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Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic Drinks

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1 Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic Drinks
The refreshing, thirst quenching, nutritional heart warming beverages enjoyed by people of all ages, cultures and class.

2 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Lesson Overview
Introduction Juices Freshly squeezed fruit juices Soft drinks and carbonated beverages Draught soft drinks systems Famous soft drinks Waters Tea Coffee Hot chocolate Conclusion / Summary References

3 On completion of this lesson the learner will be
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Aims and Learning Outcomes of the Lesson On completion of this lesson the learner will be expected to be able to; Explain the nutritional benefits of juice and vegetable drinks. Identify the background, classification, production methods and packaging systems for juices, soft drinks and water beverages. Describe the production methods, service methods and styles for tea, coffee and hot chocolate beverages.

4 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9.1 Introduction
Juices, soft drinks and waters because of their diversity of flavours are the world’s most popular drinks originally consumed as health and well being beverages they have crossed over to become the number one social beverage globally. These refreshing thirst quenching beverages have changed so much in recent years we have witnessed the introduction of low calorie soft drinks, fruit juice and mineral water mixtures and unusual new flavours to meet consumer demands. The worldwide soft drinks market consumes some 392 billion liters and is growing by 5% per year. The United States remains the largest consumer with over 23% of sales in volume despite the market's maturity, followed by Latin America. China is enjoying the most spectacular growth with an annual increase of over 15% (Datamonitor, Canadean, 2012). The first half of this lesson focuses on the origins, historical background, raw materials, production, nutritional benefits, varieties, packaging, filling and service systems and the regulations governing the production of these beverages. We will also highlight some product awareness and sales opportunities which these drinks create for your bar. In the second half of this lesson we focus on hot drinks, learning to personalise your fresh tea, coffee and hot chocolate offerings can bring new customers and increased business. This area of your business is crucial because customers are fascinated with these beverages and they will always purchase well made, good tasting tea, coffee and hot chocolate at any time of the day. Consider also for one moment how many times have you enjoyed a beautiful meal in a restaurant or bar which was followed by a poor tasting tea or coffee it is so crucial that you deliver high quality well prepared tea and coffee. Tea and coffee have very good digestive action, they induce an increase in gastric juices, favouring digestion. Their caffeine content can also provoke a mild state of exhilaration increasing the speed of reflexes and powers of concentration.

5 Fresh Fruit and Vegetables options:
Lesson 10: Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters Juices [ Nutritious juice and vegetable drinks ] Fruit juices are available in various forms and in various qualities. Legislation regarding the term ‘fruit juice’ can vary from country to country. The consumption of juices carries so many nutritional benefits (i.e. 5 portions of fruit and vegetable a day helps reduce heart disease) Listed below are some of the best ingredients, which can be used to create nutritious drinks in bars to boost immunity systems and promote good health. Juices and vegetable drinks: Juices, whether fruit or vegetable, they offer one of the most effective ways of keeping your immune system fighting fit all year round. Each juice provides a slightly different blend of all those essential vitamins. Fresh Fruit and Vegetables options: Apple: 160ml glass, 61 kcal provides fiber that helps remove cholesterol; they contain the antibacterial vitamin C. Beetroot: contains vitamin E which helps the heart function, promotes healthy blood by providing oxygen in the blood; they also contain artery-protective vitamin E. Blueberries: Stops bacteria sticking to the urinary tract, preventing cystitis (as do cranberries), they contain compounds which improve circulation and combat varicose veins, an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. Carrot: 160ml kcal contains high levels of potassium, significant amounts of magnesium and some calcium, which makes it one of the most beneficial juices you can drink because, apart from iron, these are the three minerals women most likely to be deficient in because of poor diets. It’s an excellent source of beta-carotene (essential for healthy skin) and other carotenoids that the body turns into vitamin A. Cranberry: 160ml glass, 78 kcal, antibacterial fruit is high in vitamin C, preventing urinary tract infections suffered by more than 60pc of women at some point in their lives. It prevents the E.coli bacterium, which causes the infections, from sticking to the wall of the bladder or the urethra. Celery Juice: the alkaline content in a vegetable such as celery balances the acidity in your troubled stomach. Add celery juice to your favorite juicy drink. Acts as an excellent gentle natural and cleansing diuretic that relieves uncomfortable fluid retention.

6 Lesson 10: Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters 9
Lesson 10: Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters Juices (continued) [ Nutritious juice and vegetable drinks ] Green and sprout vegetables juices, broccoli, asparagus and many herbs contain the vitamin B complex, which is good for helping to recover. God’s gift to hangovers is vitamin B1 (thiamine). Broccoli is high in antioxidant vitamins, rich in iron, which prevents anemia, and are a good source of calcium for protecting against osteoporosis. Grapefruit: 160ml, 53 kcal provides 120pc of the amount of vitamins C that those aged between 19 and 50 need a day. Also a good source of beta-carotene, a powerful antioxidant that, if taken in adequate amounts can lower the risk of certain cancers. Ginger Ale: good for calming an upset stomach, contains gingerois, which have stomach-calming effects and can quell nausea, also works as a natural anti-inflammatory, helps improve circulation and helps to speed up the elimination of waste products. Mango: 160ml, 62kcal another good source of A, C and E, which work as a powerful unit to fight disease. One small glass also provides one-sixth of the daily iron requirements. Mango provides beta-carotene for healthy lungs (good for asthmatics). Orange: 160ml glass, 75 kcal provides more than 150pc of the vitamin C, also a good source of thiamine (produces energy) and folate (promotes healthy blood). Olives or Olive Oil: Contains high levels of monounsaturated fat, which will improve the ratio of good HDL cholesterol, which removes cholesterol from the circulation and protects against heart disease. Onion: protects the heart by reducing blood pressure and bad cholesterol, freshly cut onion may also help prevent asthma, it also contains flavanoids which may protect against cancer. Pineapple: 160ml, 66 kcal Pineapple juice is a great source of vitamin C, also contains the health-enhancing enzyme, bromelain (an enzyme that breaks down blood clots). This is thought to aid digestion, reduce sinusitis and heal minor injuries, particularly sprains, muscle injuries and pain. Potatoes Sweet: high in vitamin E which boosts fertility, very rich in cancer fighting carotenes and vitamins C and E, high in iron which helps fight off infections. Red, Black Grape: 160ml, 74 kcal Contain the artery-protective vitamin E and heart protective antioxidants, grape juice also contains resveratrol, which has been reported to have anti-cancer activity in test tube and animal research. Strawberries: Referred to as the Viagra for girls because they are rich in zinc, they boost testosterone levels. Tomato: 160ml glass, 58 kcal good source of vitamins A and C, both of which help mop up potentially harmful free radicals that can cause cancer, heart diseases and even wrinkles. Also a great source of lycopene, a skin-friendly nutrient. In Europe, researchers have found that a high intake of this extremely powerful antioxidant can lower the risk of heart disease by as much as 48pc. Yoghurt: friendly bacteria in live yoghurt protect against thrush and gastro-enteritis. Also helps to counter the bacteria that cause food poisoning infections and ulcers.

7 Freshly squeezed fruit juices:
Lesson 10: Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters Freshly squeezed fruit juices (continued) Freshly squeezed fruit juices: The range available differs from bar to bar depending very often on the availability of the appropriate fruit and of the price in each country. Freshly squeezed juices may be consumed as such or they can be incorporated into cocktails for example Strawberry Daiquiris, Peach and Mango Martinis or Bellini’s. The taste of freshly squeezed fruit juices can vary depending on the season. The extended juice should be always strained through a coarse strainer to exclude pith and seeds, but a little fine pulp gives authenticity. Citrus fruit juices: The most popular freshly squeezed fruit juices for bar use are citrus fruit juices, such as lemon, orange, grapefruit and lime. Citrus fruits are usually pressed or squeezed either by using a hand juice extractor or an electric version, when using either method ensure that the fruit has been washed, and that it is fresh and sound. You can obtain more juice from citrus fruit that is at room temperature or has been slightly warmed, than from fruit that has just been removed from a refrigerator. Citrus fruit juices (especially lemon juice) have the uncanny ability to accentuate the flavours of other fruits. Storage and shelf life: If the freshly squeezed fruit juices are prepared in advance, the juices should be stored under refrigeration until required. They are best stored in a glass jug, which is lightly covered but not sealed. If they have been stored for some time they should be discreetly tasted before use.

8 EU definition of the raw materials used in fruit juices:
Lesson 10: Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters Freshly squeezed fruit juices (continued) [ Prepared fruit Juices, Fruit Mixes, Legislation on Fruit Juices ] Prepared fruit juices Most citrus juices can be purchased prepared in bottles, cans, plastic or waxed cardboard containers, with each country having a good range of brands available. Non-citrus juices such as pineapple, tomato, apple, pear and grape juice are available in this style of packaging. These juices are also available are pre-mixed blends of fruit juices, often sold as tropical blends’ for example passion fruit, mango and pawpaw blended together. Prepared fruit mixes Sweet and sour: A sweet-sour mix of fresh lemon juice and sugar can be made ahead of service time. Sweet-sour mixes can also be bought bottled, as frozen concentrate, or in powered form. Some have a foaming agent (called frothee) that stimulates egg white. Choosing your sweet and sour bar mixes involves a little bit of trial and error to find the quality that best suits your bar. Other mixes, customizing: Bloody Mary, Daiquiri, Margarita, Mat Tai, Pina Colada mixes, the alcohol is just added, the frozen concentrates are usually the best. You can also customize these mixes by adding your own lemon, horseradish, olive juice spicy salsa to the Bloody Mary mix. EU definition of the raw materials used in fruit juices: Fruit juices are covered under the European Communities (Marketing of Fruit Juices and Certain Similar Products) Regulations 2003). Fruit: all fruits, for the purposes of this Directive, tomatoes are not regarded as fruit. Fruit puree: the fermentable but unfermented product obtained by sieving the edible part of whole or peeled fruit without removing the juice. Concentrated fruit puree: the product obtained from fruit puree by the physical removal of a specific proportion of its water content. Sugars: for the production of: (a) fruit nectar: sugars as defined by Council Directive 2001/111/EC of December 2001 relating to certain sugars intended for human consumption (1); fructose syrup; sugars derived from fruits; (b) fruit juice from concentrate: sugars as defined by Directive 2001/111/EC; fructose syrup; (c) Fruit juices: the sugars listed in (b) containing less than 2% water. Honey: the product defined by Council Directive 2001/110/EC of December 2001 relating to honey (2). Pulp or Cells: the products obtained from the edible parts of fruit of the same kind without removing the juice. USA legislation: In the USA fruit juice can only legally be used to describe a product which is 100% fruit juice. A blend of fruit juice(s) with other ingredients, such as high-fructose corn syrup, is called a juice cocktail or juice drink(FDA, 2012). The term "nectar" is generally accepted in the U.S. and in international trade for a diluted juice to denote a beverage that contains fruit juice or puree, water, and which may contain artificial sweeteners (FDA, 2012).

9 Historical Background of Soft Drinks and Carbonated Beverages
Lesson 9: Non-Alcoholic Drinks Soft Drinks and Carbonated Beverages [ Historical Background, Manufacture Process ] Historical Background of Soft Drinks and Carbonated Beverages The first soft-drinks enjoyed centuries ago, were simply the effervescent waters from certain natural springs. First recorded mention: Moguls, at the end of the 13th century. Lemon juice and scurvy: Lemon juice was discovered as a good antidote to scurvy, (this is brought on by a lack of vitamin C in the diet). Spread of soft drinks in Europe: growing availability of sugar from the new plantations in the West Indies a fashion arose for lemon juice sugared and flavoured with water. 17th century French government created the Compagnie de Lemonadiers allowing these tradesmen to gain a monopoly; eventually these tradesmen set up shops and were popularly known as “Lemonadiers”. Carbonation is discovered: (1790s) Jacob Schweppe and Nicholas Paul developed the manufacture of their carbonated waters in London (1799) A.R Thwaites and Company of Dublin develop single and double strength soda water (1886) in Atlanta, Georgia Dr. John Styth Pemberton formulated syrup, which went on sale at Jacob’s Pharmacy for 5 cents a glass, originally promoted as an “Intellectual Beverage and Health Drink” known today as Coca Cola . Early carbonated beverages were sold in bottles sealed with porcelain stoppers which, when pushed in, released the carbon dioxide with a loud pop. Thus in the 1890’s era of gleaming marble soda fountains the expression “soda pop” was born. Soft Drinks Manufacture Process The Raw Materials: Fruit juices (processed in factories near the harvesting areas and shipped to the ordering countries), Flavours (extracted from natural oils and extracts), Sugar (refined beet sugar is delivered from sugar factories), Water (treated and filtered), Carbon dioxide (delivered in bulk road tankers under high pressure), acids, colours and preservatives. Production: Further information (chapter 9 – pp , plus figure 9.2 ‘basic diagram of soft drinks plant).

10 Lesson 9: Non-Alcoholic Drinks 9.5 Draught soft drinks systems
These systems are used to dispense draught soft drinks. The advantages include no bottles, cases, no loading onto shelves, no long back door deliveries, no deposits on bottles, no broken bottles and better ecology control. 1 typical 18 litre tank is equal to 3,834 fluid ounces of finished product, this is equal to 588 split size bottles, every soft drink is served chilled and the service speed at peek times is also. Post mix dispensing system, Cobra gun: Usually located at each dispense station of the bar, consists of a head with a nozzle, pushbuttons and a flexible metal hose (flexihose) that deliver the syrup mixes with carbonated water in a 5:1 ratio, at the touch of the selected buttons you now have different flavours, soda and plain filtered water as you require. Pre-mix System: These systems offer the complete draught soft drink ready made, the complete carbonated beverage is supplied in bulk containers that have already been mixed at the manufacturing plant. Premix systems are not common now. Electronic Automatic Dispensing Systems: These systems are not only used for soft drinks they also dispense beer, wines, juices, cocktails, and spirits mixed with soft drinks at the touch of a bottom, they pour preset amounts and count each drink dispensed. Some systems are electronically linked or interfaced with a computerized cash registers. Automatic liquor dispensing systems or soft drinks systems are expensive and not everybody (bartenders, customers) reacts favorably to them, customers do not like the spirits are being poured and pre-mixed away from the service area, although it must be pointed out that these systems do provide excellent financial control for your business Wunderbar (post mix dispensing system) soda gun.

11 Lesson 9: Non-Alcoholic Drinks 9.6 Famous soft drinks
Coca Cola: 1886 John Pemberton (pharmacist, Atlanta), adopted French doctor, Angelo Mariani idea of using coca leaves, started selling Pemberton’s French wine coca in Jacob’s pharmacy as medical aid (Asa G. Candler bought company, 4 years later Coca Cola sold in every state, memorabilia ideas begin (caffeine added to replace the cocaine) for safety E. Woodruff (Atlanta took over. 1930s: Coca Cola invent modern day Santa Claus (dress code to match company colours), 1982 (Coca Cola launch Diet Coke 1st brand extension Diet Coke sold 927 million cases. Pepsi: 1989 first made in North Carolina by Caleb Bradham (sold it from his drug store called it Brad’s drink), marketed as a disgestive drink (contained pectin) renamed Pepsi Cola. 7-up: 1929 originally used as a hangover cure for hospital and home use titled ‘Bib label Lithanted Lemon Lime Soda’ up joined 600 lemon and lime drinks in the marketplace taken over by Pepsi Cola Company. Other international favourites: Club Brands. National favourites (class discussion).

12 Lesson 9: Non-Alcoholic Drinks 9.7 Waters
Water acts as a transport system and an information waterway for nutrients to travel down the body, water messages are sent across your body, 60% of your body is water and it has a role in almost every metabolic process which occurs in your body. Bottled Water Interest in bottled in brand bottled water started in the 1970s when the Europeans (especially the French and Italians) advertised heavily around the world and made it socially acceptable to order different types of bottled water in restaurants, bars and hotels. The 1980s and 1990s also brought an increase interest in health and fitness and the water bottle became the necessary accessory. Today, there are many bottled water brands available the additional market appeal of purity stills appeals to the health concerns of consumers. Currently the strongest growth in the water market is the convenience or single-serving size for fitting in a sports bag, lunchbox or backpack. Bottles water is a great profit potential at the bar it is seen as a healthy alternative to soft drinks. Service of Bottled Water in Bars Most bars serve two kinds of bottled water, still and sparkling. You can offer liter-sized bottles for groups or serving sized bottles for individuals. They should be kept in the refrigerator and served chilled, in the opened bottle with an empty glass. A wedge of lime or lemon may be added if the customer wishes, but never add ice unless the customer requests it. Most customers are annoyed if they purchase an expensive glass of mineral water and then have diluted with the local tap water of your ice cubes. Always use a stemmed glass for bottled water to distinguish it.

13 within these regulations may use one of these terms;
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Waters (continued) [ Bottled Water - Legislation - European Union EU and Food and Drug Administration FDA) ] All water supplies that are used for human consumption must meet certain standards, which have been laid down by the EU or the FDA for Europe and the USA, every country will traditionally have local laws which also govern waters used for consumption. They have to be free from microorganisms, parasites and from any substances that may be a danger to public health if they are found in sufficient numbers or concentrations. European Union, EU Water Regulations: Categories of bottled waters are defined in the Natural Mineral Water, Spring Water and Bottled Drinking Water Regulations Only products which meet the specifications within these regulations may use one of these terms; bottled water: A general description for bottled water is a ‘a closed container of any kind in which water is sold for human consumption or from which water sold for human consumption is derived’’. Specific definitions apply to Natural Mineral Water and Spring Water under these regulations. mineral water: Mineral water is water that emerges from under the ground and then flows over rocks before it is collected. As a result of this, mineral water has a higher content of various minerals, which are picked up as it flows over rock. Unlike spring water, natural mineral water cannot be treated except to remove grit and dirt. Different brands of spring and mineral waters will contain different amounts of minerals, depending on where they have been sourced. Food and Drug administration, FDA Water Regulations: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies water in the USA it regulates bottled water as a food under the FD&C Act and is responsible for ensuring that bottled water is safe and truthfully labeled. Specific FDA regulations for water (chapter 9- Table 9.1).

14 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9.7 Waters (continued)
Main types of bottled water Natural mineral water: (NMW) is a statutory name for a specific type of water. A NMW must be officially recognized through a local authority after a qualifying period of two years, during which time it is repeatedly analysed. It must also be registered with the Food Standards Agency. It must come from a specified ground water source, which is protected from all kinds of pollution. The water may be treated in any way to alter its original chemical and microbiological composition. In addition NMWs must provide certain information on their labels such as the typical mineral analysis. Spring water: (SW) is a statutory name for water, which comes from a single non-polluted ground water source. Unlike NMW there is no formal recognition process required although it must still be registered with the local authority. Many NMWs begin their lives as Spring Waters trading as such during the two-year testing period. Unlike NMWs, Spring Waters may undergo permitted treatments but like NMWs must meet microbiological criteria. All Spring Waters must comply with the Drinking Water Regulations. Table water: (TW) may come from more than one source and may include the public water supply. Treatment is permitted which results in the water achieving the compositional/microbiological requirements of the regulations. Some companies may also add mineral salts to their waters to replace those minerals lost during treatments or to enhance those, which already exist. Water with alcohol For centuries water has been actively used as a mixer, which has been used to dilute the strength of spirits without altering the character of their basic flavour. Certain spirits for example whiskey or vodka lovers claim that water actually enhances rather than mutes the aromatic permutes the aromatic personalities of there favored spirit. Water softens the olfactory impact of the alcohol while allowing the complexities of grain, rye, peat, wheat or wood to announce themselves. Natural Mineral Water (Health SPAS) The terminology connected with Natural Mineral waters is complex and varies from country to country all we can do is to read the label carefully. True mineral water contains many health giving properties that are usually removed from the domestic water supplies because they make the water ‘hard’. Health ‘SPA’ towns or areas are used drinking and for bathing. There is good evidence to substantiate some of these traditional ideas and practices as being ‘healthy’ Chapter 9 - pp famous natural mineral waters.

15 bottled water can be put down to a number of factors.
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Waters [The Business Potential and Growth of Bottled Water Sales] Bottled water continues to grow the reasons behind the growth in popularity of bottled water can be put down to a number of factors. many people state they prefer the taste many believe that because of environmental pollution, bottled water is a safer choice for drinking than their own household supply an increasingly health conscious consumer many females concerned with counting calories will avoid the sugary soft drinks the continental influence of bottled water consumption the availability of menus with different service sizes and types the problem with some businesses is the availability, variety and quality of the bottled waters, which they offer for sale. Growth potential, a simple exercise to carry out in your bar is offered under chapter 9 - Table 9.2 to develop growth.

16 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9.8 Tea
China’s discovery: discovered 4,000 by accident, a pleasant drink was created by infusing the leaves of Camellia sinensis, or the Chinese tea plant Camellia assamica, in hot water, these leaves helped flavour the flat taste of the water they boiled to prevent getting sick. It was not until the 8th century that outsiders discovered it. European Influence: 17th century, the British spread its use by implementing new growing areas such as India. In fact, the English so enjoy their tea that they developed a meal around it called high tea. Tea was originally drunk for its medicinal benefits and it was not until the sixteenth century that it began to be consumed on a more regular basis as a social beverage. The Boston Tea Party and America’s Influence: Tea' taxation in US led to the Boston Tea Party, one of the issues that triggered the War of Independence. Americans further influenced tea use both by inventing tea bags and by starting the practice of drinking iced tea at the St. Louis Worlds Fair in 1904. The Modern Tea Market: produced now more than 25 countries, main tea producing countries are China, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. The worldwide interest in tea in growing, it is regarded as a healthy beverage which also aids relaxation and stimulates the central nervous system. Speciality tea shops are popping up in every city and teas now have their own page on the after-dinner menus in most restaurants. Tea tree is evergreen yields tea leaves after about 3 years of growth. It then may yield for 25 to 50 years depending on growing conditions. The leaves are hand-plucked from new shoots and about 6000 leaves are needed to make 1lb of manufactured tea. Depending on plant cultivar, climate, soil, and cultivation practices, there are about 1500 slightly different kinds of tea leaves, these can be further modified in processing and contribute to differences in the final brew. Tea Leaves contain three important kinds of constituents that affect brew quality, caffeine, which tea its stimulating effect, tannins and related compounds, which contribute colour and strength, often associated with the term of body and astringency, and essential oils, which provide flavour and aroma.

17 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Tea [ Types of Tea – Methods of Processing ] The three major classes of teas, green, black and oolong. These three types can be made from the same tea leaves, depending on how the leaf is processed. The following is a more detailed breakdown of the main types of tea and their methods of processing; White tea: this is the least processed, the best white teas come from leaves picked before the buds have opened, while they are still covered with silky white hairs. White teas are delicate, with sweet, gentle, grassy aromas and fruity notes. Green tea: slightly more processed than white tea, it is dried, or fired, as soon as it is picked in order to minimize oxidation (which increases caffeine levels), to retain freshness and to preserve high levels of polyphenols, powerful antioxidants that boost the immune system and help to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain forms of cancer, as the name implies, green teas have a grassy, vegetal quality. Oolong teas: the most varied and most interesting, after the leaves are picked, they are gently rolled so that they slowly oxidize, which darkens them and adds layers of complexity, Oolongs can range from the lovely aromas of lilac and orange blossom and sweet flavours to dark, nutty aromas and full flavours. Black tea: known as red tea in China, this is the most recognizable tea, its colour is a result of complete oxidation, which gives it a more robust flavour, typically consumed without accompaniments. Darjeeling: a black tea from northern India, can be quite ordinary or remarkably complex, depending on where it is grown and when it is harvested. Pu-erh tea: comes from the province of Yunnan in southern China, the tea is usually inoculated with a bacteria and aged, sometimes as long as 50 years. Can cost upward of €1,000 per pound, earthy, slightly smoky, strong and tannic (or bitter). Infused teas: teas infused with botanicals, fruits and other flavours, everything from mango and raspberry to Moroccan mint.

18 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Tea [ Brewing, Storing and Purchasing Tea ] Brewing tea: This involves getting the amount of tea, the water temperature and the steeping time just right. Light, airy tea such as white tea requires two heaping teaspoons for an 8-once cup. Stronger, more densely packed black teas, use a level teaspoon. White and many green teas should be brewed well below the boiling point, 160 to180 degrees Fahrenheit. The stronger and darker the tea, the closer to the boiling point the water should be. Lighter teas steep longer (3 to 5 minutes) than black teas (2 to 3 minutes). Lighter teas may also keep their flavour through multiple steepings. Black teas lose their flavour and much of their caffeine after one or two steepings, although the taste of Pu-erh can last for several servings. Brewing other teas: Indian or Ceylon Blend: usually made in either china or metal teapots. Both are offered with milk or sugar. Russian or Lemon tea: Made similar to china tea served in heat resistant glasses which stand in a silver holder, with a slice of lemon. Ices tea: made strong, sometimes strained and always chilled. Served in a tumbler glass on a side plate with a teaspoon and lemon slice. Speciality Teas: Assam: rich full and malty flavoured tea, suitable for breakfast, served with milk. Darjeeling: the Champagne of teas, delicate tea with a light grape flavour, served in the afternoon or evening with lemon or milk. Earl Grey: blend of Darjeeling and China tea, flavoured with oil of Bergamot. Served with lemon or milk. Jasmine: green (un-oxidised) tea, which is dried with Jasmine Blossom and produces a tea with a fragrant and scented flavour. Kenya: consistent and refreshing tea, served with milk. Lapsang Souchong: a smoky, pungent and perfumed tea, delicate to the palate, which may be said to be an acquired taste. Served with lemon. Sri Lanka: pale golden tea, good flavour. The Ceylon blend is still used as a trade name. Served with lemon or milk. Tisanes: Tisanes are fruit flavoured teas and herbal infusions, which are often used for medicinal purposes. Storage and Service Pre-heat teapots and cups with hot boiling water (which is discarded) prior to service. Store good tea in an airtight, lightproof container in a cool well ventilated area, away from excess moisture and away from strong odours.

19 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9.9 Coffee
Coffee cultivation began in the area of Caffa in Abyssinia around 1000 years ago. From there it spread through Arabia, Turkey and other Islamic countries. It was brought into Europe by trading companies and a few centuries later it was transported across the oceans into the newly discovered world. The Coffee Bean Growing and harvesting: The coffee tree is an evergreen plant which can grow to a height of 12 metres in the case of the 'Robust' variety and 5-6 metres in the case of the Arabica'variety. However in order to make crops easier to harvest it is normal in plantations to restrict the height to 3-5 metres. Coffee plants start yielding crops around 3-5 years after being planted and can go on giving good beans for around 15 years. Harvesting is carried out by means of automatic pickers consisting of vibrating rods which detach the beans from the trees as they move along the rows of plants. Quality and production: Coffee qualities are largely dependant on the country of production which are many and widespread. Some of the major ones are Brazil, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Arabia, Kenya, Tanzania and Abyssinia. Coffee Arabica and Coffee Camephora - also known as Robusta. The Arabica bean is generally considered to be the best, The less valued seed of the Robust variety gives a lighter, thinner drink, which is said to have a rather wooden taste. Processing methods: The coffee beans, which are gathered whilst still green undergo various processes such as (stripping (removing the parchment and pulp from the beans), fermentation or maceration (24 to 40 hours), washing, maturing (in the sun), husking, sifting, weighting and grading, roasting, mixing, grinding, packaging) Roasting (toasting): Good quality coffee is due also to the right blend of different qualities of beans and to the roasting. Correct roasting should give a uniform colour, the most common levels are; Light or pale: suitable for the mild beans to retain their delicate aroma. Medium: gives a stronger flavour, often used for coffees with a well defined character. Full: in common use in many Latin countries, slightly bitter flavour.

20 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Coffee (continued) [ Roasting Levels of Coffee ]

21 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Coffee (continued) [ Methods of Preparing Coffee ] Further information: Chapter 9 – pp ) Filter method: Finely ground coffee is placed in a filter, usually made of paper, boiling water is poured over it passing through the coffee by gravity. The grinding grade for this method is fine to medium. Percolation method: Boiling water, pushed by steam percolates continuously through the ground coffee which is situated in a metallic filter in the upper half of the coffee pot. The grinding grade for this method is medium. Moka or Italian method; Comprised of three pieces, the lower section or boiler, this incorporates a safety valve that also serves as a water gauge. A funnel shaped filter which contains the ground coffee and the upper section which contains the prepared beverage. As the water heats in the lower section the steam produced generates pressure which pushes the water upward through the funnel to the coffee and extraction takes place under light pressure, the resultant beverage carries on up the internal tube into the upper chamber. The water is in contact with the ground coffee for around 30 seconds and the extraction is between 20% and 25%. The grinding grade for this method is medium. Cona or vacuum infusion method: Similar to the percolator method. The Cona can be heated with gas, electricity or spirit lamp. The grinding grade for this method is medium fine to fine. Cafetiere method: A toughened glass container, housed in a metal holder with a handle and with a metal lid with a plunger fitted through it and with a metal filter fitted to the plunger. The grinding grade for this method is medium to medium fine. Turkish or Greek coffee: The water is boiled in a tin lined copper pot, the very finely ground coffee is poured without interruption to the boiling process into the water. Coffee produced by this method is very strong and very full flavoured. The grinding grade for this method is pulverised. Neapolitan coffee machine method: Consists of two parts, the bottom is filled with water, coarsely ground coffee is put between two central filters and the upper part is screwed down onto the lower part. The machine is now placed on the heat and when the water starts to boil the machine is turned upside down. The water will dribble through the ground coffee into what is now the lower part, this is fitted with a spout inverted when it was the top half. Grinding grade for this method is medium to coarse. Espresso coffee machine method: extraction method which results in a highly concentrated, intensely aromatic and flavourful coffee. This method requires highly pressurised water at a temperature of 90°C. - 95°C. Contact between the water and the coffee varies from between 25 to 35 seconds. The volume of beverage per cup is around 20cc to 35cc. This method requires that the beverage is prepared (individually) on demand.

22 Characteristics of Espresso coffee
Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Coffee [ Espresso, Types of Coffee, Coffee Tasting & Selecting House Brands ] Characteristics of Espresso coffee Body: The quality of espresso coffee is due to the presence of tiny drops of oil and very fine particles of ground coffee which are extracted by the water. In addition the extracted substances are very much greater than in other methods, around 25% compared to 17% for filter coffees. Cream or Foam: The 'cream' which floats on the top of the espresso coffee is fairly dense and is formed by the dispersion of oils contained in the beverage together with minute bubbles of air. Aroma: The aroma is created by ultra light volatile substances which are diffused in the air and are detected by the bodies olfactory organs. Espresso is a kind of invigorating elixir with superb digestive properties, best suited for drinking after eating. Types of Coffee Americano (Caffe Americano): sometimes referred to as a black coffee (preparation chapter 9 – p. 292). Cappucchino: espresso with warm milk (preparation chapter 9 – p. 292). Latte Coffee: white coffee (preparation Chapter 9 – pp ). Café Macchiato: layered coffee (preparation Chapter 9 – p. 293). Flavoured Macchiato’s: Macchiato made with flavoured syrup - Hazelnut, caramel, mint, chocolate, (preparation chapter 9 – pp ). Coffee tasting sessions, selecting your house brands Holding tasting sessions before selecting the house style. Coffee companies can assist you in this selection based on your clientele and market. Coffee culture, coffee appreciation: consider holding some coffee training sessions for customers, Sparkling water: served on the side of coffee, when sipped before coffee, water allows the palate to cancel out or tone down the gustative sensations which may alter or undermine the full appreciation of coffee’s gustative-aromatic qualities.

23 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks 9.10 Hot chocolate
Considered a comfort food and consumed in many parts of the world. Hot chocolate (also known as hot cocoa) ‘is a heated beverage typically consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water and sugar‘ (Grivetti & Shapiro, 2009). Drinking chocolate: simliar to hot chocolate but is made from melted chocolate shavings or paste rather than a powdered mix that is soluble in water, not as sweet as hot chocolate. The major difference: Between hot cocoa and hot chocolate is the cocoa butter, the absence of which makes hot cocoa significantly lower in fat than hot chocolate while still preserving all the antioxidants found in chocolate (Science News, 2013). Hot chocolate preparation and service: made with dark, semisweet or bittersweet chocolate chopped into small pieces stirred into milk with sugar. In USA instant hot cacao powder often includes powered milk or other dairy ingredients. In UK hot chocolate is a sweet chocolate drink made with hot milk or water and chocolate powder. Cocoa (drink made with just hot milk and cocoa powder, sweetened to taste). Preparing hot chocolate using powder: 12oz cup add 28 grams of powder chocolate, add 15ml boiling water and whisk (or fold) to a smooth paste, exposing the cocoa oils fully (don’t be aggressive). Add freshly steamed milk at 70c. Adapt the flavour and strength (as appropriate) but don’t skimp on the measures. Characteristics of a good hot chocolate drink: the colour is dark (chocolate coloured) taste is of good strong cocoa product (correct quantity of chocolate was used). The mix is perfect, with no residue of solids in suspension, temperature is correct, final presentation technique includes a nice bisquit and maybe some latte art. Belgium: warme chocolade or chocolat chaud (you receive cup of steamed white milk and a small bowl of bittersweet chocolate chips to dissolve in the milk. Rich hot chocolate is often served in demitasse cups. France: served at breakfast time with sliced bread butter, jam, honey, or nutella for dunking into the hot chocolate. Special brands formulated for breakfast time include ‘Banania’. Germany: variations, usually thick and heavy. Holland: known as chocolademelk often served at home or at cafes. Spain and Italy: sometimes served very thick due to the use of thickening agent such as corn starch. Mexico: popular national drink, includes semi-sweet chocolate, cinnamon, sugar and vanilla. Cinnamon hot chocolate is tradtionally served with Mexican pastries (Pan Dulce or with churros). Hot chocolate and churros is also tradtional working man’s breakfast in Spain.

24 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks Conclusion / Summary
Juices, soft drinks and waters offer us refreshment, they quench our thirst, their richness of taste and varieties of flavours have contributed to the reasons why these beverages are universally enjoyed by people of all ages, irrespective of age, gender or class. In recent years bars around the world have noticed an increasing frequency amongst their clientele in opting for beverages other than beer, wine and spirits. This change in consumption presents a huge opportunity for bars to capitalize if they can rigorously overhaul their current juice, soft drinks and water offerings in relation to their overall business and re-position these beverages to their best advantage individually, within cocktails or throughout the meal experience. It is time to reclaim the some of the business lost to locations like juice bars and cafes who have been very quick to target these beverages with great levels of business success. The major brands will continue to introduce new flavours, product extensions and an emphasis on healthy and natural origins to maintain their market share. The challenge for bars is to work closely with these companies in continuing to meet our customers changing demands and tastes. The special flavours of Tea, Coffee and Chocolate depends primarily on the variety, method, and location where the beans or tea were grown, as well as how they were harvested, processed. The production of good quality coffee also depends on the roasting levels adopted which can range from light or pale (ideal for mild beans to retain their delicate aroma) to full (creates a slightly bitter flavour favoured in Latin countries). The methods used to prepare coffee will deliver different characteristics depending on the following extraction methods (filter, percolation, Moka or Italian, Cona or Vacuum infusion, cafetiere, Turkish or Greek, Neapolitan and Espresso). The three major classes of teas are green, black and oolong. These three types can be made from the same tea leaves, depending on how the leaf is processed. For the health conscious tea and coffee deliver different levels of caffeine, these levels are dependent on the method utilised to prepare these beverages, so we must be careful of our regular intake of these beverages. Teas and Coffees are convivial beverages greatly enjoyed in the bar or at the end of a meal in the restaurant. Their unique taste is that as a beverage is what customers continue to savour even after they have left your bar or restaurant. Particular care must be given to the proposal, preparation and service of these ancient drinks.

25 Lesson 9: Non-alcoholic drinks References
Ashurst, P.R. (1995) Products and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages, 2nd edn, Blackie Academic Professional Pub. Datamonitor, Canadean. (2012) Juices and Soft Drink, available: [accessed 6/5/2012]. Dartmouth Medical school (2012) Why We Don’t Need to Drink 8 Glasses of Water A Day, available [accessed 12/4/12]. European Communities (2003) Marketing of Fruit Juices and Certain Similar Products Regulations: EU. FDA - 1 (2012). Regulations of Bottles Waters, Available: [accessed 5/5/2012]. Kummer, C.(2003) The joy of coffee : the essential guide to buying, brewing, and enjoying. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Moxham, R. (2003) Tea: addition exploitation and empire, Constable Publishing: UK. Mitchell, J. (1990) Formulation and Production of Carbonated Soft Drinks, Blackie Pub, Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York. Murphy, J. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management, Goodfellow Publishing Ltd, Oxford: England. Pendergrast, M. (2001) Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World, Texere: London. Wine Spectator (2005). ‘Coffee and Tea’, 30th September 2005. Water Codex II (nd) The San Pellegrino and Aqcua Panna Water - Codex II, : Italy. Web resources Drip free tea (Dr. Martin Almond’s tea tool) Specialty coffee association. Cardinal Company. Portable Soft drink bars Natural Mineral Waters in the EU

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