employees involved in the improvements
22 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995) Consolidating improvements and producing still more changeUsing increased credibility to change systems, structures, and policies that don’t fit the visionHiring, promoting, and developing employees who can implement the visionReinvigorating the process with new projects, themes and change agents
23 Potential Solution : Leading Change (Kotter, 1995) Institutionalizing new approachesArticulating the connections between the new behaviors and corporate successDeveloping the means to ensure leadership development and succession