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Brief! Organic Chemistry for AP. Alkanes Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bondsHydrocarbon chains where all the bonds.

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Presentation on theme: "Brief! Organic Chemistry for AP. Alkanes Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bondsHydrocarbon chains where all the bonds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brief! Organic Chemistry for AP

2 Alkanes Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bondsHydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Name uses the ending –aneName uses the ending –ane Examples: Methane, Propane, Butane, Octane, 2-methylpentaneExamples: Methane, Propane, Butane, Octane, 2-methylpentane

3 Prefixes for # of Carbons 1Meth6Hex 2Eth7Hept 3Prop8Oct 4But9Non 5Pent10Dec

4 Endings Alkanes (all C-C single bonded parent chain) end in –aneAlkanes (all C-C single bonded parent chain) end in –ane –Methane CH 4 –Ethane C 2 H 6 –Propane C 3 H 8 Attached carbon groups (substituents) end in –ylAttached carbon groups (substituents) end in –yl –Methyl CH 3 - –Ethyl CH 3 CH 2 - –Propyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 – –Propyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 – 3-ethylpentane

5 Names of attached groups Carbon (alkyl) groupsCarbon (alkyl) groups –Methyl CH 3 - –Ethyl CH 3 CH 2 - –Propyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 – HalogensHalogens –Fluoro (F-) –Chloro (Cl-) –Bromo (Br-) –Iodo (I-)

6 Designate the Location Designate the location (number of the carbon on the parent chain) for each attached group methyl

7 Some Simple Alkanes 2-methylpentane2-methylpentane 3-ethylhexane3-ethylhexane 2,2-dimethylbutane2,2-dimethylbutane 2,3-dimethylbutane2,3-dimethylbutane

8 Structural Formulas Lazy way to write the Hydrogens Instead of drawing the bonds, just state how many hydrogens are attached NOTE: The bonds are between CARBONS in a parent chain, and not hydrogens! Structural Formula Lewis Structure

9 Drawing and Naming Cycloalkanes Cycloalkanes are represented by polygons. A triangle represents cyclopropane, a square represents cyclobutane, a pentagon represents cyclopentane, and so on.

10 Isomers Straight chain alkanes: An alkane that has all its carbons connected in a row. Straight chain alkanes: An alkane that has all its carbons connected in a row. Branched chain alkanes: An alkane that has a branching connection of carbons. Branched chain alkanes: An alkane that has a branching connection of carbons. Isomers: Compounds with same molecular formula but different structures. Isomers: Compounds with same molecular formula but different structures.

11 However, carbons in butane (C 4 H 10 ) can be arranged in two ways; four carbons in a row (linear alkane) or a branching (branched alkane). These two structures are two isomers for butane.

12 Different isomers are completely different compounds. They have different structures, different physical properties such as melting point and boiling point, and may have different physiological properties.Different isomers are completely different compounds. They have different structures, different physical properties such as melting point and boiling point, and may have different physiological properties.

13 Learning Check Draw all possible structural isomers of C 5 H 12

14 Alkenes and Alkynes Unsaturated –contain carbon-carbon double and triple bond to which more hydrogen atoms can be added. Alkenes: carbon-carbon double bonds Alkynes: carbon-carbon triple bonds.

15 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes When the carbon chain has 4 or more C atoms, number the chain to give the lowest number to the double or triple bond CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 3 1-butene CH 3 CH=CHCH 3 2-butene CH 3 C CCH 3 2-butyne

16 Aromatic Compounds and Benzene Aromatic compounds contain benzene. Benzene, C 6 H 6, is represented as a six carbon ring with 3 double bonds. Two possible resonance structures can be drawn to show benzene in this form.

17 Functional Groups


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