SPACE SIZE: large, small LEVEL: high, mid-level, low SHAPE: curved, straight DIRECTIONS: forward, backward, sideways, diagonal, upward, downward PATHWAY: straight, curved, circular, zig-zag RELATIONSHIPS: near, apart FOCUS: a central point or focus of attention; can be single or multiple
TIME SPEED OR TEMPO: slow, fast, acceleration, deceleration BEAT: pulse (steady, accented or irregular)
FORCE The use of energy while moving CHOREOGRAPH: To compose a dance CHOREOGRAPHY: The art of arranging dances CONTRAST: Difference between related things TRANSITION: Passing from one action or place to another PARTS OF EVERY DANCE: A beginning shape, middle movements, a final shape
FORCE, continued NON-LOCOMOTOR or AXIAL MOVEMENT IN PLACE Stretch, contract, turn, bend, balance, twist, shake, gesture, push, pull, rise, fall, dodge, sway LOCOMOTOR MOVEMENT FROM PLACE TO PLACE-TRAVELS Jump, hop, skip, walk, run, slide, leap, roll, crawl, gallop
PURPOSES OF DANCE CEREMONIAL: Of, relating to, or forming a ceremony: Celebration, Initiation, Hunting, Religious RECREATIONAL: Way of refreshing mind or body: Folk, Social ARTISTIC: Characteristic of art or artists, showing skill and imagination, for an audience, expresses thoughts or feelings; Ballet, Jazz
COMPOSITIONAL FORMS AB: perform one movement phrase or theme followed by a different movement phrase or theme; ABA: Perform one movement phrase or theme followed by a different movement phrase or theme, followed then by a repetition of the first movement phrase or theme; CALL AND RESPONSE: A caller verbally directs the actions to be performed and the dancers respond by doing the action, or the music calls out and dancers react or a voice calls out and voices respond or dancers initiate and music responds. Often associated with African music and dance but also used elsewhere.
COLONIAL AMERICAN DANCE European origin Wealthy learned from Dancing Masters, others from imitating; Posture – upright, straight, light Mostly feet moving Often in two lines facing. Men and women together. Non-democratic. Top couple most important Most Recreational purpose A later dance KERA calls Colonial: Virginia Reel Music: fiddle, flute, sometimes piano. Occasional voice as music.
NATIVE AMERICAN DANCE Grounded (low level) – respecting Earth Learned from community or elders Posture – knees bent. Upper body sometimes upright, sometimes bent over. Mostly feet moving Mostly Ceremonial purpose (today also Artistic and Recreational) Themes of nature, animals, spirits, initiation, hunting, life cycle events Call and Response: dancer responds to drum sounds Music – drums, rattles, voice. Traditionally flute only for courting Often in a circle Often women only or men only – different movements for each gender Women’s dances have meanings Men’s dances tell stories Examples: Friendship Dance, Round Dance, Bear Dance
WEST AFRICAN DANCE Grounded (low level) – respecting Earth, occasional leaps Learned from community Posture – bent knees, many body parts move in isolation to different rhythms at the same time. Often flat, bare feet Mostly Ceremonial purpose. But could be Artistic for dancing before the Chief or King or could be Recreational. Themes of nature, animals, spirits, initiation, life cycle events, work Movements sharp, energetic, strong, big, free flow. Although often low, can be high. Call and Response: dancer responds to drum sounds, sometimes drum responds to dancer, voices respond to each other. Dancers play the drum sounds with their bodies. Music – drums, rattles, gourds, percussion voice. Often fast, use of pulse, pattern, breath Often in a circle or line following a circular path with musicians in the center Sometimes tell stories through a dance Often women only or men only – different movements for each gender All dancers equal, but with a chance to solo supported by the community