Presentation on theme: "Compounds composed mainly of Carbon and Hydrogen. Carbon takes on a -4 charge with Hydrogen being a +4. H-C-H H H."— Presentation transcript:
Compounds composed mainly of Carbon and Hydrogen. Carbon takes on a -4 charge with Hydrogen being a +4. H-C-H H H
In anything that is/was
Carbon can chemical bond with another Carbon, which is a very unusual capability! Carbon can make long chains of carbon atoms “hooked” together. H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H H H H HHHHHHHH
Notice that each Carbon has FOUR lines surrounding it. Each lines represents one pair of shared electrons, one from the carbon atom and one from the hydrogen atom. Carbon has an s 2 p 2 electron configuration.
Carbon Chains are found in nature in many different arrangements………. Some are straight chains …….. H- C - C - C - C - H H H Some are BRANCHED….. H H H H - C - C - C - H C H H HH
C C C C H H H H HH H H H H H H Some are in rings…….
Are NAMED by the type of bond between the Carbons: Carbons can share MULTIPLE number of electrons BETWEEN each atom…….. C DOUBLE BOND
Straight and Branched carbons with ONLY single bonds between the carbons. *Named with prefixes and suffixes Suffix name = ane (ending) Prefix name ?…………………...
Prefixes : 1 carbon meth 8 carbons oct 2 carbons eth 9 carbons non 3 carbons prop 10 carbons dec 4 carbons but 5 carbons pent 6 carbons hex 7 carbons hept
So ….. Methane is Ethane is Propane is
Carbon compounds with single bonds that are arranged in a circle (cycle). H - C C -H Cyclobutane H H H H
Carbon compounds with a double bond between one or more carbons. H - C = C - C - H HHH H Propene
Write Structure for: 2-pentene 2,3-pentadiene
Naming Hints Count from either left or right of compound, that will give the double bond the LOWEST number. Assign number to the double bond. Place numbers in front of compound name, separating using commas. Place a hyphen between numbers and name. Add a numerical prefix BEFORE the ending suffix.
Carbon compounds with a triple bond! H - C = C - C- H Propyne H H
Draw Structure for 2-pentyne 1,3-hexadiyne
“ringed” hydrocarbons that MUST contain alternating double bonds C H - C C - H C H H BENZENE Not named with prefixes!
Most of the time, the letters are not written in aromatic structures: A carbon is present at each point BENZENE
Alternating double bonds form SPECIAL arrangements called a PI bond. That is written as a circle…... BENZENE BENZENE
Two “benzenes” stuck together is a NEW compound……... Naphthalene
The way to name a hydrocarbon
Steps to naming a carbon compound… Find the longest chain of connected Carbons! 2. Decide on the prefix by the carbon # 3. Decide the suffix by looking at the kind of bonds between the carbons 4. Circle any branches or special groups
5. Name each branch, separately. Add -yl to ending of prefix. One carbon in branch = methyl prefix 6. Place the branch names IN FRONT of the prefix, having the least complex written FIRST !!!!! 7. Assign numbers to the branches, having the lowest total possible.
Look at examples on the Handout!
Isomers are hydrocarbon compounds that have the SAME empirical formula but DIFFERENT structures!
Easiest Isomer is Butane and iso-butane (isomer of butane) C-C-C-C Butane ( no H’s) C-C-C C Methylpropane or Iso-butane C 4 H 10
There may be several isomers that can be written for one formula! Try writing some isomers for pentane……….
C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C-C C C-C-C C Pentane methylbutane Dimethylpropane C 5 H 12
What are these structures isomers of ? C-C-C-C-C-C C C C C C C-C-C-C-C-C-C Octane Decane
A. Hydrocarbons with a Halogen ( family 17) B. Hydrocarbons with Oxygen: 1. Alcohols 2. Ethers 3. Aldehydes 4. Ketones 5. Acids 6. Esters
C. Hydrocarbons with Nitrogen: 1. Amines 2. Amides 3. Amino Acids 4. Nitriles 5. Nitro compounds
Remove a hydrogen and replace it with chlorine, flourine, iodine or bromine. H Cl-C-Cl Cl methane H H-C-Br H Trichloromethane H H-C-H H bromomethane
General Formula = R-OH NOT a Base! OH is a hydroxyl group, not a Hydroxide group. The Hydrogen gets removed only by strong metals. Alcohols with 1,2, and 3 Carbons dissolve in water, others do NOT.