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Artistic and Literature in Spanish America The history of tango Dra. Patricia Nigro.

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Presentation on theme: "Artistic and Literature in Spanish America The history of tango Dra. Patricia Nigro."— Presentation transcript:

1 Artistic and Literature in Spanish America The history of tango Dra. Patricia Nigro

2 The history of tango Stylistic origins Candombe, Vals criollo, European styles, including polka, milonga, habanera, flamenco, mazurka, contradanse Cultural origins Late 19th century, in Buenos Aires and Montevideo Typical instruments Violin, piano, guitar, flute and bandoneon Mainstream popularity Major, became a craze in Europe and North America in 1930s and 40s

3 The history of tango Subgenres Neotango – Tango-canción Fusion genres Tango-rock Regional scenes Dodompa (Japanese tango) – Easter Island

4 The history of tango It is traditionally played by a sextet, known as the orquesta típica, which includes two violins, piano, doublebass, and two bandoneons. Earlier forms of this ensemble sometimes included flute, clarinet and guitar. Tango music may be purely instrumental or may include a vocalist.

5 The history of tango It was developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid 19th century. The first Tango ever recorded was made by Angel Villoldo and played by the French national guard in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris because in Argentina at the time there was no recording studio.

6 The history of tango –Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires. The first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja" (the Old Guard). By the end of the 19th century, this blend of salon, European and African music was heard throughout metropolitan Buenos Aires. It took time to move into wider circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women (in 1914).

7 The history of tango –The tango was associated with the underclass, and the better-off Argentines tried to restrict its influence. In spite of the scorn, some, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. –Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of the tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, and wrote a poem ("Tango") which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts".

8 The history of tango

9 One song that would become the most widely known of all tango melodies also dates from this time. The first two sections of “La Cumparsita” were composed as a march instrumental in 1917 by then 17-year-old Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. The history of tango

10 1920s and 1930s, Carlos Gardel, perpetual symbol of the tango. Tango soon began to gain popularity in Europe, beginning in France. Superstar Carlos Gardel soon became a sex symbol who brought the tango to new audiences, especially in the United States, due to his sensual depictions of the dance on film. Carlos Gardel became especially associated with the transition from a lower-class "gangster" music to a respectable middle- class dance. He helped develop tango-canción in the 1920s and became one of the most popular tango artists of all time. He was also one of the precursors of the Golden Age of tango. The history of tango

11 Gardel's death was followed by a division into movements within tango. Evolutionists like Aníbal Troilo and Carlos di Sarli were opposed to traditionalists like Rodolfo Biagi and Juan D'Arienzo.

12 The "Golden Age" of tango music and dance is generally agreed to have been the period from about 1935 to 1952, roughly contemporaneous with the big band era in the United States. Some of the many popular and influential orchestras included the orchestras of Juan D'Arienzo, Francisco Canaro, and Aníbal Troilo. D'Arienzo was called the "Rey del compás" or "King of the beat" for the insistent, driving rhythm which can be heard on many of his recordings. "El flete" is an excellent example of D'Arienzo's approach. Canaro's early milongas are generally the slowest and easiest to dance to; and for that reason, they are the most frequently played at tango dances (milongas); "Milonga Sentimental" is a classic example. The history of tango

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14 Afterwards, the orchestras of Osvaldo Pugliese and Carlos di Sarli made many recordings. Di Sarli had a lush, grandiose sound, and emphasized strings and piano over the bandoneon, which is heard in "A la gran muñeca" and "Bahía Blanca" (the name of his home town). The history of tango

15 Pugliese's first recordings were not too different from those of other dance orchestras, but he developed a complex, rich, and sometimes discordant sound, which is heard in his signature pieces, "Gallo ciego“ and "La yumba". Pugliese's later music was played for an audience and not intended for dancing, although it is often used for stage choreography for its dramatic potential. The history of tango

16 The later age of tango has been dominated by Ástor Piazzolla, whose “Adiós nonino!” became the most influential work of tango since Carlos Gardel’s “El día que me quieras” was released. During the 1950s, Piazzolla consciously tried to create a more academic form with new sounds breaking the classic forms of tango, earning the derision of purists and old-time performers. The 1970s saw Buenos Aires developing a fusion of jazz and tango. The history of tango

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18 The recent trends can be described as "electro tango" or "tango fusion", where the electronic influences are available in multiple ranges: from very subtle to rather dominant. The history of tango

19 Tango is danced in an embrace that can vary from very open, in which leader and follower connect at arms length, to very closed, in which the connection is chest-to-chest, or anywhere in between. Dancers generally keep their feet close to the floor as they walk, the ankles and knees brushing as one leg passes the other. The government of Argentina does host an annual competition of tango in Buenos Aires, attracting competitors from around the world. The history of tango

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