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AP Biology Chapter 5: Molecules of Life. LE 5-2 Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Dehydration reaction.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Chapter 5: Molecules of Life. LE 5-2 Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Dehydration reaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Biology Chapter 5: Molecules of Life

2 LE 5-2 Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer Longer polymer Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Hydrolysis of a polymer

3 Carbohydrates See the Carbonyls and Hydroxides?

4 Dry vs. Wet

5 LE 5-5 Glucose Maltose Fructose Sucrose Glucose Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose 1–4 glycosidic linkage 1–2 glycosidic linkage

6 Fig: 5.6

7 Fig: 5.7

8 LE 5-8 Cellulose molecules Cellulose microfibrils in a plant cell wall Cell walls Microfibril Plant cells 0.5 µm Glucose monomer

9 Chitin

10 Lipids

11 LE 5-11a Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a fat Glycerol Fatty acid (palmitic acid)

12 LE 5-11b Ester linkage Fat molecule (triacylglycerol)

13 Saturated vs. Unsaturated

14 Fig: 5.13

15 Cell Membranes

16 Steroid Structure

17 LE 4-9 Estradiol Testosterone Male lion Female lion

18 Atherosclerosis

19 Proteins

20 LE 5-UN78 Amino group Carboxyl group carbon

21 Fig: 5.17a

22 Fig: 5.17b

23 Peptide Bonding

24 Fig: 5.20 – Insulin 1 sequence

25 Fig: 5.21

26 LE 5-21b Primary structure Secondary and tertiary structures Normal hemoglobin Val His Leu 4 Thr 5 Pro 6 Glu 7 Primary structure Secondary and tertiary structures Sickle-cell hemoglobin Val His Leu 4 Thr 5 Pro 6 ValGlu 7 Quaternary structure Normal hemoglobin (top view) Function Molecules do not associate with one another; each carries oxygen. Quaternary structure Sickle-cell hemoglobin Function Molecules interact with one another to crystallize into a fiber; capacity to carry oxygen is greatly reduced. Exposed hydrophobic region subunit

27 2 structure

28 LE 5-20d Hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals interactions Polypeptide backbone Disulfide bridge Ionic bond Hydrogen bond

29 3 Structure

30 4 Structure

31 Proteins Natural Form

32 Denaturation of a protein

33 Fig: 5.23

34 Complimentary Base Pairing

35 Fig: 5.26

36 Fig: 5.27

37 Watson and Crick

38 Genes and Evolution


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