Presentation on theme: "Latin America, Africa, The Middle East & Asia after WWII"— Presentation transcript:
1Latin America, Africa, The Middle East & Asia after WWII
2I. Latin America Theme: power = corruption, reaction = revolution Third world continent with western social/political structures, economic ties to U.S./EuropeAfter WWII: economic expansion/crisis divided Latin Amer. between revolutionaries and conservativesMexico – Party of Institutionalized Revolution (PRI) controlled Mexican politics for more than half of 20th century – very corruptZapatistas revolt (1994) – intended to highlight neglected social issues2000 – PRI control ended, election of Vincent FoxGuatemala – poor nation, mostly illiterate, high mortality rate, land distributed unequallyJuan Jose Arevalo, later Colonel Jacobo Arbenz, tried to reform based on land reform and nationalization of areas of the economyConflicted with ideas/goals of United Fruit Company and landownersU.S. feared “communist” takeover, sponsored military coup - leads to guerilla resistance movement, brutal military repression on populationCHALLENGE QUESTION!
3I. Continued…Cuba – originally, strong ties to U.S. through trade, later becomes enemyLarge middle class, high literacy and health rates, but huge gap between rural and urban lifeFulgencio Batista ruled Cuba from (as reformer), (as dictator)Opposed by many, including Fidel Castro, who was imprisoned after 1953 attackAfter release, teamed with Argentinean, Ernesto “Che” Guevara, spent two years gaining support against Batista’s governmentWithout support from U.S., Batista was driven from powerCastro bases government on Marxist/Leninist ideasForeign properties expropriated, farms collectivized, socialist economyBacking of Soviet Union (Cuba would have failed without them)Pattern of military takeovers throughout Latin America (often with help from U.S.)Examples: Brazil (1964), Argentina (1966), Chile (1973)1980s – return to civilian control, but with continued U.S. pressure/presenceCHALLENGE QUESTION!
4II. Africa, The Middle East, & Asia Newly independent nations face harsh reality after 1960sHow do you build a prosperous nation after decades/centuries of colonial rule?Ethnic/religious divisions become more pronouncedEconomies still strongly tied to EuropeansPopulation growth/pollution add to problemsNationalist movements made big promises – often couldn’t live upInternal rivalries overshadow independenceIndia: Pakistan and Bangladesh independence due to Muslim/Hindu tensionsPopulation explosionAdded to already huge population in Asia; Africa still rapidly growingColonialism brought new crops, law/order, transportation (prevented regional famines)BUT, Europe limited industrialization – made it difficult to deal with population growthFew jobs, little economic output, many areas still agriculture-based
5II. Continued… Population explosion (continued…) Responses to problems Leads to rapid urbanizationPlanning can’t keep up – rise of slums, poor sanitation, spread of diseaseNegative environmental effects – soil depletion, deforestation, industrial p ollution (no money for antipollution measures)Responses to problemsAfrica – rise of dictatorshipsEducation reforms, industrialization top prioritiesOften faced opposition from rising political parties/ethnic rivalsPolitical leaders increasingly turn to fascist-style policies to squash competitionLittle support from U.S. – policies often looked “socialist”Military takeover common response to problems worldwide – Uganda, Congo, Myanmar (worst examples)
6II. Continued… Responses to problems (continued…) Egypt – not just another coupLed by Gamal Abdul Nassar (1952)Based on Free Officers Movement – secret organization opposed to British-controlled khedivesSelf-rule for first time since 6th centuryLand reforms, state-financed education, gov’t aid for farmers, foreign policy opposed Israel/European control of Suez CanalLack of money, population boom produce reform failures, lose to Israel (Six Day War, 1967)Anwar Sadat forced to dismantle state-run programs, stopped fighting Israel, opened Egypt to U.S./European investmentStill a huge gap between rich and poor today (see modern revolution)India – the same but differentFaced same problems with overpopulation, ethnic/religious divisionsBut, larger industrial/scientific sector, better communications, more skilled middle class
7II. Continued… Responses to problems (continued…) India (continued…) Early leaders/military dedicated to democratic ruleMixture of state and private investment – leads to rapid development in technologyGreen Revolution – improved farming, more crops = more moneyBut problems remainCan’t please everyone – religious/ethnic strife remains through todayHuge portion of population still very poorIran – rise of the theocracy, rejection of the WestNever a colony, but under sphere of western influence1979 revolution, led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, return to religious fundamentalismIslamic law codes become superior – veiling, limited opportunities for womenIsolate themselves from Western influence, wealth based on oil
8EXIT TICKET! Answer the following questions using complete sentences: What common challenges/issues did the people of Latin America face after World War II? (at least 2)Describe at least two “harsh realities” the people of Africa, Middle East, and south Asia faced after World War II.What global problems became prominent after the population explosion of the 20th century?
9CHALLENGE QUESTION!Listen to the following story and answer the questions below, using complete sentences:What specific issues are at stake in Mexico, according the Zapatista leader, Subcommandante Marcos?What group of people do the Zapatistas seemed to be most concerned about, regarding rights?BACK
10CHALLENGE QUESTION!Take 4-5 minutes to read your assigned primary source text (pgs ) and discuss the two questions at the end with your assigned partner. Answer using complete sentences.BACK