Topics What is electricity? Energy Conversion The Faraday Effect Motor vs. Generator AC/DC Energy Trends - the case for Green What is electricity? Energy Conversion The Faraday Effect Motor vs. Generator AC/DC Energy Trends - the case for Green
What is Electricity? Electricity is energy transported by the motion of electrons Electricity is energy transported by the motion of electrons **We do not make electricity, we CONVERT other energy sources into electrical energy** Conversion is the name of the game
Energy Conversion Options for Electricity Non-Thermal Paths Source to Electrical SourceConverter SunPhotovoltaic (photon to electron) ChemicalFuel Cell Source to Potential/Kinetic to Mechanical to Electrical SourceConverterKinetic to MechanicalMech to Electrical DamPenstocksTurbine (water)Generator TidesMachineTurbine (air or water)Generator WindN/ATurbine (air)Generator
Energy Conversion Options for Electricity Thermal Paths Heat to Mechanical to Electrical SourceHeat to MechanicalMech to Electrical GeothermalTurbine (vapor)Generator OTECTurbine (vapor)Generator Stored Energy to Heat to Mechanical to Electrical SourceReactor Heat to Mechanical Mech to Electrical FuelCombustorTurbine (gas or vapor)Generator U, PuReactorTurbine (gas or vapor)Generator SunCollector*Turbine (gas or vapor)Generator H, H 2, H 3 ReactorTurbine (gas or vapor)Generator * More a modifier or concentrator than a reactor
Faraday Effect Basic Concepts Voltage – V – Potential to Move Charge (volts) Current – I – Charge Movement (amperes or amps) Resistance – R – V = IxR (R in =ohms) Power – P = IxV = I 2 xR (watts)
Electric Motor M Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy DC Motor
Model Electric Motor Beakman Motor What do you need? 1.Electric Energy 2.Coil 3.Magnetic Field 1.Electric Energy 2.Coil 3.Magnetic Field
Electric Generator G Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy Stationary magnets - rotating magnets - electromagnets
AC/DC (not the band) Alternating Current Large-scale generators produce AC Follows sine wave with n cycles per second 1, 2, 3-phase? US:120 V,60 Hz Europe: 240 V,50Hz Transforming ability Alternating Current Large-scale generators produce AC Follows sine wave with n cycles per second 1, 2, 3-phase? US:120 V,60 Hz Europe: 240 V,50Hz Transforming ability Direct Current Batteries, Photovoltaics, fuel cells, small DC generators Charge in ONE direction Negative, Positive terminals Easy conversion AC to DC, not DC to AC Direct Current Batteries, Photovoltaics, fuel cells, small DC generators Charge in ONE direction Negative, Positive terminals Easy conversion AC to DC, not DC to AC
Generator Phases 1 Phase – 2 Phase – 3 Phase…Smooth Power Polyphase Systems 3 phases for smoother torque delivery Force Driving Motor (Red) Single Phase Two Phase Three Phase
Where do we get our Electricity? Fossil – Coal, Natural Gas, Oil – 550 Gigawatts (GW) Nuclear – 200 GW Hydro – 75 GW Geothermal – 2.3 GW Other Renewable – Wind, Solar, OTEC – 13.6 GW
Energy Usage Per Capita (1999) TOE/person-year *TOE - Tons of Oil Equivalent (~40 Million Btus)
Oil Resources Saudi Arabia 26% Iraq 11% Kuwait 10% Iran 9% UAE 8% Venezuela 6% Russia 5% Libya 3% Mexico 3% China 3% Nigeria 2% U.S. 2% U.S.26% Japan 7% China 6% Germany 4% Canada 4% Russia 3% Brazil 3% S. Korea 3% France 3% India 3% Mexico 3% Italy 2% Have Oil…Use Oil… The U.S. uses more than the next 5 highest consuming nations combined. The U.S. uses more than the next 5 highest consuming nations combined.
US energy infrastructure is large and deeply entrenched 400,000+ miles of gas and oil pipelines 160,000+ of high voltage transmission lines 176,000 gasoline stations 1000’s of oil and gas wells drilled annually in the US and Canada Barriers to Change
oil and gas are readily available as a world commodity at low cost -- equivalent to $ 4 to 5 / million Btu US coal is even more abundant and cheaper – approximately $1/million Btu US electricity prices remain low relative to other commodities The average American family spends only 3 to 4% of their income on energy!! Barriers to Change
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