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The History of Television. Television  Introduced to the masses at the NY World’s fair in 1939  Conflicting opinions about tv: the positives  Harmless.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Television. Television  Introduced to the masses at the NY World’s fair in 1939  Conflicting opinions about tv: the positives  Harmless."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Television

2 Television  Introduced to the masses at the NY World’s fair in 1939  Conflicting opinions about tv: the positives  Harmless pastime  Educational tool  Important part of culture

3 Television  The negatives:  Presents dangerously unrealistic picture of the world  Promotes violence  Waste of time

4 Tv statistics  % of households with at least 1 tv: 99  # of tv sets in avg. U.S. household: 2  % of U.S. homes with 3+ tv sets: 66  # of hours per day tv is on in avg. U.S. home: 6 hrs. 47 min.  % of Americans that regularly watch tv while eating dinner: 66

5 Genres and Program Types  Purpose of tv  #1 to gather an audience for advertisers  Also:  Entertainment  Information/ education

6 Genres and Program Types  Because tv programs serve to gather an audience for advertisers (yes, you are viewed as a commodity):  There has been little change in programming since the beginning of tv  Networks tend to stick with what has worked in the past – success copying  When a certain type of program is successful on 1 network, others rush to produce a similar one  Accounts for waves of popularity of certain types of shows from season to season

7 Genres and Program Types  Very few series last more than 3 yrs; many cancelled during 1 st yr.  Dependable programming:  Soap opera: daytime tv drama  Originated on radio shows; soap companies were often sponsors  Crime drama  CSI, NCIS, Law and Order  Reality tv  First shows: The Real World; Cops  Currently 1 of the most-watched genres  Dancing w/ Stars, American Idol, The Voice, etc.

8 Television and Stereotypes  Stereotype:  The application to an entire group of the qualities of a limited sample of that group  Examples of stereotypes:  How does tv perpetuate stereotypes?  How can we dispel stereotypes?

9 MTV and New Production Techniques  Created in 1981 as an all-music video channel for young audiences  MTV strives to use capabilities of video in new ways  Rapid-fire editing  Hand-held camera movements  Synchronizing video edits to music  Integration of digital production technology/effects

10 Broadcast Television  stations in the U.S.  Channels 2-13 (VHF – very high frequency)  Channels (UHF – ultra high frequency)  # of channels available in any given area increased dramatically:  Cable networks  Satellite dishes

11 Licensing  Tv stations are licensed by the FCC to serve the “public interest”  License must be renewed every 3 yrs

12 4 Major Networks  Nearly 85% of all tv stations affiliated with (not owned by) 1 of the following:  CBS: Columbia Broadcasting System  ABC: American Broadcasting Company  NBC: National Broadcasting Company  Fox: Fox Broadcasting Company  The most profitable stations are those affiliated with 1 of the above networks

13 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)  A tv station that does not belong to a major network is either an independent station or a member of PBS  PBS stations carry cultural and educational programming  Supported by gov’t grants, donations from foundations and corporations, and contributions from individuals and groups

14 PBS  Not as dependent on advertising $ as commercial tv networks  PBS stations do present messages about underwriters or supporters

15 Independent Stations  Stations that do not belong to a major network or PBS  Program movies, local sports, and syndicated tv shows

16 Networks and Local Stations  Networks are not television stations; they do not broadcast programs – they supply programs to local tv affiliates via satellite  Local stations must fill their own programming when networks do not supply it  Networks provide programs free to the affiliates and are paid for the advertising time they can sell during the program

17 Cost of Advertising  The cost of advertising depends on the popularity of the program  The more viewers, the higher the cost of advertising  A small amount of time during each program is left for the local station to sell to local advertisers  This advertising constitutes main source of income for local stations

18 Cable Television  Began in the late 1940’s as a solution to a problem in rural areas  People paid fee to have tv set wired by cable to master antenna  Good reception without expense of rooftop antenna From isolated rural areas, tv moved to cities From isolated rural areas, tv moved to cities Tall buildings and airplane interference impacted receptionTall buildings and airplane interference impacted reception A few cable systems offered subscribers additional channels brought in from nearby cities as added serviceA few cable systems offered subscribers additional channels brought in from nearby cities as added service

19 Cable tv  Offers more channels than are possible with broadcast tv  Greatest benefit of cable tv:  It offers a large # of channels to everyone

20 Television Ratings  Tv networks have more competition and find fewer viewers in prime time  Nielson Ratings  Determine a program’s future  Nielson Ratings measure:  How many people watched a particular show in a particular time slot  What % of households with a tv watched show x  How show x is rated amongst other shows aired that week

21 Nielson Ratings  The higher the rating, the higher the cost of advertising, and the higher the revenue $$$$$$

22 Up for Debate …  Has television had a positive or negative effect on people and culture over the past 70 years?  Discuss!!!!


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