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The Television Production Industry

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2 The Television Production Industry
1 The Television Production Industry

3 Objectives Identify the various areas within the television production industry and recall the unique characteristics of each. Explain the roles of networks and affiliates in the process of scheduling programming. Summarize how the cost of an ad is determined.

4 Growth of Television Technology
April 9, 1927–First television transmission 1946–First color television demonstrated 1948–Cable television introduced 1976–First home video recorder available 1995–Over one billion television sets worldwide June 12, 2009–U.S. analog broadcasts cease; all digital broadcasting begins in U.S.

5 Broadcast Jobs Outlook
Conversion to digital broadcasting Many analog jobs disappear Many new digital jobs are created

6 Broadcast vs. Non-broadcast Production Job Outlook

7 Areas of Television Production
Broadcast Commercial Broadcast Television Programming free to consumer Programming availability area limited only by strength of broadcast signal For-profit business; revenue generated by sale of advertising time Ad/spot

8 Areas of Television Production (Cont.)
Subscriber Television Fee based Signal carried via: Satellite Cable Both satellite and cable Fiber optic lines Requires additional equipment Local government determines coverage area

9 Areas of Television Production (Cont.)
Educational Television Usually nonprofit Transmission can be anything from broadcast to individual DVDs Usually funded by grants Support or replay classes Inform public about any topic

10 Areas of Television Production (Cont.)
Industrial Television or Corporate Television Communicate information to specific audience Training Meetings Promotional information Post programming on Internet for 24/7 access worldwide

11 Areas of Television Production (Cont.)
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Sent to extremely small, user-defined private area Surveillance television Home Video Usually for archival momentos

12 Discussion What are some examples of productions categorized as “non-broadcast productions”? Educational programs, industrial programs, training programs, closed-circuit programs, promotional programs, infomercials, recruiting programs, private events, ceremonial events, archival production of activities, memorabilia, home inventories, surveillance, and many more.

13 Video Production Companies
Large-scale Video Production Companies Large budget Large staff Multi-camera Shot on location or studio Productions usually sold to networks

14 Video Production Companies (Cont.)
Small-scale Video Production Companies Limited staff Limited equipment Limited budget Produce videos of private or small events

15 Broadcast Networks and Affiliates
Affiliates belong to network Network provides some programming to affiliates News Prime time dramas, comedies, reality shows Sports Special events Networks do not provide 24/7 programming

16 Broadcast Networks and Affiliates (Cont.)
Aligns with a network Must purchase or create programming for hours not covered by network Syndicated programming Local origination programming

17 Syndication “Leasing” program or bundle of programs to a station
Programs with 3-year network run minimum Specified number of episodes Specified number of times episodes can run Specified number of years in lease

18 Types of Syndicated Programming
Dramas Comedies Talk shows Game shows Cooking shows Animated shows Children’s shows Movies

19 Contracting for Syndicated Programming
Factors to consider: Time and day program will run Demographics for that time and day Size of audience for that time and day Competing stations for same time and day Budget

20 Local Origination Programming created in specific area
Designed to be shown to audience in that same area Local news Local sports Local events Local special programming

21 Discussion Why are demographics a major factor in deciding which syndicated programs stations will lease? The station needs to know the type of audience which may typically be available at that time on that day to watch whatever programming the station leases. For example, if most children aged 7-10 are in school, then it would not be wise to lease programs aimed at children of this age group during the hours school is normally in session.

22 Financing Programming Decisions
Ads bring money into station Ratings determine advertising rates Money must cover: Station overhead E.g., salaries, facilities, equipment Cost of production Production costs Syndication costs

23 What Are Ratings? Indicates size of viewing audience
Potential viewers who may see advertisers spot Higher audience potential allows station to raise advertising rate Television program’s rating is not indication of quality Ratings indicate size of audience watching, not if program is good

24 Discussion If there was a program on the air that you found objectionable or offensive, what could you do about it? Turn the TV off, change the channel, write a letter of complaint (to the station, network, production company, FCC, any company advertising on the program), or organize a boycott of advertisers’ products.

25 How a Program Is Cancelled
Audience becomes small and, therefore, ratings go down Advertising rates go down Network/station can no longer earn enough money to pay for station overhead and program costs Program is replaced by another program that earns more revenue

26 Career Page Competition is expected for many jobs
Particularly in large metropolitan areas Large number of job seekers attracted to this industry Successful applicants: College degree in broadcasting, journalism, or related field Relevant work experience, such as college radio and television stations or professional internships *As reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

27 Career Page Technology in broadcasting is changing rapidly
Workers must continually update skills and be knowledgeable with computer applications Smaller markets and stations are more willing to hire workers with little job experience Large stations usually only hire people with more experience *As reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

28 Review Question How does subscriber television differ from commercial broadcast television? Commercial television–For profit, revenue from ads, intended to be free to anyone with antennae within range, limited channels available. Subscriber television–Available only in specific, local-government-defined areas to consumers who pay subscription fees; hundreds of channels available; premium sports or movie packages available for additional fees. Sometimes known as “cable TV” or “satellite TV.” Often utilizes fiber optics, as well.

29 Review Question You own a company that manufactures bird feeders and want to promote the product on television. Explain process of getting ad to air—follow the dollar. Hire production company to make ad; take ad to television network or station; determine best days and times for your ad to air; contract with a station and pay rate required to air your ad

30 Review Question Explain the concept of syndication. After program airs for at least three years, old episodes can be bundled and made available for lease to television stations. Stations lease rights to air programs specified number of times per week for set number of months. Several different programs may be bundled together as package of five comedies or five dramas, for example. Rate the station pays depends on size of potential audience. Syndicated programs usually run during broadcast day, at times when network does not provide network programming.

31 Review Question If a local station does not air syndicated programs when network is not providing programs, what must it do to fill remaining hours? Station must create programming itself. This usually takes the form of local news and/or sports programming.

32 Review Question Explain relationship between critical acclaim and program ratings. There is no relationship. Ratings merely indicate size of viewing audience for program. Critical acclaim is positive opinions of television critics. Critical acclaim often draws audience members to watch program, thereby increasing size of audience and ratings. However, many programs receive critical acclaim and increased audience numbers/ratings never materialize.

33 Glossary ad: A television advertisement for a product or service. Also commonly called a spot. affiliate: A broadcast station that has aligned itself with a particular network. The network provides a certain number of hours of daily programming. The affiliate is responsible for providing the remainder of programming to fill the daily schedule.

34 Glossary broadcast: The television signal travels through the air from one antenna to another antenna. closed circuit television (CCTV): Television where the signal is sent through wires and serves only an extremely small, private predetermined area.

35 Glossary commercial broadcast television: This type of television production facility is “for-profit.” The television signal is sent via a transmitter tower through the air and is free for anyone with an antenna to receive it. educational television: Television that aims to inform the public about various topics. This includes television programming that supports classroom studies and replays classroom sessions.

36 Glossary home video: Videotaped records of family events and activities taken by someone using a consumer camcorder. industrial television: Television that communicates relevant information to a specific audience, such as job training videos. Also commonly called corporate television.

37 Glossary large-scale video production companies: Facilities with sufficient staff and equipment to produce multi-camera, large-budget programming shot on location or in studios for broadcast networks or cable networks. local origination: Programming made in a specific geographic area, to be shown to the public in that same geographic area.

38 Glossary network: A corporation that bundles a collection of programs (sports, news, and entertainment) and makes the program bundles available exclusively to its affiliates. Generally, networks produce some of their own programming, but do not produce all of their own programs.

39 Glossary small-scale video production companies: Businesses with limited staff and equipment resources. They thrive on producing videos of private events, commercials for local businesses, home inventories for insurance purposes, seminars, legal depositions, and real estate videos.

40 Glossary subscriber television: Fee-for-service programming where customers pay scheduled fees based on the selected programming package. The television signals are transported by satellite transmission, by underground cables, or a combination of both.

41 Glossary surveillance television: A form of CCTV that is usually, but not always, used for security purposes. The cameras used in the system are always interconnected to a closed circuit television system.

42 Glossary syndication: The process of making a specified number of program episodes available for “lease” to other networks or individual broadcast stations, after the current network’s contract for the program expires.

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