2The Television Production Industry 1The Television Production Industry
3ObjectivesIdentify the various areas within the television production industry and recall the unique characteristics of each.Explain the roles of networks and affiliates in the process of scheduling programming.Summarize how the cost of an ad is determined.
4Growth of Television Technology April 9, 1927–First television transmission1946–First color television demonstrated1948–Cable television introduced1976–First home video recorder available1995–Over one billion television sets worldwideJune 12, 2009–U.S. analog broadcasts cease; all digital broadcasting begins in U.S.
5Broadcast Jobs Outlook Conversion to digital broadcastingMany analog jobs disappearMany new digital jobs are created
6Broadcast vs. Non-broadcast Production Job Outlook
7Areas of Television Production BroadcastCommercial Broadcast TelevisionProgramming free to consumerProgramming availability area limited only by strength of broadcast signalFor-profit business; revenue generated by sale of advertising timeAd/spot
8Areas of Television Production (Cont.) Subscriber TelevisionFee basedSignal carried via:SatelliteCableBoth satellite and cableFiber optic linesRequires additional equipmentLocal government determines coverage area
9Areas of Television Production (Cont.) Educational TelevisionUsually nonprofitTransmission can be anything from broadcast to individual DVDsUsually funded by grantsSupport or replay classesInform public about any topic
10Areas of Television Production (Cont.) Industrial Television or Corporate TelevisionCommunicate information to specific audienceTrainingMeetingsPromotional informationPost programming on Internet for 24/7 access worldwide
11Areas of Television Production (Cont.) Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)Sent to extremely small, user-defined private areaSurveillance televisionHome VideoUsually for archival momentos
12DiscussionWhat are some examples of productions categorized as “non-broadcast productions”?Educational programs, industrial programs, training programs, closed-circuit programs, promotional programs, infomercials, recruiting programs, private events, ceremonial events, archival production of activities, memorabilia, home inventories, surveillance, and many more.
13Video Production Companies Large-scale Video Production CompaniesLarge budgetLarge staffMulti-cameraShot on location or studioProductions usually sold to networks
14Video Production Companies (Cont.) Small-scale Video Production CompaniesLimited staffLimited equipmentLimited budgetProduce videos of private or small events
15Broadcast Networks and Affiliates Affiliates belong to networkNetwork provides some programming to affiliatesNewsPrime time dramas, comedies, reality showsSportsSpecial eventsNetworks do not provide 24/7 programming
16Broadcast Networks and Affiliates (Cont.) Aligns with a networkMust purchase or create programming for hours not covered by networkSyndicated programmingLocal origination programming
17Syndication “Leasing” program or bundle of programs to a station Programs with 3-year network run minimumSpecified number of episodesSpecified number of times episodes can runSpecified number of years in lease
18Types of Syndicated Programming DramasComediesTalk showsGame showsCooking showsAnimated showsChildren’s showsMovies
19Contracting for Syndicated Programming Factors to consider:Time and day program will runDemographics for that time and daySize of audience for that time and dayCompeting stations for same time and dayBudget
20Local Origination Programming created in specific area Designed to be shown to audience in that same areaLocal newsLocal sportsLocal eventsLocal special programming
21DiscussionWhy are demographics a major factor in deciding which syndicated programs stations will lease?The station needs to know the type of audience which may typically be available at that time on that day to watch whatever programming the station leases. For example, if most children aged 7-10 are in school, then it would not be wise to lease programs aimed at children of this age group during the hours school is normally in session.
22Financing Programming Decisions Ads bring money into stationRatings determine advertising ratesMoney must cover:Station overheadE.g., salaries, facilities, equipmentCost of productionProduction costsSyndication costs
23What Are Ratings? Indicates size of viewing audience Potential viewers who may see advertisers spotHigher audience potential allows station to raise advertising rateTelevision program’s rating is not indication of qualityRatings indicate size of audience watching, not if program is good
24DiscussionIf there was a program on the air that you found objectionable or offensive, what could you do about it?Turn the TV off, change the channel, write a letter of complaint (to the station, network, production company, FCC, any company advertising on the program), or organize a boycott of advertisers’ products.
25How a Program Is Cancelled Audience becomes small and, therefore, ratings go downAdvertising rates go downNetwork/station can no longer earn enough money to pay for station overhead and program costsProgram is replaced by another program that earns more revenue
26Career Page Competition is expected for many jobs Particularly in large metropolitan areasLarge number of job seekers attracted to this industrySuccessful applicants:College degree in broadcasting, journalism, or related fieldRelevant work experience, such as college radio and television stations or professional internships*As reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
27Career Page Technology in broadcasting is changing rapidly Workers must continually update skills and be knowledgeable with computer applicationsSmaller markets and stations are more willing to hire workers with little job experienceLarge stations usually only hire people with more experience*As reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
28Review QuestionHow does subscriber television differ from commercial broadcast television? Commercial television–For profit, revenue from ads, intended to be free to anyone with antennae within range, limited channels available. Subscriber television–Available only in specific, local-government-defined areas to consumers who pay subscription fees; hundreds of channels available; premium sports or movie packages available for additional fees. Sometimes known as “cable TV” or “satellite TV.” Often utilizes fiber optics, as well.
29Review QuestionYou own a company that manufactures bird feeders and want to promote the product on television. Explain process of getting ad to air—follow the dollar. Hire production company to make ad; take ad to television network or station; determine best days and times for your ad to air; contract with a station and pay rate required to air your ad
30Review QuestionExplain the concept of syndication. After program airs for at least three years, old episodes can be bundled and made available for lease to television stations. Stations lease rights to air programs specified number of times per week for set number of months. Several different programs may be bundled together as package of five comedies or five dramas, for example. Rate the station pays depends on size of potential audience. Syndicated programs usually run during broadcast day, at times when network does not provide network programming.
31Review QuestionIf a local station does not air syndicated programs when network is not providing programs, what must it do to fill remaining hours? Station must create programming itself. This usually takes the form of local news and/or sports programming.
32Review QuestionExplain relationship between critical acclaim and program ratings. There is no relationship. Ratings merely indicate size of viewing audience for program. Critical acclaim is positive opinions of television critics. Critical acclaim often draws audience members to watch program, thereby increasing size of audience and ratings. However, many programs receive critical acclaim and increased audience numbers/ratings never materialize.
33Glossaryad: A television advertisement for a product or service. Also commonly called a spot.affiliate: A broadcast station that has aligned itself with a particular network. The network provides a certain number of hours of daily programming. The affiliate is responsible for providing the remainder of programming to fill the daily schedule.
34Glossarybroadcast: The television signal travels through the air from one antenna to another antenna.closed circuit television (CCTV): Television where the signal is sent through wires and serves only an extremely small, private predetermined area.
35Glossarycommercial broadcast television: This type of television production facility is “for-profit.” The television signal is sent via a transmitter tower through the air and is free for anyone with an antenna to receive it.educational television: Television that aims to inform the public about various topics. This includes television programming that supports classroom studies and replays classroom sessions.
36Glossaryhome video: Videotaped records of family events and activities taken by someone using a consumer camcorder.industrial television: Television that communicates relevant information to a specific audience, such as job training videos. Also commonly called corporate television.
37Glossarylarge-scale video production companies: Facilities with sufficient staff and equipment to produce multi-camera, large-budget programming shot on location or in studios for broadcast networks or cable networks.local origination: Programming made in a specific geographic area, to be shown to the public in that same geographic area.
38Glossarynetwork: A corporation that bundles a collection of programs (sports, news, and entertainment) and makes the program bundles available exclusively to its affiliates. Generally, networks produce some of their own programming, but do not produce all of their own programs.
39Glossarysmall-scale video production companies: Businesses with limited staff and equipment resources. They thrive on producing videos of private events, commercials for local businesses, home inventories for insurance purposes, seminars, legal depositions, and real estate videos.
40Glossarysubscriber television: Fee-for-service programming where customers pay scheduled fees based on the selected programming package. The television signals are transported by satellite transmission, by underground cables, or a combination of both.
41Glossarysurveillance television: A form of CCTV that is usually, but not always, used for security purposes. The cameras used in the system are always interconnected to a closed circuit television system.
42Glossarysyndication: The process of making a specified number of program episodes available for “lease” to other networks or individual broadcast stations, after the current network’s contract for the program expires.