5What Is Tango Classical music you can dance to A sad thought that can be dancedA vertical expression of a horizontal desireCouple’s dancing where contact isn’t broken and hips are not shakenThe only Latin music without drums
6Argentine Melting Pot Much like the US, but Spanish speaking Founded by Spanish in 1500sCountry of immigrants.Most Argentines have Italian namesMost Argentines claim to have one cousin in New York and one in Italy (it’s a joke!)Slavery was not a huge economic factor, so much less African influence.
7The Origins of Tango Cuban “Habanera” Italian Opera & Neapolitan Songs Eastern European PolkaSpanish Guitar
8Tangos first appeared in Brothels Buenos Aires had twice as many men as women in the 1890sBars and Brothels were social spots for working class menTaxi dancing for a TandaMen would dance with each other while waiting for womenNeedless to say, tango was looked down upon by polite society
9La Guardia Vieja (Old Guard) Quartets of Flute, Guitar, Bando & ViolinPianos and basses added much laterA-B-A-Trio form, just like a march or ragtimeFirpo, Maglio, Berdi, Orquesta Tipica VictorHere is “Sabado Ingles” (English Saturday)Juan “Pacho” Maglio, 1917
10Tango goes to Paris Right after WW1, Tango takes Europe by Storm Huge fad that remains to this dayAll of a sudden, Tango becomes “respectable” in Buenos AiresFinnish Tango starts at this time but diverges over the 20th Century
11Canaro en ParisFrancisco Canaro took his band to Paris and became superstars.When the Scarpino brothers heard about this, they wrote “Canaro en Paris” to celebrate
12Warning: In 1917, Pope Benedict XV Condemned the Tango, calling it immoral and lascivious. Your mileage may vary.
13Garlos Gardel Born 1887 Either in France or Uruguay Do not mention France to an Uruguyan. The French don’t really care, though.One of the first Latin mega-recording starsFirst Latin matinee idolKilled in a plane crash in Medellln, Columbia in 1935They say he sounds better every day
14Gardel’s grave is always tended and he usually has a lit cigarette in his hand Here is “Mi Buenos Aires querido”
15Epoca de Oro (Golden Age) (Roughly)When someone says they dance “Argentine Tango”, this is what they meanOrquesta Tipica: 4 Bandos, 4 Violins, Bass, Piano and a Singer.3-4 minutes.Singer starts half way though.Chan-chan at the endBahia Blanca by Carlos DiSarliGarua by Anibal Troilo
16Transitional PeriodAfter WW2, Argentina was very rich from selling food (mostly beef) to EuropePolitical instabilityJuan and Eva (Evita) PeronTango became more complex and more for listeningOsvaldo Pugliese: La Yumba
17Astor Piazzolla and the New Tango Born in Mar del Plata in 1921Moved to New York when he was 5Spoke better English than Spanish!NY Errand Boy for GardelCameo in “Rubias de Nueva York”
18Astor Piazzolla, cont. Moved to Paris to study classical composition Moved back to Buenos Aires and started playing tango his wayMerged Tango, Classical and Jazz.Dancers and traditionalists hated itNow a national heroMost played classical composer of second half of 20th. century“Muerte del Angel”
19Near Death Experience of Tango Went out of fashionUrban vs. Rural tension w/ JuntasRock and FolkloricoIn BsAs, there are many more places to dance Salsa than TangoTango became a listening genreDramatic singers and big orchestras“Tango for Export”
20Rebirth of Tango End of military Juntas in 1982 Luis Bravo’s “Forever Tango” in 1985 popularized it in Europe and N. AmericaPopularity of PiazzollaCollapse of Argentine economyTourismDanced all over the planet. Extremely popular in France, Finland, Germany, Turkey, and JapanAbout 300 tango dancers in Mpls.Check out mntango.com to learn more
25Telling Tango from Vals from Milonga Vals is easy: Can you say Oom-pah-pah to the beat (i.e. count 1-2-3, 1-2-3…)Milonga: Can you say “Pan y Vino” (“Bread and wine”)? Is the beat a bit fast to walk? You can say “Bread and Chocolate” in English.Tango: Walking tempo. Count Not a vals or milonga.(except with drums, electronic instruments or live music)
30A band will put different weights on different beats. This is “En 4” 1324
31If you have 4 beats and play them with the same weight, 3 of them will be wrong 1234
32This is “En 2”. Note how there is just the slightest hint of 2 & 4 1324
33This is the opposite of Rock and Swing! 2413A heavy 2 & 4 is called a “Backbeat” and does not exist in tango.Hips should not sway with the music.Example: “Hit the Road, Jack”
34Tangos mix up “En Dos” and “En Quattro” 123412123412
35To subdivide a beat, musicians say “and”: 1234&&&&
36A Sincopa (syncopation) is when the accent shifts by ½ beat A Sincopa (syncopation) is when the accent shifts by ½ beat. Notice that there is no 2nd or 4th beat.13&This can be used to go from parallel to cross system!
37A Sincopa can be used to move between beats 123413&1213&
38A series of bars will end with a “Chan-chan” 1234123412341CHANWe will spend a lot of time learning to stop on these beats
39An “arrastre” (drag) is sometimes used to accent the first beat of a bar (but not in every bar!) It can sound like a growl12341&1324Here is an example of a break in the music. This pause is like storing up potential energy that the arrastre can be used to dissipate
41Phrasing Basic building blocks of musical form Traditionally, a phrase is how much a person can sing on one breath.Usually 4 barsPhrases can leave you in the air (Antecedent)Phrases can ground you (Consequent)In Tango a “Chan-chan” ends each Consequent phrase
42Antecedent (Lifting) and Consequent (Grounding) Phrases Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound!AntecedentThat saved a wretch like meAntecedentI once was lost, but now I’m foundAntecedentStopWas blind, but now I seeConsequent
43Benjamin Zander on Phrasing From his 2010 TED talk, “The Transcormative Power of Classical Music”
44Windows are the spaces between phrases. Some windows pause time. At the end of an antecedant. A good place for a showy figure or a dramatic pauseSome windows mark time: the end of a consequent phrase. A good place to collect your feet and relax for a split second.Windows are a place where a solo instrument can fill in or the orchestra can leave a space for the dancer’s imaginationAs an exercise, listen for windows in every tango you hear. Shout out if you hear one!
46Tango Form Several phrases together make a section A section has a “Chan-chan” at the end.Each section will have a different affectSections are usually called “A” and “B” and “Trio”If one section is major (happy) the next one will be minor (sad)You should dance each section distinctly.AntecedentConsequent
47Rhythmic vs. LyricalMurat Erdemsel’s big thing: bouba vs. kiki
48Rhythmic vs. Lyrical Tango is always somewhere on this continuum. Easy to hear, but takes a long time to learn to dance to it.Lois will talk a lot about this in her part later.
49More Structure In BsAs, no one dances at the start of a song. Folks stand around and flirt (dar priopos) for 30 seconds or soThe band can play an intro (top) that is out of rhythmThe coda (tail) usually restates a main theme.Many instrumental Tangos end with a bandoneon variacionVocal tangos often have the singer drop out and come back in. The return of the singing is your 40-second warning!
50Applying Structure to Dance Psychological theory that states that people best remember the first few items and the last few items in a list. (Primacy and Recency)Allevare: the first move in a tango. Make it count! Make it with authority and gravitas!Buena Pinatura: paint a “good picture” with your last move. Followers dig it when the leader ends on the last beatMost likely to forget stuff in the middle. Save your crappy moves for here.
52Form Carlos DiSarli’s Bahia Blanca AntecedentConsequentB:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentA:AntecedentConsequentB:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentA:AntecedentConsequent
53Example 2: Juan D’Arienzo’s version of Canaro en Paris
54Form of D’arienzo’s Canaro en Paris Intro / BridgeA:AntecedentConsequentB:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentIntro / BridgeA:AntecedentConsequentC:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentIntro / BridgeA:AntecedentConsequentC:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentWith a fast variation in the Bandoneons
55Example 3: Anibal Troilo’s Garua Sung by Fiorentino
56Form of Troilo’s Garua A: B: A: B: B: Antecedent Antecedent Consequent-ishAntecedentConsequentB:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentA:AntecedentAntecedentConsequent-ishAntecedentConsequentB:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentB:AntecedentAntecedentAntecedentConsequentSung by Fiorentino