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 Catalan banned from education C 17 th -20 th  imposition of Spanish in obligatory education  education important for vitality of a language  C.

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Presentation on theme: " Catalan banned from education C 17 th -20 th  imposition of Spanish in obligatory education  education important for vitality of a language  C."— Presentation transcript:

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3  Catalan banned from education C 17 th -20 th  imposition of Spanish in obligatory education  education important for vitality of a language  C 20 th – political Catalanism: ◦ Mancomunicat, Generalitat  1932 Statute of Catalonia – Catalan in education for first time  Franco dictatorship – prohibition of Catalan  democratic transition – Catalan a subject  Estatuts d’Autonomia and linguistics laws put emphasis on the learning and education use of Catalan  unitary linguistic model: model de conjunció

4 1. Totes les persones tenen dret a rebre l’ensenyament en català, d’acord amb el que estableix aquest Estatut. El català s’ha d’utilitzar normalment com a llengua vehicular i d’aprenentatge en l’ensenyament universitari i en el no universitari. 2. Els alumnes tenen dret a rebre l’ensenyament en català en l’ensenyament no universitari. També tenen el dret i el deure de conèixer amb suficiència oral i escrita el català i el castellà en finalitzar l’ensenyament obligatori, sigui quina sigui llur llengua habitual en incorporar-se a l’ensenyament. L’ensenyament del català i el castellà ha de tenir una presència adequada en els plans d’estudis. 3. Els alumnes tenen dret a no ésser separats en centres ni en grups classe diferents per raó de llur llengua habitual. 4. Els alumnes que s’incorporen més tard de l’edat corresponent al sistema escolar de Catalunya gaudeixen del dret a rebre un suport lingüístic especial si la manca de comprensió els dificulta seguir amb normalitat l’ensenyament. 5. El professorat i l’alumnat dels centres universitaris tenen dret a expressar- se, oralment i per escrit, en la llengua oficial que elegeixin.

5  children are entitled to receive primary education in their language of habitual use – Catalan or Spanish (Article 21.2 LPL 1998)  it is compulsory to teach both languages at all levels of non-university education  all children in Catalunya should be able to use Catalan and Spanish normally and correctly by the end of primary education (Article 21.2 LPL 1998)  Catalan is the main teaching language and a compulsory subject: ◦ pre-primary education 87% of pupils taught mainly in Catalan ◦ primary education 69% of pupils taught mainly in Catalan ( )

6  Catalan is the main teaching language for: ◦ 73% of pupils in public-sector schools ◦ 74% of pupils in private schools  a compulsory subject in all schools  use of Catalan has increased in recent years ◦ wider range of textbooks in Catalan ◦ still a low number of university textbooks ◦ most of books used are in Spanish/English

7  Catalan is the main teaching language for 31% of pupils  most of the remainder were all taught partly in Catalan  all pupils take Catalan as a subject

8  everyone entitled to express themselves in the official language of their choice (Article 22.1 LPL 1998)  between the use of Catalan for university entrance tests went from 52-59%  % of classes in Catalan (Department of Universities of Catalonia): University of Barcelona66%Rovira I Virgili University65% Autonomous Uni of Barcelona62%Open University of Catalunya71% Polytechnic Uni of Catalunya59%Ramon Llull University76% Pompeu Fabra University66%Vic University84% Girona University80%International Uni of Catalunya44% Lleida University53%Abbot Oliba-CEU University32%

9  responsibility of the Generalitat de Catalunya  Catalan and Spanish teaching is compulsory (Article 23.1 LPL 1998)

10  linguistic issue (la Llei de normalització lingüística, 1983) -> language policy more political (La Llei de política lingüística)  efficient use of Catalan has gone from strength to strength  tension between the Generalitat and the Spanish government is increasing  02/09/11 Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña gave Generalitat two months to make Spanish a vehicular language in Catalan education system  huge oppression and the Generalitat maintained that this ruling would lead to the disintegration of society  demands were unclear as Catalunya was already obeying the law, ensuring that all pupils are fully competent in Spanish upon leaving school  Generalitat didn’t see that it was necessary to make any additional changes

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13  Generalitat Valenciana has full power over the education system  Official policy: ‘support the introduction of Catalan as a teaching language in schools and to establish language immersion programmes for Spanish-speaking pupils’  La Llengua Valenciana is the traditional and official name of the Catalan language in Valencia.  ‘The Valencians, who have been keen to establish their different identity from the Catalans, insisted that there should be a Valencian version of the 1978 Constitution. This was granted, with the result that a document was published which, almost without exception, was word for word identical to the Catalan version!’ (Mar-Molinero: 1997)  Llei d'Ùs i Ensenyament del Valencià (Law of use and teaching of Valencian/Catalan): both Catalan and Castilian are compulsory subjects to be studied in all levels of education except at university  Since 1983, Catalan has been used more and more as a medium for teaching

14  Catalan is the main teaching language in some schools and a compulsory taught subject in all schools.  1983: 10 schools that taught entirely or partially in Catalan  1992: 392 schools that taught entirely or partially in Catalan  1991: decree made it compulsory for all schools to provide a minimum number of classes in both Catalan and Castilian from the age of 8.  Criticisms and exemptions  Immersion programmes for pupils who only speak Castilian  Progress has been slow in areas when Castilian is the dominant language

15  The use of Catalan has increased significantly  Catalan is now a compulsory taught subject in all schools  Academic year : 1280 pupils taught at least partially in Catalan  : increased to 7900

16  There are 4 main public universities in the Community of Valencia: James I University, Miguel Hernandez University of Elche, Polytechnic University of Valencia and the University of Valencia.  Use of Catalan is below 10%  Used mainly as a language of social interaction rather than a medium for teaching

17  Language training programme in place for adults who want to learn Catalan  Many materials are available to assist  1986: regional government set up the Junta Avaluadora de Valencià which organised official exams in Catalan for adult learners on the language programme.

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20  The 4 main islands are: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. The capital is Palma (de Majorca)  The central government has the responsibility of education, but the Balearic government has power of the teaching of Catalan.  Language Standardisation Law of 1986:  Catalan is the official language of all levels of education  Pupils have the right to be taught in their ‘own’ language  Catalan language and literature is compulsory at all levels except at university  By the end of compulsory education, pupils must be able to use both Castilian and Catalan ‘normally and correctly’  Students and lecturers at university have the right to use the language of their choice  Catalan as a medium of teaching: usually parents / teachers who initiate this   : 147 out of 555 schools taught classes partially in Catalan

21  Catalan is currently a compulsory subject in all schools.  : 48% of public-sector schools provided teaching at least partially in Catalan.

22  Catalan is a compulsory subject taught in all schools.  According to the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, around 60% of pupils are taught at least partially in Catalan.

23  According to the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, around 50% of the courses taught at the Universitat de les Illes Balears are taught in Catalan  Variation between departments  Catalan as a subject in its own right

24  Large number of Catalan language courses are available to the public.  1991: around 6000 people registered on one of these courses.

25  3 main problems identified by Hoffman  Lack of confidence of many non-native Catalan teachers  Demographic distribution of children from Catalan- speaking homes and Castilian speaking ones is uneven  Many children from middle-class Catalan families go to private schools making the proportion of Catalan to Castilian speaking children in state schools even more unfavourable.  ‘…The aim in education is to have a wholly Catalan system where Castilian is taught as a foreign language.’  (Hoffman 2000)

26  ‘It’s promotion in the public sphere, in education and the media has resulted in an increase in the number of those who read it, speak it and write it, up by some 20% in the period between the 1986 and 1996 census.’ (Hoffman: 2000)

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28  The Catalan-speaking area of France (known as Catalunya Nord) covers the Département de Pyrénées Orientales

29  The geographical variant of Catalan spoken in France has traditionally been known as northern Catalan or Roussillonnais  Linguistic legislations very recent in the languages history  Northern Catalonia annexed in 1659 after Treaty of the Pyreenes  Harsh repression followed  ‘Gallicisation’ from 1682  Édit du Roi in 1700

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31 Languedoc-Roussillon: 2.3 million people 140,000 speakers 6% of population speak Catalan

32  French is used in administration and public services  Bilingual place names  Bilingual street names from 1993 in Perpignan  Dans le nord de la Catalogne cependant, les chiffres montrent une baisse dans la connaissance de la langue, et seulement 34 % peuvent parler le catalan, 27 % peuvent l'écrire et 55 % peuvent le comprendre. En catalan, on écrit català pour désigner la langue catalane (llengua catalana).

33  Federació per a la Defensa de la Llengua i de la Cultura Catalanes  Institut Rossellonès d'Estudis Catalans (GREC)  Universitat Catalana d'Estiu (1969)  Ómnium Cultural Catalunya-Nord  Federació Sardanista  Centre de Documentació i Animació de la Cultura Catalana

34  Dexionne Law in 1951  Haby Law in 1975  Bas-Lauriol Law in 1975  Toubon Law in 1994  21 st July 2008 – article 75-1 added to the French constitution

35  Previous articles discuss the ex-colonies / and the status of those people  Article 75-1: Les langues régionales appartiennent au patrimoine de la France  «Regional languages are part of France’s heritage»

36  Préambule:  The promotion of the Catalan language will not be detrimental to the French language.  La politique de promotion de la langue catalane ne se fait pas au détriment de la langue française.  The linguistic policy in favour of Catalan is based on inclination and encouragement and not on obligation.  La politique linguistique en faveur du catalan est fondée sur l'incitation et l'encouragement et non sur l'obligation[…]

37  ARTICLE 1:  Le Conseil Général des Pyrénées-Orientales reconnaît officiellement, au côté de la langue française, le catalan comme langue du département.  The Conseil Général des Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognises Catalan, alongside the French language as a language within the département.

38  ARTICLE 4:  De manière générale, toutes les structures départementales (services, administrations, organismes associés et partenaires) intégrent la dimension de la langue catalane dans leurs fonctions et attributions, en particulier en ce qui concerne la communication avec le public et la signalisation  In general, all regional structures will integrate the Catalan language in their functions, particularly concerning communication with the public.

39  ARTICLE 7:  La langue catalane ne se limite pas à une discipline scolaire. Sa présence à tous les niveaux de la vie publique et sociale doit être garantie et encouragée.  The Catalan language will not be limited to schooling. Its presence at all levels of public and social life must be guarantied and encouraged.

40  Charter in favour of Catalan in relation to education:  aide à l'ouverture de classes bilingues  Help to create bilingual classes  généralisation de la sensibilisation à tous les enfants  Spreading the knowledge to all children  aide au développement de la formation pour adultes  Help to develop adult education

41  CEDACC - courses at pre-school level and in primary schools (1000 pupils in ).  In State nursery and primary education (age 3-11), there is an introductory class in Catalan language and culture (one and a half hours per week) which is currently attended by 28% of pupils

42  Education in Catalan through immersion technique  From primary to secondary school  Aims to have completely bilingual students in school and social life  1993 – Catalan schools recognised within France as private schools  In 2003 – secondary school started, across the board had 500 pupils

43  12% of pupils (11-15) attend a weekly one hour class of Catalan  Catalan language and culture is also taught (three hours per week) in general secondary education – however these are only attended by 4% of students  There are also vocational centers offering classes – which the local council half fund

44  Institut Franco-catalá at University of Perpignan  Université de Perpignan – Catalan degree since 1982  Masters since 1984  Post-Grad diploma since 1984  ERASMUS with Catalan speaking Universities since 1987  Some other French Universities offer Catalan courses, e.g. Aix-en-Provence, Marsailles, Paris

45  CEDACC - Catalan and language consultation service and organising Catalan classes for municipal employees and adult education classes

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48  Granted the status of Nationality within Spain in the Spanish Constitution of  Spanish and Basque are co- official but only Spanish is compulsory.  Guipuzkoa is the most Basque- speaking territory and Alava the less.  Basque Legislation (Ley 10/1992)  European Charter for regional or minority languages (Basque, June 1992).

49  Process of linguistic normalisation initiated 20 years ago.  After the death of Franco, entirely education in Basque became available.  Importance of Ikastolak (primary and secondary schools)  Teaching Models: ◦ A : education is entirely in Spanish, with Basque as a compulsory subject. ◦ B: education is partly in Basque and partly in Spanish ◦ D: education is entirely in Basque, with Spanish as a compulsory subject. ◦ X: education is entirely in Spanish (foreigners).

50  “La Constitución y el Estatuto de Autonomía confían a los poderes públicos de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca la adopción de las medidas encaminada a asegurar el desarrollo y la normalización del uso del euskera considerando su doble dimensión de parte fundamental del Patrimonio Cultural del Pueblo Vasco y, junto con el castellano, idioma de uso oficial en el Territorio de la Comunidad Autónoma”.  “Se reconoce el derecho de todo alumno a recibir la enseñanza en euskera, regulándose la obligatoriedad de la enseñanza de la lengua oficial no elegida.”

51  “Se atribuye al Gobierno la regulación de modelos lingüísticos a impartir, la adopción de medidas encaminadas a la adquisición de un conocimiento suficiente de ambas lenguas oficiales y la adecuación de los planes de estudio.”  “En cuanto a formación del profesorado se prevé la adaptación de sus planes de estudio para conseguir su total capacitación en euskera y castellano” (Ley 10/1982, de 24 de Noviembre, básica de normalización del uso del Euskera: )

52  Signed by “Comite de Ministros del Consejo de Europa” in June  Objective of the Charter: “Ofrecer un estatus juridico a las lenguas regionales y minoritarias que permita su uso publico y privado al objeto de lograr su preservacion”.  Education (Article 8) ◦ Nursery education ◦ Primary School ◦ Secondary School ◦ Professional and technical teaching ◦ University ◦ Education for adults ◦ Culture and History teaching ◦ Qualification of the teachers ◦ Formation of control entities.

53  Private education (51%)  In the Basque Autonomous Region (BAR), out of 1,851,000 inhabitants, 558,000 (30%) speak Basque well, 340,000 (18%) a little and 953,000 (52%) not at all.  Process of linguistic normalisation initiated 20 years ago: 6/10 young people know the Basque language nowadays.  During the last 25 years Euskera has gained speakers in BAR.

54 IV Mapa Sociolinguistico:

55 IV Sociolinguistic Map: 738/es/contenidos/informacion/argitalpenak/es_6092/adjuntos/MAPAcast.pdf

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58 PAÍS VASCO FRANCÉS ● Es el País Vasco Continental, también llamado País Vasco Norte o País Vasco-Francés. ● Tiene habitantes y está integrado por tres regiones: Lapurdi, Behe Nafarroa y Zuberoa. ● Ya en el siglo XVIII, la Revolución Francesa acabó con los instituciones forales de las regiones vascas continentales y hoy es el día, que no poseen una entidad política propia.

59 Carta europea de las lenguas minoritarias ● La Carta Europea de las Lenguas Minoritarias o Regionales es un documento ratificado en Estrasburgo el 5 de noviembre de 1992 para la defensa y promoción de las lenguas de Europa que, o bien carecen de oficialidad, o que aun siendo oficiales, están en manifiesta debilidad. Alrededor de 40 millones de ciudadanos de la Unión utiliza una lengua históricamente minoritaria. Según la UNESCO, 30 de ellas están amenazadas en toda Europa.

60 MINORITY LANGUAGES IN FRANCE -France is one of the most centralized of European states. -Education, law and public administration are all conducted in standard french. -Minority languages are taught in school, but mostly as an optional extra subject

61 BILINGUAL EDUCATION Was introduced in the 1990s in Alsace and Lorraine, in Brittany and Corsica, initiated by private associations, taken up by regional governments and then supported by central government. The 1951 Deixonne 1975 Haby 1994 Toublon 1995 regulations on regional languages and the 2002 regulations on bilingual education provide the basis for the teaching of regional languages. The 2001 law creating a Conseil académique des langues régionales was put into effect through the establishment of 19 Academies of regional languages at universities in the regions concerned, one each for Basque, Catalan, Corsu, Alsatian and Platt; two for Breton; four for Creole; and eight for Occitan. In December 2006, the French National Assembly rejected an amendment for the constitutional recognition of regional language

62 % LANGUAGE According to an inquiry of % were bilinguals (French-Basque) -8.6% were French-speakers who understand Basque -and 68.9% were not Basque- speakers. But the results were very different in the three zones; in the inner land (Basse Navarre and Soule) 66.2% speak or understand Basque in the coast (Labourd) the figure stands at 36.9% and in the B.A.B. urban zone (Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz) only 14.2% speak or understand Basque (according to another inquiry, 20% of the B.A.B. people can speak or understand the Gascon language). The proportion of French-Basque bilingual speakers fell from 26.4% in 1996 to 22.5% in 2006.

63 EDUCACIÓN PRIMARIA -En el País Vasco Francés, los alumnos matriculados en enseñanza vasca para el año 2006 son el 15,9% del total. Recientemente se está detectando un aumento significativo en las matriculaciones en los modelos bilingües y ya más del 30% de los alumnos de Primaria estudian en euskera. -Hay que tener en cuenta que el euskera carece de oficialidad en el estado francés y la enseñanza en euskera solamente se imparte en ikastolas (escuela que tiene por misión la promoción de una escuela vascófona), centros educativos que no reciben subvención alguna por parte de las instituciones galas, así como en colegios públicos de enseñanza bilingüe y en escuelas católicas

64 IKASTOLA  An ikastola is a type of primary and secondary school in the Basque Autonomous Community, Navarre and (to a much lesser extent) the French Basque Country in which pupils are taught either entirely or predominantly in the Basque language. Ikastolak can be nowadays either private or public, divided into different networks.  The Basque language public network relies on state funding and management, allocated in Spain by the education institutions of the Basque Autonomous Comunity and Navarre in their corresponding territories, while in France the association Ikas-Bi in the public network advocates for bilingual education.

65 Derechos Lingüísticos de Euskal Herria En 1997 se creó el Consejo de los Organismos Sociales del Euskara: - Kontseilua, entidad que reúne a 54 organismos sociales de origen, ideología y ámbitos de acción diversos que realizaron un paso histórico para trabajar conjuntamente con el objetivo de promover el pleno desarrollo del euskara. - Representa actualmente al núcleo de la cultura vasca que, desde su unidad interna, ofrece a la sociedad una dinámica de colaboración para la normalización del euskara. La preocupación por la vulneración de derechos lingüísticos en Euskal Herria llevó a Kontseilua a mediados del 2001 a la creación del Observatorio de Derechos Lingüísticos, fundación cuyo objetivo es velar por los derechos lingüísticos de los ciudadanos de los territorios de la lengua vasca, y que dirige su actividad a garantizar esos derechos, tanto en el ámbito público como en el privado.

66  More measures have been taken to promote the use of Catalan in education in Spain than in France.  The measures have come into practice relatively recently.  Generally speaking, the use of Catalan in Spain is rising whereas it is decreasing in France.  The local authorities hope that with ‘La Bressola’, the use of Catalan will increase at all levels if education in Northern Catalonia.

67  The teaching of Basque is more varied in Spain due to the use of the linguist policy of models (A, B, D and X)  In France, Basque is only an optional subject across the board.  Ikastola exist in both the French and Spanish parts of the Basque Country but is only funded by the government in Spain.  Due to this, France has a lower number of Basque speakers than Spain.  People consider it more important to learn Basque in Spain than in France – no official status in France.

68  Catalan and Basque are both flourishing in Spain whereas they are experiencing difficulties in France  50-75% of Spanish Països Catalans speak Catalan  25-53% of Spanish Euskaleria speak Basque  6% of Northern Catalonia speak Catalan  22.5% of French Basques speak Basque  This has been directly affected by education: there is no model system for Basque in France  There are no autonomous governments to support the use of the minority languages in France.

69            738/es/contenidos/informacion/argitalpenak/es_6092/adjuntos/MAPAcast.pdf  Hoffman, Charlotte: ‘Balancing Language Planning and Language Rights: Catalonia’s Uneasy Juggling Act’ in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 21:5, 2000, pp  Mar-Molinero, Clare: The Spanish-Speaking World, A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistics, Routledge 1997


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